Endocrine glands release (secrete) hormones into the bloodstream.
The endocrine glands include:
- Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas
Hypersecretion is when an excess of one or more hormone is secreted from a gland. Hyposecretion is when the amount of hormones that are released is too low.
There are many types of disorders that can result when too much or too little of a hormone is released.
Disorders that may be associated with abnormal hormone product from a particular gland include:
- Low blood calcium level
- Tetany (abnormal cramping of muscles)
- Renal calculi (kidney stones)
- Excessive loss of minerals from bone (osteoporosis)
Testes and ovaries:
- Lack of sex development (unclear genitalia)
Barrett EJ. Organization of endocrine control. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 47.
Melmed S, Auchus RJ, Goldfine AB, et al. Principles of endocrinology. In: Melmed S, Auchus RJ, Goldfine AB, Koenig RJ, Rosen CJ, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 14th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 1.
Newell-Price JDC, Gibb FW. Endocrinology. In: Penman ID, Ralston SH, Strachan MWJ, Hobson RP, eds. Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2023:chap 20.
Review Date 5/12/2023
Updated by: Sandeep K. Dhaliwal, MD, board-certified in Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Springfield, VA. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.