You have epilepsy. People with epilepsy have seizures. A seizure is a sudden brief change in the electrical and chemical activity in the brain. The doctor gave you a physical and a nervous system examination and did some tests to find out the cause of your seizures.
What to Expect at Home
Your doctor sent you home with medicines to help keep you from having more seizures. This is because the doctor concluded you were at continued risk of seizures. After you get home, your doctor may still need to change the dosage of your seizure drugs or add new medicines. This may be because your seizures are not controlled, or you are having side effects.
Activity and Lifestyle
You should get plenty of sleep and try to keep as regular a schedule as possible. Try to avoid too much stress.
Make sure your home is safe to help prevent injuries if a seizure takes place:
- Keep your bathroom and bedroom doors unlocked. Keep these doors from being blocked.
- Take showers only. DO NOT take baths because of the risk of drowning during a seizure.
- When cooking, turn pot and pan handles toward the back of the stove.
- Fill your plate or bowl near the stove instead of taking all of the food to the table.
- Replace all glass doors either with safety glass or plastic.
Most people with seizures can have a very active lifestyle. You should still plan ahead for the possible dangers of a certain activity. DO NOT do any activity during which loss of consciousness would be dangerous. Wait until it is clear that seizures are unlikely to occur. Safe activities include:
- Cross-country skiing
There should always be a lifeguard or buddy present when you go swimming. Wear a helmet during bike riding, skiing, and similar activities. Ask your doctor about participation in contact sports. Avoid activities during which having a seizure would put you or someone else in danger.
Wear a medical alert bracelet. Tell family members, friends, and the people you work with about your seizure disorder.
Driving your own car is generally safe and legal once the seizures are controlled. State laws vary. You can get information about your state law from your doctor and the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV).
Never stop taking seizure medicines without talking with your doctor. DO NOT stop taking your seizure medicines just because your seizures have stopped.
Tips for taking your seizure medicines:
- DO NOT skip a dose.
- Get refills before you run out.
- Keep seizure medicines in a safe place, away from children.
- Store medicines in a dry place, in the bottle that they came in. Throw away all old bottles.
If you miss a dose:
- Take it as soon as you remember.
- Check with your doctor about what to do if you miss a dose for more than a few hours. There are many seizure medicines with different dosing schedules.
- If you miss more than one dose, talk with your doctor or nurse. Mistakes are unavoidable and you may miss several doses at some point. So it may be useful to have this discussion ahead of time rather than when it happens.
Drinking alcohol or doing illegal drugs can cause seizures.
- DO NOT drink alcohol if you take seizure medicines.
- Using alcohol or illegal drugs will change the way your seizure medicines work in your body. This may increase the risk of seizures or side effects.
Your health care provider will tell you when you need to check the blood level of your seizure drug. Seizure drugs have side effects. If you started taking a new drug recently, or your doctor changed the dosage of your seizure drug, these side effects may go away. Always ask your doctor about the side effects you may have and how to manage them.
Many seizure medicines can weaken the strength of your bones (Osteoporosis). Ask your doctor about how to reduce the risk of osteoporosis through exercise and vitamin and mineral supplements.
For women during childbearing years:
- If you are planning on becoming pregnant, talk to your doctor about your seizure medicines beforehand.
- If you get pregnant while taking seizure medicines, talk to your doctor right away. Ask your doctor if there are certain vitamins and supplements you should take in addition to your prenatal vitamin to prevent birth defects.
- Never stop taking your seizure medicines without talking to your doctor first.
How to Respond to a Seizure
Once a seizure starts, there is no way to stop it. Family members and caregivers can only help make sure you are safe from further injury. They can also call for help, if needed.
When a seizure starts, family members or caregivers should try to keep you from falling. They should help you to the ground, in a safe area. They should clear the area of furniture or other sharp objects. Caregivers should also:
- Cushion your head.
- Loosen tight clothing, especially around your neck.
- Turn you on your side. If vomiting occurs, turning you on your side helps make sure you do not inhale vomit into your lungs.
- Stay with you until you recover or medical help arrives. Meanwhile, caregivers should monitor your pulse and rate of breathing (vital signs).
Things your friends and family members should not do:
- DO NOT restrain you (try to hold you down).
- DO NOT place anything between your teeth during a seizure (including their fingers).
- DO NOT move you unless you are in danger or near something hazardous.
- DO NOT try to make you stop convulsing. You have no control over your seizures and are not aware of what is happening at the time.
- DO NOT give you anything by mouth until the convulsions have stopped and you are fully awake and alert.
- DO NOT start CPR unless the seizure has clearly stopped and you are not breathing or have no pulse.
When to Call the Doctor
Call your doctor if you have:
- More frequent seizures than usual, or seizures starting again after being well controlled for a long period.
- Side effects from medications
- Unusual behavior that was not present before
- Weakness, problems with seeing, or balance problems that are new
Call 911 if:
- This is the first time the person has had a seizure.
- A seizure lasts more than 2 to 5 minutes.
- The person does not wake up or have normal behavior after a seizure.
- Another seizure starts before the person has fully returned to a state of awareness, after a previous seizure.
- The person had a seizure in water.
- The person is pregnant, injured, or has diabetes.
- The person does not have a medical ID bracelet (instructions explaining what to do).
- There is anything different about this seizure compared to the person's usual seizures.
Focal seizure - discharge; Jacksonian seizure - discharge; Seizure - partial (focal) - discharge; TLE - discharge; Seizure - temporal lobe - discharge; Seizure - tonic-clonic - discharge; Seizure - grand mal - discharge; Grand mal seizure - discharge; Seizure - generalized - discharge
Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 67.
French JA, Pedley TA. Clinical practice. Initial management of epilepsy. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:166-176. PMID: 18614784 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18614784.
Harden CL, Pennell PB, Koppel BS, Hovinga CA, Gidal B, Meador KJ, et al. Practice parameter update: management issues for women with epilepsy--focus on pregnancy (an evidence-based review): vitamin K, folic acid, blood levels, and breastfeeding: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee and Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and American Epilepsy Society. Neurology. 2009 Jul14;73(2):142-149. Epub 2009 Apr 27. PMID:19398680 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19398680.
Perucca E, Tomson T. The pharmacological treatment of epilepsy in adults. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10:446-456. PMID: 21511198 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21511198.
Review Date 9/3/2014
Updated by: Joseph V. Campellone, MD, Department of Neurology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.