A volcano is a vent in the Earth's crust. Hot rock, steam, poisonous gases, and ash reach the Earth's surface when a volcano erupts. An eruption can also cause earthquakes, mudflows and flash floods, rock falls and landslides, acid rain, fires, and even tsunamis.
Volcanic gas and ash can damage the lungs of small infants, older adults, and people with severe respiratory illnesses. Volcanic ash can affect people hundreds of miles away from the eruption.
Although there are no guarantees of safety during a volcanic eruption, you can take actions to protect yourself. You should have a disaster plan. Being prepared can help reduce fear, anxiety, and losses. If you do experience a disaster, it is normal to feel stressed. You may need help in finding ways to cope.
Federal Emergency Management Agency
- Federal Emergency Management Agency Also in Spanish
- Lung problems and volcanic smog (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish
- Summary of Natural Hazard Statistics for 2017 in the United States (National Weather Service) - PDF
- Volcanic Gas (U.S. Geological Survey)
- Volcano Preparedness (American Red Cross)
- Volcanoes (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Volcanoes (Department of Homeland Security) Also in Spanish
- What Are Volcano Hazards? (U.S. Geological Survey) Also in Spanish
Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
- Article: Managing uncertainty: Lessons from volcanic lava disruption of transportation infrastructure...
- Article: Volcanic suppression of Nile summer flooding triggers revolt and constrains...
- Article: Human survival in volcanic eruptions: Thermal injuries in pyroclastic surges,...
- Volcanoes -- see more articles