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GTF2I gene

general transcription factor IIi
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Normal Function

The GTF2I gene provides instructions for making two proteins, BAP-135 and TFII-I. BAP-135 is involved in normal immune system function. It is active in B cells, which are a specialized type of white blood cell that protects the body against infection. When a B cell senses a foreign substance (such as a virus), it triggers a series of chemical reactions that instruct the cell to mature, divide, and produce specific proteins called antibodies to fight the infection. The BAP-135 protein is activated as part of this series of chemical reactions; it transmits chemical signals that allow B cells to respond to potentially harmful invaders.

TFII-I, the other protein produced from the GTF2I gene, binds to specific areas of DNA and helps regulate the activity of other genes. Based on this role, TFII-I is called a transcription factor. This protein is active in the brain and many other tissues in the body. Studies suggest that the TFII-I protein is involved in coordinating cell growth and division, and it may also play a role in controlling the flow of calcium into cells.

Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

7q11.23 duplication syndrome

The GTF2I gene is located in a region of chromosome 7 that is duplicated in people with 7q11.23 duplication syndrome. As a result of this duplication, people with 7q11.23 duplication syndrome have an extra copy of the GTF2I gene and several other genes in each cell. 7q11.23 duplication syndrome can cause a variety of neurological and behavioral problems as well as other abnormalities.

Behavioral problems associated with 7q11.23 duplication syndrome include anxiety disorders (such as social phobias and selective mutism, which is an inability to speak in certain circumstances), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), physical aggression, excessively defiant behavior (oppositional disorder), and autistic behaviors that affect communication and social interaction. Studies suggest that an extra copy of the GTF2I gene may be associated with some of the behavioral features of 7q11.23 duplication syndrome, but the mechanism of this effect is unclear. Despite the role of the GTF2I gene in immune function, affected individuals do not appear to have immune abnormalities related to this disorder.

More About This Health Condition

Williams syndrome

The GTF2I gene is located in a region of chromosome 7 that is deleted in people with Williams syndrome. As a result of this deletion, people with this condition are missing one copy of the GTF2I gene in each cell. Studies suggest that the loss of this gene is partly responsible for intellectual disability in people with Williams syndrome. Loss of this gene may also contribute to dental abnormalities and the characteristic problems with visual-spatial tasks, such as writing and drawing, that are seen in this disorder. Researchers are investigating how a deletion involving this gene may be related to these specific features of Williams syndrome.

More About This Health Condition

Other Names for This Gene

  • BAP-135
  • BAP135
  • Bruton tyrosine kinase-associated protein 135
  • BTK-associated protein, 135kD
  • BTKAP1
  • DIWS
  • IB291
  • SPIN
  • TFII-I
  • WBSCR6

