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ACTG1 gene

actin gamma 1
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Normal Function

The ACTG1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called gamma (γ)-actin, which is part of the actin protein family. Proteins in this family are organized into a network of fibers called the actin cytoskeleton, which makes up the structural framework inside cells. There are six types of actin; four are present only in muscle cells, where they are involved in the tensing of muscle fibers (muscle contraction). The other two actin proteins, γ-actin and beta (β)-actin (produced from the ACTB gene), are found in cells throughout the body. These proteins play important roles in determining cell shape and controlling cell movement (motility).

γ-actin is particularly abundant in certain cells in the intestines and the inner ear. Within the inner ear, this protein is found in specialized cells called hair cells, which are essential for normal hearing.

Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

Baraitser-Winter syndrome

At least six mutations in the ACTG1 gene have been found to cause Baraitser-Winter syndrome, a rare condition that affects the development of the brain, eyes, and other facial features. The known mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in γ-actin. The most common mutation replaces the amino acid serine with the amino acid phenylalanine at protein position 155 (written as Ser155Phe or S155F). The mutations that cause Baraitser-Winter syndrome alter the function of γ-actin, which causes changes in the actin cytoskeleton that modify the structure and organization of cells and affect their ability to move. Because γ-actin is present in cells throughout the body and is involved in many cell activities, problems with its function likely impact many aspects of development. These changes underlie the variety of signs and symptoms associated with Baraitser-Winter syndrome.

More About This Health Condition

Nonsyndromic hearing loss

MedlinePlus Genetics provides information about Nonsyndromic hearing loss

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Coloboma

MedlinePlus Genetics provides information about Coloboma

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Other Names for This Gene

  • ACT
  • ACTG
  • ACTG_HUMAN
  • actin, cytoplasmic 2
  • actin, gamma 1
  • actin-like protein
  • cytoskeletal gamma-actin
  • deafness, autosomal dominant 20
  • deafness, autosomal dominant 26
  • DFNA20
  • DFNA26
  • gamma-actin

Additional Information & Resources

Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Research Resources

References

  • Bryan KE, Wen KK, Zhu M, Rendtorff ND, Feldkamp M, Tranebjaerg L, Friderici KH, Rubenstein PA. Effects of human deafness gamma-actin mutations (DFNA20/26) on actin function. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jul 21;281(29):20129-39. Epub 2006 May 10. Citation on PubMed
  • Dugina V, Zwaenepoel I, Gabbiani G, Clément S, Chaponnier C. Beta and gamma-cytoplasmic actins display distinct distribution and functional diversity. J Cell Sci. 2009 Aug 15;122(Pt 16):2980-8. doi: 10.1242/jcs.041970. Epub 2009 Jul 28. Citation on PubMed
  • Rendtorff ND, Zhu M, Fagerheim T, Antal TL, Jones M, Teslovich TM, Gillanders EM, Barmada M, Teig E, Trent JM, Friderici KH, Stephan DA, Tranebjaerg L. A novel missense mutation in ACTG1 causes dominant deafness in a Norwegian DFNA20/26 family, but ACTG1 mutations are not frequent among families with hereditary hearing impairment. Eur J Hum Genet. 2006 Oct;14(10):1097-105. Epub 2006 Jun 14. Citation on PubMed
  • Rivière JB, van Bon BW, Hoischen A, Kholmanskikh SS, O'Roak BJ, Gilissen C, Gijsen S, Sullivan CT, Christian SL, Abdul-Rahman OA, Atkin JF, Chassaing N, Drouin-Garraud V, Fry AE, Fryns JP, Gripp KW, Kempers M, Kleefstra T, Mancini GM, Nowaczyk MJ, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CM, Roscioli T, Marble M, Rosenfeld JA, Siu VM, de Vries BB, Shendure J, Verloes A, Veltman JA, Brunner HG, Ross ME, Pilz DT, Dobyns WB. De novo mutations in the actin genes ACTB and ACTG1 cause Baraitser-Winter syndrome. Nat Genet. 2012 Feb 26;44(4):440-4, S1-2. doi: 10.1038/ng.1091. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • van Wijk E, Krieger E, Kemperman MH, De Leenheer EM, Huygen PL, Cremers CW, Cremers FP, Kremer H. A mutation in the gamma actin 1 (ACTG1) gene causes autosomal dominant hearing loss (DFNA20/26). J Med Genet. 2003 Dec;40(12):879-84. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Zhu M, Yang T, Wei S, DeWan AT, Morell RJ, Elfenbein JL, Fisher RA, Leal SM, Smith RJ, Friderici KH. Mutations in the gamma-actin gene (ACTG1) are associated with dominant progressive deafness (DFNA20/26). Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Nov;73(5):1082-91. Epub 2003 Sep 16. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
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