Your carotid arteries are two large blood vessels in your neck. They supply your brain and head with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow or blocked, usually because of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the buildup of plaque, which is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood.
Carotid artery disease is serious because it can block the blood flow to your brain, causing a stroke. Too much plaque in the artery can cause a blockage. You can also have a blockage when a piece of plaque or a blood clot breaks off the wall of an artery. The plaque or clot can travel through the bloodstream and get stuck in one of your brain's smaller arteries.
Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms until the blockage or narrowing is severe. One sign may be a bruit (whooshing sound) that your doctor hears when listening to your artery with a stethoscope. Another sign is a transient ischemic attack (TIA), a "mini-stroke." A TIA is like a stroke, but it only lasts a few minutes, and the symptoms usually go away within an hour. Stroke is another sign.
Imaging tests can confirm whether you have carotid artery disease.
Treatments may include
- Healthy lifestyle changes
- Carotid endarterectomy, surgery to remove the plaque
- Angioplasty, a procedure to place a balloon and stent into the artery to open it and hold it open
NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Diagnosis and Tests
- Carotid Artery Screening (American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of North America) Also in Spanish
- Carotid Ultrasound (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute)
- Carotid Ultrasound Imaging (American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of North America) Also in Spanish
- MR Angiography (MRA) (American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of North America) Also in Spanish
- Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis (U.S. Preventive Services Task Force) - PDF
Treatments and Therapies
- Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
- Carotid Endarterectomy (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute)
- Questions and Answers about Carotid Endarterectomy (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke)
- Carotid Artery Disease and Stroke (National Stroke Association) - PDF
Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
- Article: Identification of key genes and miRNAs associated with carotid atherosclerosis...
- Article: Meta-analysis of the procedural risks of carotid endarterectomy and carotid...
- Article: Prognostic value of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating carotid...
- Carotid Artery Disease -- see more articles
Find an Expert
- Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish
- Carotid artery disease (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish
- Carotid artery stenosis -- self-care (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish
- Carotid artery surgery (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish
- Carotid artery surgery - discharge (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish
- Carotid duplex (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish