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ACTB gene

actin beta
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Normal Function

The ACTB gene provides instructions for making a protein called beta (β)-actin, which is part of the actin protein family. Proteins in this family are organized into a network of fibers called the actin cytoskeleton, which makes up the structural framework inside cells. There are six types of actin; four are present only in muscle cells, where they are involved in the tensing of muscle fibers (muscle contraction). The other two actin proteins, β-actin and gamma (γ)-actin (produced from the ACTG1 gene), are found in cells throughout the body. These proteins play important roles in determining cell shape and controlling cell movement (motility). Studies suggest that β-actin may also be involved in relaying chemical signals within cells.

Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

Baraitser-Winter syndrome

Several mutations in the ACTB gene have been found to cause Baraitser-Winter syndrome, a rare condition that affects the development of the brain, eyes, and other facial features. The known mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in β-actin. The most common mutation replaces the amino acid arginine with the amino acid histidine at protein position 196 (written as Arg196His or R196H). The mutations that cause Baraitser-Winter syndrome alter the function of β-actin, which causes changes in the actin cytoskeleton that modify the structure and organization of cells and affect their ability to move. Because β-actin is present in cells throughout the body and is involved in many cell activities, problems with its function likely impact many aspects of development. These changes underlie the variety of signs and symptoms associated with Baraitser-Winter syndrome.

More About This Health Condition

Coloboma

MedlinePlus Genetics provides information about Coloboma

More About This Health Condition

Other Names for This Gene

  • ACTB_HUMAN
  • actin, beta
  • actin, cytoplasmic 1
  • beta cytoskeletal actin
  • BRWS1
  • PS1TP5-binding protein 1
  • PS1TP5BP1

Additional Information & Resources

Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Research Resources

References

  • Dugina V, Zwaenepoel I, Gabbiani G, Clément S, Chaponnier C. Beta and gamma-cytoplasmic actins display distinct distribution and functional diversity. J Cell Sci. 2009 Aug 15;122(Pt 16):2980-8. doi: 10.1242/jcs.041970. Epub 2009 Jul 28. Citation on PubMed
  • Rivière JB, van Bon BW, Hoischen A, Kholmanskikh SS, O'Roak BJ, Gilissen C, Gijsen S, Sullivan CT, Christian SL, Abdul-Rahman OA, Atkin JF, Chassaing N, Drouin-Garraud V, Fry AE, Fryns JP, Gripp KW, Kempers M, Kleefstra T, Mancini GM, Nowaczyk MJ, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CM, Roscioli T, Marble M, Rosenfeld JA, Siu VM, de Vries BB, Shendure J, Verloes A, Veltman JA, Brunner HG, Ross ME, Pilz DT, Dobyns WB. De novo mutations in the actin genes ACTB and ACTG1 cause Baraitser-Winter syndrome. Nat Genet. 2012 Feb 26;44(4):440-4, S1-2. doi: 10.1038/ng.1091. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Su Y, Kondrikov D, Block ER. Beta-actin: a regulator of NOS-3. Sci STKE. 2007 Sep 18;2007(404):pe52. Review. Citation on PubMed
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