The prostate is the gland below a man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Cancer screening is looking for cancer before you have any symptoms. Cancer found early may be easier to treat.
There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those with the fewest risks and most benefits. One test is the digital rectal exam (DRE). The doctor or nurse inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into your rectum to feel the prostate for lumps or anything unusual. Another test is the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test. Your PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have an enlarged prostate (BPH) or other prostate problems. If your screening results are abnormal, your doctor may do more tests, such as an ultrasound, MRI, or a biopsy.
Prostate cancer screening has risks:
- Finding prostate cancer may not improve your health or help you live longer
- The results can sometimes be wrong
- Follow-up tests, such as a biopsy, may have complications
You and your doctor should discuss your risk for prostate cancer, the pros and cons of the screening tests, and whether you should get them.
- American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection (American Cancer Society)
- Prostate Cancer Screening (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish
- African American Men and Prostate Cancer: Be Your Own Advocate and Understand Screening (National Cancer Institute) - PDF
- Can Prostate Cancer Be Found Early? (American Cancer Society) Also in Spanish
- Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish
- Screening for Prostate Cancer (U.S. Preventive Services Task Force) - PDF
- Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) (American Society of Clinical Oncology) Also in Spanish
- Prostate Biopsy (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
- Prostate Cancer Screening: Should You Get a PSA Test? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
- Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish
- PSA Test: What's It for? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
- What Tests Can Detect Prostate Cancer? (American Cancer Society) Also in Spanish
- Genetics Home Reference: prostate cancer (National Library of Medicine)
Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
- Article: PSA declines and survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate...
- Article: Pattern and Distribution of Distant Metastases in Anaplastic Prostate Carcinoma:...
- Article: The US Preventive Services Task Force 2017 Draft Recommendation Statement...
- Prostate Cancer Screening -- see more articles