The EP300 gene provides instructions for making a protein called p300, which regulates the activity of many genes in tissues throughout the body. This protein plays an essential role in controlling cell growth and division and prompting cells to mature and take on specialized functions (differentiate). The p300 protein appears to be critical for normal development before and after birth.
The p300 protein carries out its functions by turning on (activating) transcription, which is the first step in the production of protein from the instructions stored in DNA. The p300 protein ensures the DNA is ready for transcription by attaching a small molecule called an acetyl group (a process called acetylation) to proteins called histones. Histones are structural proteins that bind DNA and give chromosomes their shape. Acetylation of the histone changes the shape of the chromosome, making genes available for transcription. On the basis of this function, the p300 protein is called a histone acetyltransferase.
In addition, the p300 protein connects other proteins that start the transcription process (known as transcription factors) with the group of proteins that carries out transcription. On the basis of this function, the p300 protein is called a transcriptional coactivator.
Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes
More than 80 mutations in the EP300 gene have been identified in people with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, a condition characterized by short stature, moderate to severe intellectual disability, distinctive facial features, and broad thumbs and first toes. Genetic changes in the EP300 gene cause a small percentage of cases of this condition. Some mutations lead to the production of an abnormally small, nonfunctional version of the p300 protein, while other mutations prevent one copy of the gene from making any protein at all. These genetic changes all result in the loss of one functional copy of the EP300 gene in each cell, which reduces the amount of p300 protein by half. Although researchers are uncertain how a reduction in the amount of this protein leads to the specific features of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, it is clear that changes in the EP300 gene disrupt normal development before and after birth. Problems with development of multiple systems are thought to underlie the features of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.More About This Health Condition
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Mutations in the EP300 gene are a very rare cause of a condition called Menke-Hennekam syndrome. While this condition shares some features with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (described above), such as intellectual disability and growth delays, individuals with Menke-Hennekam syndrome do not have the facial features and thumb and toe abnormalities characteristic of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. Other features of Menke-Hennekam syndrome are variable and can include vision or hearing impairment, recurrent seizures (epilepsy), frequent airway infections, and autistic behaviors that affect communication.
The EP300 gene mutations that cause Menke-Hennekam syndrome occur in regions of the gene known as exon 30 or exon 31. They result in changes to single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the p300 protein. Researchers suggest that these changes give the altered protein a new function, which disrupts development and causes the signs and symptoms of Menke-Hennekam syndrome.
Rarely, chromosomal rearrangements (translocations) involving chromosome 22 have been associated with certain types of cancer. These genetic changes are somatic, which means they are acquired during a person's lifetime and are present only in certain cells. In cancer cells, translocations can disrupt the region of chromosome 22 that contains the EP300 gene. For example, researchers have found a translocation between chromosome 8 and chromosome 22 in several people with a cancer of blood-forming cells called acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Another translocation, involving chromosomes 11 and 22, has been found in a small number of people who have undergone cancer treatment. This chromosomal change is associated with the development of AML following chemotherapy for other forms of cancer.
Somatic mutations in the EP300 gene have been identified in several other types of cancer. These mutations prevent the gene from producing any functional protein. Cells without the p300 protein cannot effectively restrain growth and division, allowing cancerous tumors to develop and grow. Somatic mutations in the EP300 gene have been found in a small number of solid tumors, including cancers of the colon and rectum, stomach, breast, and pancreas. Studies suggest that EP300 mutations may also play a role in the development of some prostate cancers. These genetic changes could help predict whether prostate tumors will increase in size or spread to other parts of the body.
