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Omega-3 fats: Good for your heart

Omega-3 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fat. We need these fats to build brain cells and for other important functions. Omega-3s help keep your heart healthy and protected against stroke. They also help improve your heart health if you already have heart disease.

Your body does not make omega-3 fatty acids on its own. You need to get them from your diet. Certain fish are the best sources of omega-3s. You can also get them from plant foods.

Omega-3 fatty acids should make up 5% to 10% of your total calories.

Omega-3s and Your Heart

Omega-3s are good for your heart and blood vessels in several ways.

  • They reduce triglycerides, a type of fat in your blood.
  • They reduce the risk of an irregular heart beat (arrhythmias).
  • They slow the buildup of plaque in your arteries.
  • They help to slightly lower your blood pressure.

These healthy fats may also help with cancer, depression, inflammation, and ADHD. Health experts are still discovering all the possible benefits of omega-3 fatty acids.

How Much you can eat

The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends eating at least 2 servings a week of fish rich in omega-3s. A serving is 3.5 ounces (100 grams), which is slightly bigger than a checkbook. Oily fish rich in omega-3s include:

  • Salmon
  • Mackerel
  • Albacore tuna
  • Trout
  • Sardines

Fish and Safety

Some fish can be tainted with mercury and other chemicals. Eating tainted fish can pose health risks for young children and pregnant women.

If you are concerned about mercury, you can reduce your risk of exposure by eating a variety of fish.

Pregnant women and children should avoid fish with high levels of mercury. These include:

  • Swordfish
  • Shark
  • King mackerel
  • Tilefish

If you are middle-aged or older, the benefits of eating fish outweigh any risks.

Other Sources of Omega-3s

Oily fish, such as salmon and tuna, contain 2 kinds of omega-3s. These are EPA and DHA. Both have direct benefits for your heart.

You can get another kind of omega-3, ALA, in some oils, nuts, and plants. ALA benefits your heart, but not as directly as EPA and DHA. Still, eating nuts, seeds, and healthy oils as well as fish can help you get a full range of these healthy fats.

Plant-based sources of omega-3s include:

Of all plant-based foods, ground flaxseeds and flaxseed oil have the highest amount of ALA. You can eat ground flaxseed over granola or in smoothies. Flaxseed oil goes well in salad dressing.

What About Fish oil Supplements?

Most health experts agree that the best way to reap the benefits of omega-3 is from food. Whole foods contain many nutrients besides omega-3s. These all work together to keep your heart healthy.

If you already have heart disease or high triglycerides, you may benefit from consuming higher amounts of omega-3 fatty acids. It may be hard to get enough omega-3s through food. Ask your doctor if taking fish oil supplements might be a good idea.

Alternative Names

Cholesterol - omega-3s; Atherosclerosis - omega-3s; Hardening of the arteries - omega-3s; Coronary artery disease - omega-3s; Heart disease - omega-3s

References

Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, de Jesus JM, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63:2960-2984. PMID: 24239922 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24239922.

Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular Disease: Summary of Evidence Report/Technology Assessment, No. 94. Rockville, MD. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. March 2004. AHRQ Pub. No. 04-E009-1. archive.ahrq.gov/downloads/pub/evidence/pdf/o3cardio/o3cardio.pdf. Accessed May 5, 2016.

Health Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Lipids and Glycemic Control in Type II Diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome and on Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Renal Disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Osteoporosis: Structured Abstract. Rockville, MD. Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality. 2004. AHRQ Pub. No. 04-E012-2. archive.ahrq.gov/downloads/pub/evidence/pdf/o3lipid/o3lipid.pdf. Accessed May 5, 2016.

Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease new recommendations from the American Heart Association. Arterioscle Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23(2):151-152. PMID: 12588750 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12588750.

Mozaffarian D, Wu HY. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: effects on risk factors, molecular pathways, and clinical events. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58:2047-2067. PMID: 22051327 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22051327.

US Department of Health and Human Services and US Department of Agriculture. 2015 - 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 8th Edition. Updated December 2015. health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines. Accessed May 5, 2016.

Review Date 4/24/2016

Updated by: Emily Wax, RD, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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