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Glucosamina

¿Qué es?

La glucosamina es una sustancia química que se encuentra en el cuerpo. Los suplementos de glucosamina se venden como sulfato de glucosamina, clorhidrato de glucosamina y N-acetil glucosamina.

El cuerpo utiliza la glucosamina para producir otras sustancias químicas que forman tendones, ligamentos, cartílagos y el líquido que rodea las articulaciones. Las articulaciones están protegidas por el líquido y el cartílago que las rodea. La ingesta de glucosamina podría aumentar el cartílago y el líquido alrededor de las articulaciones y / o ayudar a prevenir su degradación.

Las personas comúnmente usan sulfato de glucosamina y clorhidrato de glucosamina para la osteoartritis. La glucosamina también se usa para el dolor articular, la artritis reumatoide, la esclerosis múltiple y muchas otras condiciones, pero no existe una buena evidencia científica que respalde estos otros usos.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Probablemente eficaz para...

  • Osteoartritis. La ingesta de sulfato de glucosamina durante al menos 4 semanas puede aliviar el dolor y mejorar la función de las personas con osteoartritis de rodilla. Los productos que contienen clorhidrato de glucosamina no parecen funcionar tan bien a menos que se tomen en combinación con otros ingredientes. La ingesta de sulfato de glucosamina no parece reducir el riesgo de contraer osteoartritis.
Existe interés en usar la glucosamina para otros propósitos, pero no hay suficiente información confiable para decir si podría ser útil.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

Cuando se toma por vía oral: El sulfato de glucosamina es probablemente seguro en la mayoría de los adultos cuando se usa hasta por 3 años. El clorhidrato de glucosamina es posiblemente seguro para la mayoría de los adultos cuando se usa hasta por 2 años. La N-acetilglucosamina también es posiblemente segura cuando se usa hasta por 6 meses. La glucosamina puede causar algunos efectos secundarios leves que incluyen hinchazón, náuseas, diarrea y estreñimiento.

Cuando se aplica a la piel: La N-acetilglucosamina es posiblemente segura cuando se usa hasta por 10 semanas.

Cuando se administra como un enema (por vía rectal): La N-acetilglucosamina es posiblemente segura cuando se usa en dosis de 3-4 gramos al día.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: No hay suficiente información confiable para saber si el sulfato de glucosamina, el clorhidrato de glucosamina o la N-acetilglucosamina son seguros de usar durante el embarazo o la lactancia. Manténgase en el lado seguro y evite su uso.

Asma: La glucosamina podría empeorar el asma. Hasta que se sepa más, las personas con asma deben tener cuidado al tomar productos que contengan glucosamina.

Diabetes: Solía existir cierta preocupación de que la glucosamina pudiera aumentar los niveles de azúcar en sangre. Pero la mayoría de las investigaciones muestran que la glucosamina no aumenta los niveles de azúcar en sangre en personas con diabetes.

Glaucoma: La glucosamina podría aumentar la presión dentro del ojo y podría empeorar el glaucoma. Si tiene glaucoma, hable con su proveedor de atención médica antes de tomar glucosamina.

Colesterol alto: Solía existir cierta preocupación de que la glucosamina pudiera aumentar los niveles de colesterol. Pero la mayoría de las investigaciones muestran que la glucosamina no parece aumentar los niveles de colesterol.

Presión arterial alta: Solía existir cierta preocupación de que la glucosamina pudiera aumentar la presión arterial. Pero la mayoría de las investigaciones muestran que la glucosamina no parece aumentar la presión arterial.

Alergia a los mariscos: La glucosamina se produce a partir de las conchas de camarones, langostas y cangrejos. Si tiene alergia a los mariscos, hable con su proveedor de atención médica antes de usar glucosamina.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

