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The anus is where stool leaves your body when you go to the bathroom. It is made up of your outer layers of skin and the end of your large intestine. Anal cancer is a disease in which cancer cells form in the tissues of the anus.
Anal cancer is rare. It is more common in smokers and people over 50. You are also at higher risk if you have HPV, have anal sex, or have many sexual partners.
Symptoms include bleeding, pain, or lumps in the anal area. Anal itching and discharge can also be signs of anal cancer.
Doctors use tests that examine the anus to diagnose anal cancer. They include a physical exam, endoscopy, ultrasound, and biopsy.
Treatments include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery.
NIH: National Cancer Institute
- Anal Cancer: What Happens After Treatment? (American Cancer Society)
Statistics and Research
- Cancer of the Anus (National Cancer Institute)
- Electrocautery Superior to Topical Treatments for Precancerous Anal Lesions (National Cancer Institute)
- What's New in Anal Cancer Research and Treatment? (American Cancer Society)
- ClinicalTrials.gov: Anus Neoplasms (National Institutes of Health)
Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
- Article: Elevation of Serum CEA in Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of...
- Article: Laparoscopic extralevator abdominoperineal excision for the treatment of perianal Paget's disease:...
- Article: Early versus late salvage abdominoperineal resection for anal squamous cell carcinoma:...
- Anal Cancer -- see more articles