You have a condition called endometriosis. Symptoms of endometriosis include:
- Heavy menstrual bleeding
- Bleeding between periods
- Problems getting pregnant
Having this condition can interfere with your social and work life.
No one knows what causes endometriosis. There is also no cure. However, there are different ways to treat the symptoms. These treatments can also help relieve menstrual pain.
Learning how to manage your symptoms can make it easier to live with endometriosis.
Medicines to Treat Endometriosis
Your health care provider may prescribe different types of hormone therapy. These may be birth control pills or injections. Be sure to follow your provider's directions for taking these medicines. Do not stop taking them without talking with your provider. Be sure to tell your provider about any side effects.
Over-the-counter pain relievers can reduce the pain of endometriosis. These include:
- Ibuprofen (Advil)
- Naproxen (Aleve)
- Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
If the pain is worse during your periods, try starting these medicines 1 to 2 days before your period begins.
You may be receiving hormone therapy to prevent the endometriosis from becoming worse, such as:
- Birth control pills.
- Medicines that cause a menopause-like state. Side effects include hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood changes.
Apply a hot water bottle or heating pad to your lower stomach. This can get blood flowing and relax your muscles. Warm baths also may help relieve pain.
Lie down and rest. Place a pillow under your knees when lying on your back. If you prefer to lie on your side, pull your knees up toward your chest. These positions help take the pressure off your back.
Get regular exercise. Exercise helps improve blood flow. It also triggers your body's natural painkillers, called endorphins.
Eat a balanced, healthy diet. Maintaining a healthy weight will help improve your overall health. Eating plenty of fiber can help keep you regular so you don't have to strain during bowel movements.
Techniques that also offer ways to relax and may help relieve pain include:
- Muscle relaxation
- Deep breathing
Some women find that acupuncture helps ease painful periods. Some studies show it also helps with long-term (chronic) pain.
If self-care for pain does not help, talk with your provider about other treatment options.
When to Call the Doctor
Call your provider right away if you have severe pelvic pain.
Call your provider for an appointment if:
- You have pain during or after sex
- Your periods become more painful
- You have blood in your urine or pain when you urinate
- You have blood in your stool, painful bowel movements, or a change in your bowel movements
- You are unable to become pregnant after trying for 1 year
Pelvic pain - living with endometriosis; Endometrial implant - living with endometriosis; Endometrioma - living with endometriosis
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Brown J, Farquhar C. An overview of treatments for endometriosis. JAMA. 2015;313(3):296-297. PMID: 25603001 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25603001/.
Burney RO, Giudice LC. Endometriosis. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 130.
Smith CA, Armour M, Zhu X, Li X, Lu ZY, Song J. Acupuncture for dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;4:CD007854. PMID: 27087494 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27087494/.
Review Date 1/1/2020
Updated by: John D. Jacobson, MD, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for Fertility, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.