Serias
No tome esta combinación
Warfarina (Coumadin)
La warfarina se usa para retardar la coagulación de la sangre. La ingesta de glucosamina con condroitina o sin esta aumenta los efectos de la warfarina. Esto puede aumentar el riesgo de hemorragias y hematomas graves. No tome glucosamina si está tomando warfarina.
Moderadas
Tenga cuidado con esta combinación
Medicamentos para el cáncer (inhibidores de la topoisomerasa II)
Algunos medicamentos para el cáncer actúan disminuyendo la rapidez con que las células cancerosas pueden copiarse a sí mismas. La glucosamina podría bloquear el funcionamiento de estos medicamentos. La ingesta de glucosamina junto con algunos medicamentos para el cáncer podría disminuir la eficacia de estos medicamentos.
Menores
Preste atención a esta combinación
Acetaminofén (Tylenol, otros)
La ingesta conjunta de SULFATO de glucosamina y acetaminofén podría afectar la eficacia de cada uno. Pero se necesita más información para saber si esta interacción es una gran preocupación.
Medicamentos para la diabetes (medicamentos antidiabéticos)
La glucosamina puede aumentar los niveles de azúcar en sangre. La ingesta de glucosamina junto con medicamentos para la diabetes podría reducir los efectos de estos medicamentos. Controle de cerca su nivel de azúcar en sangre.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

Sulfato de condroitina
La ingesta de sulfato de condroitina junto con CLORHIDRATO de glucosamina podría reducir los niveles sanguíneos de hidrocloruro de glucosamina. Pero no está claro si esto cambiará los efectos del clorhidrato de glucosamina.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

El sulfato de glucosamina y el clorhidrato de glucosamina han sido utilizados con mayor frecuencia por adultos en dosis de 1500 mg por vía oral al día durante un máximo de 3 años. Hable con un proveedor de atención médica para averiguar qué dosis podría ser la mejor para una condición específica.

Tenga en cuenta que la glucosamina que se usa en los suplementos a menudo proviene de las conchas de los mariscos. Hable con su proveedor de atención médica antes de tomar estos suplementos si tiene alergia a los mariscos. Además, algunos productos de glucosamina no están etiquetados correctamente. En algunos casos, la cantidad de glucosamina realmente en el producto ha variado desde cero hasta más del 100% de la cantidad indicada en la etiqueta del producto. Algunos productos contenían clorhidrato de glucosamina cuando en la etiqueta figuraba el sulfato de glucosamina.

Otros nombres

(3R,4R,5S,6R)-3-Amino-6-(Hydroxymethyl)Oxane-2,4,5-Triol Hydrochloride, 2-Acetamido-2-deoxyglucose, 2-Amino-2-Deoxy-D-Glucosehydrochloride, 2-Amino-2-Deoxy-Beta-D-Glucopyranose Hydrochloride, 2-Amino-2-Deoxy-Glucose, 2-Amino-2-Deoxy-Beta-D-Glucopyranose, 2-Amino-2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Sulfate, 3-Amino-6-(Hydroxymethyl)Oxane-2,4,5-Triol Sulfate, Acetylglucosamine, Acétylglucosamine, Amino Monosaccharide, Chitosamine, Chitosamine Hydrochloride, Chlorhidrato de Glucosamina, Chlorhydrate de Glucosamine, Chlorure de Potassium-Sulfate de Glucosamine, D-Glucosamine, D-Glucosamine HCl, D-Glucosamine Hydrochloride, D-Glucosamine Sulfate, D-Glucosamine Sulphate, G6S, GlcNAc, Glucosamine HCl, Glucosamine KCl, Glucosamine N-Acetyl, Glucosamine, Glucosamine Potassium Sulfate, Glucosamine Sulphate, Glucosamine Sulfate 2KCl, Glucosamine Sulfate-Potassium Chloride, Glucosamine Sulphate KCl, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate, GS, Mono-Sulfated Saccharide, N-Acetil Glucosamina, N-Acétyl Glucosamine, N-Acétyl-Glucosamine, N-Acétylglucosamine, N-Acetyl D-Glucosamine, N-Acétyl D-Glucosamine, NAG, N-A-G, pGlcNAc, Poly-N-Acetyl Glucosamine, Poly-NAG, Poly-(1->3)-N-Acetyl-2-Amino-2-Deoxy-3-O-Beta-D-Glucopyranurosyl-4-(or 6-) Sul, p-GlcNAc, Saccharide Mono-Sulfaté, Saccharide Sulfaté, Sulfate de Glucosamine, Sulfate de Glucosamine 2KCl, SG, Sulfated Monosaccharide, Sulfated Saccharide, Sulfato de Glucosamina.

Metodología

Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Documento revisado - 10/05/2021