People with diabetes have a higher chance of having heart attacks and strokes. Smoking and having high blood pressure and high cholesterol increase these risks even more. Controlling blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels are very important for preventing heart attacks and strokes.
See your doctor who treats your diabetes often. During these visits, health care providers will check your cholesterol, blood sugar, and blood pressure. You may also be instructed to take medicines.
Other things you can do to lower your risks are:
- Follow your meal plan and watch how much you eat. This can help you lose weight if you are overweight or obese.
- DO NOT smoke cigarettes. Talk with your doctor if you need help quitting.
- Take your medicines the way your providers recommend.
- DO NOT miss doctor’s appointments.
When you have extra cholesterol in your blood, it can build up inside the walls of your heart’s arteries (blood vessels). This buildup is called plaque. It can narrow your arteries and reduces or stops blood flow. This can lead to heart attack, stroke, or other serious heart disease.
Most people with diabetes are prescribed a medicine to reduce their LDL cholesterol levels. Medicines called statins are often used. You should learn how to take your statin medicine and how to watch for side effects. Your doctor will tell you if there is a target LDL level you need to aim for.
If you have other risk factors for heart disease or stroke, your doctor may prescribe higher doses of a statin drug.
Your doctor should check your cholesterol levels at least once a year.
Eat foods that are low in fat and learn how to shop for and cook foods that are healthy for your heart.
Get plenty of exercise, as well. Talk with your doctor about what kinds of exercises are right for you.
Have your blood pressure checked often. Your provider should check your blood pressure at every visit. For most people with diabetes, a good blood pressure goal is less than 130 to 140 over 90 mm Hg. Ask your doctor what is best for you.
Exercising, eating low-salt foods, and losing weight (if you are overweight or obese) can lower your blood pressure. If your blood pressure is too high, your doctor will prescribe medicines to lower it.
Before you Exercise
Getting exercise will help you control your diabetes and make your heart stronger. Always talk with your doctor before you start a new exercise program or before you increase the amount of exercise you are doing. Some people with diabetes may have heart problems and not know it because they do not have symptoms.
Taking Aspirin may Help
Taking aspirin every day may lower your chance of having a heart attack. The recommended dose is 81 milligrams (mg) a day. DO NOT take aspirin without talking to your doctor first. Ask your doctor about taking an aspirin every day if:
- You are a man over 50 or a woman over 60
- You have had heart problems
- People in your family have had heart problems
- You have high blood pressure or high cholesterol levels
- You are a smoker
Diabetes complications - heart; Coronary artery disease - diabetes; CAD - diabetes; Cerebrovascular disease - diabetes
Aronson D, Edelman ER. Coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus. Cardiol Clin. 2014;32;439-455. PMID: 25091969 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25091969.
Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014;129:S76-S99. PMID: 24222015 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24222015.
Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2016: summary of revisions. Diabetes Care. 2016;39:S4-S5. PMID: 26696680 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26696680.
- ACE inhibitors
- Antiplatelet drugs - P2Y12 inhibitors
- Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor
- Controlling your high blood pressure
- Deep vein thrombosis - discharge
- Diabetes and exercise
- Diabetes - eye care
- Diabetes - foot ulcers
- Diabetes - keeping active
- Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care
- Diabetes - taking care of your feet
- Diabetes - tests and checkups
- Diabetes - when you are sick
- Managing your blood sugar
- Type 2 diabetes - what to ask your doctor
Review Date 5/17/2016
Updated by: Laura J. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.