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The anus is where stool leaves your body when you go to the bathroom. It is made up of your outer layers of skin and the end of your large intestine. Anal cancer is a disease in which cancer cells form in the tissues of the anus.
Anal cancer is rare. It is more common in smokers and people over 50. You are also at higher risk if you have HPV, have anal sex, or have many sexual partners.
Symptoms include bleeding, pain, or lumps in the anal area. Anal itching and discharge can also be signs of anal cancer.
Doctors use tests that examine the anus to diagnose anal cancer. They include a physical exam, endoscopy, ultrasound, and biopsy.
Treatments include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery.
NIH: National Cancer Institute
- Living as an Anal Cancer Survivor (American Cancer Society)
Statistics and Research
- Cancer of the Anus (National Cancer Institute)
- Electrocautery Superior to Topical Treatments for Precancerous Anal Lesions (National Cancer Institute)
- ClinicalTrials.gov: Anus Neoplasms (National Institutes of Health)
Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
- Article: Biomarkers of pembrolizumab efficacy in advanced anal squamous cell carcinoma: analysis...
- Article: Screening for precancerous anal lesions linked to human papillomaviruses: French recommendations...
- Article: Risk factors of oncogenic HPV infection in HIV-positive men with anal...
- Anal Cancer -- see more articles