Other Names for This Gene
- E1A-associated protein p300
- E1A-binding protein, 300kD
- p300 E1A-Associated Coactivator
Additional Information & Resources
Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry
Scientific Articles on PubMed
- Bartholdi D, Roelfsema JH, Papadia F, Breuning MH, Niedrist D, Hennekam RC, Schinzel A, Peters DJ. Genetic heterogeneity in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome: delineation of the phenotype of the first patients carrying mutations in EP300. J Med Genet. 2007 May;44(5):327-33. Epub 2007 Jan 12. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
- Chaffanet M, Gressin L, Preudhomme C, Soenen-Cornu V, Birnbaum D, Pébusque MJ. MOZ is fused to p300 in an acute monocytic leukemia with t(8;22). Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2000 Jun;28(2):138-44. Citation on PubMed
- Debes JD, Sebo TJ, Lohse CM, Murphy LM, Haugen DA, Tindall DJ. p300 in prostate cancer proliferation and progression. Cancer Res. 2003 Nov 15;63(22):7638-40. Citation on PubMed
- Fergelot P, Van Belzen M, Van Gils J, Afenjar A, Armour CM, Arveiler B, Beets L, Burglen L, Busa T, Collet M, Deforges J, de Vries BB, Dominguez Garrido E, Dorison N, Dupont J, Francannet C, Garciá-Minaúr S, Gabau Vila E, Gebre-Medhin S, Gener Querol B, Geneviève D, Gérard M, Gervasini CG, Goldenberg A, Josifova D, Lachlan K, Maas S, Maranda B, Moilanen JS, Nordgren A, Parent P, Rankin J, Reardon W, Rio M, Roume J, Shaw A, Smigiel R, Sojo A, Solomon B, Stembalska A, Stumpel C, Suarez F, Terhal P, Thomas S, Touraine R, Verloes A, Vincent-Delorme C, Wincent J, Peters DJ, Bartsch O, Larizza L, Lacombe D, Hennekam RC. Phenotype and genotype in 52 patients with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome caused by EP300 mutations. Am J Med Genet A. 2016 Dec;170(12):3069-3082. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37940. Epub 2016 Sep 20. Citation on PubMed
- Gayther SA, Batley SJ, Linger L, Bannister A, Thorpe K, Chin SF, Daigo Y, Russell P, Wilson A, Sowter HM, Delhanty JD, Ponder BA, Kouzarides T, Caldas C. Mutations truncating the EP300 acetylase in human cancers. Nat Genet. 2000 Mar;24(3):300-3. Citation on PubMed
- Goodman RH, Smolik S. CBP/p300 in cell growth, transformation, and development. Genes Dev. 2000 Jul 1;14(13):1553-77. Review. Citation on PubMed
- Ida K, Kitabayashi I, Taki T, Taniwaki M, Noro K, Yamamoto M, Ohki M, Hayashi Y. Adenoviral E1A-associated protein p300 is involved in acute myeloid leukemia with t(11;22)(q23;q13). Blood. 1997 Dec 15;90(12):4699-704. Citation on PubMed
- Iyer NG, Ozdag H, Caldas C. p300/CBP and cancer. Oncogene. 2004 May 24;23(24):4225-31. Review. Citation on PubMed
- Janknecht R. The versatile functions of the transcriptional coactivators p300 and CBP and their roles in disease. Histol Histopathol. 2002 Apr;17(2):657-68. doi: 10.14670/HH-17.657. Review. Citation on PubMed
- Kalkhoven E. CBP and p300: HATs for different occasions. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Sep 15;68(6):1145-55. Review. Citation on PubMed
- Kitabayashi I, Aikawa Y, Yokoyama A, Hosoda F, Nagai M, Kakazu N, Abe T, Ohki M. Fusion of MOZ and p300 histone acetyltransferases in acute monocytic leukemia with a t(8;22)(p11;q13) chromosome translocation. Leukemia. 2001 Jan;15(1):89-94. Citation on PubMed
- Menke LA; DDD study, Gardeitchik T, Hammond P, Heimdal KR, Houge G, Hufnagel SB, Ji J, Johansson S, Kant SG, Kinning E, Leon EL, Newbury-Ecob R, Paolacci S, Pfundt R, Ragge NK, Rinne T, Ruivenkamp C, Saitta SC, Sun Y, Tartaglia M, Terhal PA, van Essen AJ, Vigeland MD, Xiao B, Hennekam RC. Further delineation of an entity caused by CREBBP and EP300 mutations but not resembling Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2018 Apr;176(4):862-876. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38626. Epub 2018 Feb 20. Citation on PubMed
- Negri G, Magini P, Milani D, Colapietro P, Rusconi D, Scarano E, Bonati MT, Priolo M, Crippa M, Mazzanti L, Wischmeijer A, Tamburrino F, Pippucci T, Finelli P, Larizza L, Gervasini C. From Whole Gene Deletion to Point Mutations of EP300-Positive Rubinstein-Taybi Patients: New Insights into the Mutational Spectrum and Peculiar Clinical Hallmarks. Hum Mutat. 2016 Feb;37(2):175-83. doi: 10.1002/humu.22922. Epub 2015 Nov 4. Citation on PubMed
- Roelfsema JH, White SJ, Ariyürek Y, Bartholdi D, Niedrist D, Papadia F, Bacino CA, den Dunnen JT, van Ommen GJ, Breuning MH, Hennekam RC, Peters DJ. Genetic heterogeneity in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome: mutations in both the CBP and EP300 genes cause disease. Am J Hum Genet. 2005 Apr;76(4):572-80. Epub 2005 Feb 10. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central