URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/gene/chd2/

CHD2 gene

chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2
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Normal Function

The CHD2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called chromodomain DNA helicase protein 2. This protein is found in cells throughout the body and regulates gene activity (expression) through a process known as chromatin remodeling. Chromatin is the complex of DNA and proteins that packages DNA into chromosomes. The structure of chromatin can be changed (remodeled) to alter how tightly DNA is packaged. When DNA is tightly packed, gene expression is lower than when DNA is loosely packed. Chromodomain DNA helicase protein 2 appears to play an important role in the brain, although its function is not well understood. Research suggests that it may help control development or functioning of nerve cells (neurons).

Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

CHD2 myoclonic encephalopathy

At least 30 mutations in the CHD2 gene have been found to cause CHD2 myoclonic encephalopathy, a condition characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy), abnormal brain function (encephalopathy), and intellectual disability beginning in childhood. About half of these mutations delete pieces of DNA from the CHD2 gene. These and other CHD2 gene mutations either prevent the production of any chromodomain DNA helicase protein 2 or lead to the production of a nonfunctional version of the protein. As a result, chromatin remodeling and gene expression normally regulated by the chromodomain DNA helicase protein 2 are disrupted. It is unclear why CHD2 gene mutations seem to only affect nerve cells in the brain or how they lead to the signs and symptoms of CHD2 myoclonic encephalopathy.

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Autism spectrum disorder

At least nine CHD2 gene mutations have been identified in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a varied condition characterized by impaired social skills, communication problems, and repetitive behaviors. Mutations in the CHD2 gene impair the function of the CHD2 protein, resulting in small changes in the expression of many genes, the effects of which combine to affect brain development and increase the risk of ASD. Normal variations in other genes, as well as environmental risk factors, such as parental age, birth complications, and others that have not been identified, also affect an individual's risk of developing this complex condition.

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Lennox-Gastaut syndrome

MedlinePlus Genetics provides information about Lennox-Gastaut syndrome

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Other Names for This Gene

  • ATP-dependent helicase CHD2
  • CHD-2
  • EEOC
  • FLJ38614

Additional Information & Resources

Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Research Resources

References

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  • Suls A, Jaehn JA, Kecskés A, Weber Y, Weckhuysen S, Craiu DC, Siekierska A, Djémié T, Afrikanova T, Gormley P, von Spiczak S, Kluger G, Iliescu CM, Talvik T, Talvik I, Meral C, Caglayan HS, Giraldez BG, Serratosa J, Lemke JR, Hoffman-Zacharska D, Szczepanik E, Barisic N, Komarek V, Hjalgrim H, Møller RS, Linnankivi T, Dimova P, Striano P, Zara F, Marini C, Guerrini R, Depienne C, Baulac S, Kuhlenbäumer G, Crawford AD, Lehesjoki AE, de Witte PA, Palotie A, Lerche H, Esguerra CV, De Jonghe P, Helbig I; EuroEPINOMICS RES Consortium. De novo loss-of-function mutations in CHD2 cause a fever-sensitive myoclonic epileptic encephalopathy sharing features with Dravet syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2013 Nov 7;93(5):967-75. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.09.017. Epub 2013 Oct 24. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Thomas RH, Zhang LM, Carvill GL, Archer JS, Heavin SB, Mandelstam SA, Craiu D, Berkovic SF, Gill DS, Mefford HC, Scheffer IE; EuroEPINOMICS RES Consortium. CHD2 myoclonic encephalopathy is frequently associated with self-induced seizures. Neurology. 2015 Mar 3;84(9):951-8. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000001305. Epub 2015 Feb 11. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Trivisano M, Striano P, Sartorelli J, Giordano L, Traverso M, Accorsi P, Cappelletti S, Claps DJ, Vigevano F, Zara F, Specchio N. CHD2 mutations are a rare cause of generalized epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures. Epilepsy Behav. 2015 Oct;51:53-6. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.06.029. Epub 2015 Aug 7. Citation on PubMed
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