Additional Information & Resources

Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Research Resources


  • Caraveo G, van Rossum DB, Patterson RL, Snyder SH, Desiderio S. Action of TFII-I outside the nucleus as an inhibitor of agonist-induced calcium entry. Science. 2006 Oct 6;314(5796):122-5. Citation on PubMed
  • Danoff SK, Taylor HE, Blackshaw S, Desiderio S. TFII-I, a candidate gene for Williams syndrome cognitive profile: parallels between regional expression in mouse brain and human phenotype. Neuroscience. 2004;123(4):931-8. Citation on PubMed
  • Edelmann L, Prosnitz A, Pardo S, Bhatt J, Cohen N, Lauriat T, Ouchanov L, González PJ, Manghi ER, Bondy P, Esquivel M, Monge S, Delgado MF, Splendore A, Francke U, Burton BK, McInnes LA. An atypical deletion of the Williams-Beuren syndrome interval implicates genes associated with defective visuospatial processing and autism. J Med Genet. 2007 Feb;44(2):136-43. Epub 2006 Sep 13. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Egloff AM, Desiderio S. Identification of phosphorylation sites for Bruton's tyrosine kinase within the transcriptional regulator BAP/TFII-I. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jul 27;276(30):27806-15. Epub 2001 May 23. Citation on PubMed
  • Hirota H, Matsuoka R, Chen XN, Salandanan LS, Lincoln A, Rose FE, Sunahara M, Osawa M, Bellugi U, Korenberg JR. Williams syndrome deficits in visual spatial processing linked to GTF2IRD1 and GTF2I on chromosome 7q11.23. Genet Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;5(4):311-21. Citation on PubMed
  • Mervis CB, Klein-Tasman BP, Huffman MJ, Velleman SL, Pitts CH, Henderson DR, Woodruff-Borden J, Morris CA, Osborne LR. Children with 7q11.23 duplication syndrome: psychological characteristics. Am J Med Genet A. 2015 Jul;167(7):1436-50. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37071. Epub 2015 Apr 21. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Meyer-Lindenberg A, Mervis CB, Berman KF. Neural mechanisms in Williams syndrome: a unique window to genetic influences on cognition and behaviour. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006 May;7(5):380-93. Review. Citation on PubMed
  • Morris CA, Mervis CB, Hobart HH, Gregg RG, Bertrand J, Ensing GJ, Sommer A, Moore CA, Hopkin RJ, Spallone PA, Keating MT, Osborne L, Kimberley KW, Stock AD. GTF2I hemizygosity implicated in mental retardation in Williams syndrome: genotype-phenotype analysis of five families with deletions in the Williams syndrome region. Am J Med Genet A. 2003 Nov 15;123A(1):45-59. Citation on PubMed
  • Morris CA, Mervis CB, Paciorkowski AP, Abdul-Rahman O, Dugan SL, Rope AF, Bader P, Hendon LG, Velleman SL, Klein-Tasman BP, Osborne LR. 7q11.23 Duplication syndrome: Physical characteristics and natural history. Am J Med Genet A. 2015 Dec;167A(12):2916-35. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37340. Epub 2015 Sep 3. Citation on PubMed
  • Ohazama A, Sharpe PT. TFII-I gene family during tooth development: candidate genes for tooth anomalies in Williams syndrome. Dev Dyn. 2007 Oct;236(10):2884-8. Citation on PubMed
  • Pérez Jurado LA, Wang YK, Peoples R, Coloma A, Cruces J, Francke U. A duplicated gene in the breakpoint regions of the 7q11.23 Williams-Beuren syndrome deletion encodes the initiator binding protein TFII-I and BAP-135, a phosphorylation target of BTK. Hum Mol Genet. 1998 Mar;7(3):325-34. Citation on PubMed
  • Roy AL. Signal-induced functions of the transcription factor TFII-I. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Nov-Dec;1769(11-12):613-21. Epub 2007 Oct 11. Review. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Sanders SJ, Ercan-Sencicek AG, Hus V, Luo R, Murtha MT, Moreno-De-Luca D, Chu SH, Moreau MP, Gupta AR, Thomson SA, Mason CE, Bilguvar K, Celestino-Soper PB, Choi M, Crawford EL, Davis L, Wright NR, Dhodapkar RM, DiCola M, DiLullo NM, Fernandez TV, Fielding-Singh V, Fishman DO, Frahm S, Garagaloyan R, Goh GS, Kammela S, Klei L, Lowe JK, Lund SC, McGrew AD, Meyer KA, Moffat WJ, Murdoch JD, O'Roak BJ, Ober GT, Pottenger RS, Raubeson MJ, Song Y, Wang Q, Yaspan BL, Yu TW, Yurkiewicz IR, Beaudet AL, Cantor RM, Curland M, Grice DE, Günel M, Lifton RP, Mane SM, Martin DM, Shaw CA, Sheldon M, Tischfield JA, Walsh CA, Morrow EM, Ledbetter DH, Fombonne E, Lord C, Martin CL, Brooks AI, Sutcliffe JS, Cook EH Jr, Geschwind D, Roeder K, Devlin B, State MW. Multiple recurrent de novo CNVs, including duplications of the 7q11.23 Williams syndrome region, are strongly associated with autism. Neuron. 2011 Jun 9;70(5):863-85. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.05.002. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Tassabehji M. Williams-Beuren syndrome: a challenge for genotype-phenotype correlations. Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Oct 15;12 Spec No 2:R229-37. Epub 2003 Sep 2. Review. Citation on PubMed
  • Yang W, Desiderio S. BAP-135, a target for Bruton's tyrosine kinase in response to B cell receptor engagement. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Jan 21;94(2):604-9. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
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