Both the male and female reproductive systems play a role in pregnancy. Problems with these systems can affect fertility and the ability to have children. Something that affects reproductive health is called a reproductive hazard. Examples include:
- Metals such as lead and mercury
- Chemicals such as pesticides
- Some viruses
For men, a reproductive hazard can affect the sperm. For a woman, a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. During the first 3 months of pregnancy, it might cause a birth defect or a miscarriage. During the last 6 months of pregnancy, it could slow the growth of the fetus, affect the development of its brain, or cause premature labor.
- Do Flame Retardants Hinder Infertility Treatments? (08/25/2017, HealthDay)
- Prenatal Exposure to Certain Flame Retardants Linked to Lower IQs (08/04/2017, HealthDay)
- Hair Treatments and Pregnancy (Organization of Teratology Information Specialists) - PDF Also in Spanish
- Mercury and Pregnancy (March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation)
- Methylmercury and Pregnancy (Organization of Teratology Information Specialists) Also in Spanish
- Paint and Pregnancy (Organization of Teratology Information Specialists) - PDF
- Pesticides and Pregnancy (Organization of Teratology Information Specialists) - PDF Also in Spanish
- Pregnancy and Radiation Exposure (Health Physics Society)
- Radiation and Pregnancy (March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation) Also in Spanish
- X-Rays, Pregnancy and You (Food and Drug Administration)
Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
- Article: Preconception Peer Educators' exploratory outreach to the Bahamas: A foundation...
- Article: Identifying and Assisting Sexually Exploited and Trafficked Patients Seeking Women's...
- Article: The impact of systemic lupus erythematosus on women's sexual functioning:...
- Reproductive Hazards -- see more articles
- Male reproductive health -- see more articles