Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection and inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, and other female reproductive organs. It causes scarring in these organs. This can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic pain, abscesses, and other serious problems. PID is the most common preventable cause of infertility in the United States.
- Are sexually active and younger than 25
- Have more than one sex partner
Some women have no symptoms. Others have pain in the lower abdomen, fever, smelly vaginal discharge, irregular bleeding, and pain during intercourse or urination. Doctors diagnose PID with a physical exam, lab tests, and imaging tests. Antibiotics can cure PID. Early treatment is important. Waiting too long increases the risk of infertility.
NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women's Health) Also in Spanish
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists)
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Fact Sheet (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Also in Spanish
Treatments and Therapies
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Treatment and Care (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Statistics and Research
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Statistics (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- ClinicalTrials.gov: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (National Institutes of Health)
Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
- Article: Endometrial TGF-β, IL-10, IL-17 and autophagy are dysregulated in women...
- Article: Recurrent Implantation Failure-update overview on etiology, diagnosis, treatment and future directions.
- Article: Skin preparation for preventing infection following caesarean section.
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease -- see more articles
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation)
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (For Teens) (Nemours Foundation)