Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart. CHD is also called coronary artery disease. Risk factors are things that increase you chance of getting a disease or condition. This article discusses the risk factors for heart disease and things you can do to lessen your risk.
What is a Risk Factor?
A risk factor is something about you that increases your chance of getting a disease or having a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. Changing the risk factors that you have control over may help you live a longer, healthier life.
Risk Factors you Cannot Change
Some of your heart disease risks that you CANNOT change are:
- Your age. Risk of heart disease increases with age.
- Your sex. Men have a higher risk of getting heart disease than women who are still menstruating. After menopause, the risk for women gets closer to the risk for men.
- Your genes or race. If your parents had heart disease, you are at higher risk. African Americans, Mexican Americans, American Indians, Hawaiians, and some Asian Americans also have a higher risk for heart problems.
Risk Factors you can Change
Some of the risks for heart disease that you CAN change are:
- Not smoking. If you do smoke, quit.
- Controlling your cholesterol through diet, exercise, and medicines.
- Controlling high blood pressure through diet, exercise, and medicines, if needed.
- Controlling diabetes through diet, exercise, and medicines, if needed.
- Exercising at least 30 minutes a day.
- Keeping to a healthy weight by eating healthy foods, eating less, and joining a weight loss program, if you need to lose weight.
- Learning healthy ways to cope with stress through special classes or programs, or things like meditation or yoga.
- Limiting how much alcohol you drink to 1 drink a day for women and 2 a day for men.
Good nutrition is important to your heart health and will help control some of your risk factors.
- Choose a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
- Choose lean proteins, such as chicken, fish, beans and legumes.
- Choose low-fat dairy products, such as 1% milk and other low-fat items.
- Avoid sodium (salt) and fats found in fried foods, processed foods, and baked goods.
- Eat fewer animal products that contain cheese, cream, or eggs.
- Read labels, and stay away from "saturated fat" and anything that contains "partially-hydrogenated" or "hydrogenated" fats. These products are usually loaded with unhealthy fats.
Follow these guidelines and the advice of your health care provider to lower your chances of developing heart disease.
Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk factors
Arnett DK, Blumenthal RS, Albert MA, Buroker AB, et al. 2019 ACC/AHA guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;10;74(10):e177-e232. PMID: 30894318 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30894318/.
Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC Guidelines on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63(25 Pt B):2960-2984. PMID: 24239922 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24239922/.
Genest J, Libby P. Lipoprotein disorders and cardiovascular disease. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 48.
Ridker PM, Libby P, Buring JE. Risk markers and primary prevention of coronary heart disease. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 45.
- Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery
- Cardiac ablation procedures
- Coronary heart disease
- Heart bypass surgery
- Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive
- Heart failure
- Heart pacemaker
- High blood cholesterol levels
- High blood pressure in adults - hypertension
- Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
- Tips on how to quit smoking
- Angina - discharge
- Aspirin and heart disease
- Being active when you have heart disease
- Butter, margarine, and cooking oils
- Cholesterol and lifestyle
- Cholesterol - drug treatment
- Controlling your high blood pressure
- Dietary fats explained
- Fast food tips
- Heart attack – discharge
- How to read food labels
- Low-salt diet
- Managing your blood sugar
- Mediterranean diet
Review Date 6/25/2020
Updated by: Micaela Iantorno, MD MSc FAHA RPVI, Interventional Cardiologist at Mary Washington Hospital Center, Fredericksburg, VA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.