URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/807.html

Glucosamine

What is it?

Glucosamine is a chemical found in the body. Glucosamine supplements are sold as glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and N-acetyl glucosamine.

Glucosamine is used by the body to make other chemicals that build tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and the fluid that surrounds joints. Joints are cushioned by the fluid and cartilage around them. Taking glucosamine might increase the cartilage and fluid around joints and/or help prevent their breakdown.

People commonly use glucosamine sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride for osteoarthritis. Glucosamine is also used for joint pain, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these other uses.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for GLUCOSAMINE are as follows:

Likely effective for...

  • Osteoarthritis. Taking glucosamine sulfate by mouth for at least 4 weeks can provide some pain relief and improve function for people with knee osteoarthritis. Products that contain glucosamine hydrochloride do not seem to work as well unless they are taken in combination with other ingredients. Taking glucosamine sulfate doesn't seem to reduce the risk of getting osteoarthritis.

There is interest in using glucosamine for a number of other purposes, but there isn't enough reliable information to say whether it might be helpful.

Is it safe?

When taken by mouth: Glucosamine sulfate is likely safe in most adults when used for up to 3 years. Glucosamine hydrochloride is possibly safe for most adults when used for up to 2 years. N-acetyl glucosamine is also possibly safe when used for up to 6 months. Glucosamine can cause some mild side effects including bloating, nausea, diarrhea, and constipation.

When applied to the skin: N-acetyl glucosamine is possibly safe when used for up to 10 weeks.

When given as an enema (rectally): N-acetyl glucosamine is possibly safe when used in doses of 3-4 grams daily.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, or N-acetyl glucosamine is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Asthma: Glucosamine might make asthma worse. Until more is known, people with asthma should be cautious about taking products that contain glucosamine.

Diabetes: There used to be some concern that glucosamine might increase blood sugar levels. But most research shows that glucosamine doesn't increase blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.

Glaucoma: Glucosamine might increase the pressure inside the eye and could worsen glaucoma. If you have glaucoma, talk to your healthcare provider before taking glucosamine.

High cholesterol: There used to be some concern that glucosamine might increase cholesterol levels. But most research shows that glucosamine doesn't seem to increase cholesterol levels.

High blood pressure: There used to be some concern that glucosamine might increase blood pressure. But most research shows that glucosamine does not seem to increase blood pressure.

Shellfish allergy: Glucosamine is produced from the shells of shrimp, lobster, and crabs. If you have a shellfish allergy, talk to your healthcare provider before using glucosamine.

Are there interactions with medications?

Major
Do not take this combination.
Warfarin (Coumadin)
Warfarin is used to slow blood clotting. Taking glucosamine with or without chondroitin increases the effects of warfarin. This can increase the risk for serious bruising and bleeding. Don't take glucosamine if you are taking warfarin.
Moderate
Be cautious with this combination.
Medications for cancer (Topoisomerase II Inhibitors)
Some medications for cancer work by decreasing how fast cancer cells can copy themselves. Glucosamine might block these medications from working. Taking glucosamine along with some medications for cancer might decrease the effectiveness of these medications.
Minor
Be watchful with this combination.
Acetaminophen (Tylenol, others)
Taking glucosamine SULFATE and acetaminophen together might affect how well each works. But more information is needed to know if this interaction is a big concern.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
Glucosamine might increase blood sugar levels. Taking glucosamine along with diabetes medications might reduce the effects of these medications. Monitor your blood sugar closely.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Chondroitin sulfate
Taking chondroitin sulfate together with glucosamine HYDROCHLORIDE might reduce blood levels of glucosamine hydrochloride. But it's not clear if this will change the effects of glucosamine hydrochloride.

Are there interactions with foods?

There are no known interactions with foods.

How is it typically used?

Glucosamine sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride have most often been used by adults in doses of 1500 mg by mouth daily for up to 3 years. Speak with a healthcare provider to find out what dose might be best for a specific condition.

Keep in mind that glucosamine used in supplements often comes from the shells of shellfish. Talk to your healthcare provider before taking these supplements if you have a shellfish allergy. Also, some glucosamine products aren't labeled correctly. In some cases, the amount of glucosamine actually in the product has varied from none to over 100% of the amount stated on the product's label. Some products have contained glucosamine hydrochloride when glucosamine sulfate was listed on the label.

Other names

(3R,4R,5S,6R)-3-Amino-6-(Hydroxymethyl)Oxane-2,4,5-Triol Hydrochloride, 2-Acetamido-2-deoxyglucose, 2-Amino-2-Deoxy-D-Glucosehydrochloride, 2-Amino-2-Deoxy-Beta-D-Glucopyranose Hydrochloride, 2-Amino-2-Deoxy-Glucose, 2-Amino-2-Deoxy-Beta-D-Glucopyranose, 2-Amino-2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Sulfate, 3-Amino-6-(Hydroxymethyl)Oxane-2,4,5-Triol Sulfate, Acetylglucosamine, Acétylglucosamine, Amino Monosaccharide, Chitosamine, Chitosamine Hydrochloride, Chlorhidrato de Glucosamina, Chlorhydrate de Glucosamine, Chlorure de Potassium-Sulfate de Glucosamine, D-Glucosamine, D-Glucosamine HCl, D-Glucosamine Hydrochloride, D-Glucosamine Sulfate, D-Glucosamine Sulphate, G6S, GlcNAc, Glucosamine HCl, Glucosamine KCl, Glucosamine N-Acetyl, Glucosamine, Glucosamine Potassium Sulfate, Glucosamine Sulphate, Glucosamine Sulfate 2KCl, Glucosamine Sulfate-Potassium Chloride, Glucosamine Sulphate KCl, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate, GS, Mono-Sulfated Saccharide, N-Acetil Glucosamina, N-Acétyl Glucosamine, N-Acétyl-Glucosamine, N-Acétylglucosamine, N-Acetyl D-Glucosamine, N-Acétyl D-Glucosamine, NAG, N-A-G, pGlcNAc, Poly-N-Acetyl Glucosamine, Poly-NAG, Poly-(1->3)-N-Acetyl-2-Amino-2-Deoxy-3-O-Beta-D-Glucopyranurosyl-4-(or 6-) Sul, p-GlcNAc, Saccharide Mono-Sulfaté, Saccharide Sulfaté, Sulfate de Glucosamine, Sulfate de Glucosamine 2KCl, SG, Sulfated Monosaccharide, Sulfated Saccharide, Sulfato de Glucosamina.

Methodology

To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.

References

  1. Zhang J, Ge R, Yang Z. Effect of celecoxib combined with glucosamine hydrochloride in promoting the functional recovery and decreasing the inflammatory factor levels in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2021;34(3(Special)):1277-82. View abstract.
  2. Moon JM, Finnegan P, Stecker RA, et al. Impact of glucosamine supplementation on gut health. Nutrients. 2021;13:2180. View abstract.
  3. King DE, Xiang J. Glucosamine/Chondroitin and Mortality in a US NHANES Cohort. J Am Board Fam Med. 2020;33:842-847. View abstract.
  4. Lee DH, Cao C, Zong X, et al. Glucosamine and Chondroitin Supplements and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma and Serrated Polyp. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2020;29:2693-2701. View abstract.
  5. Kumar PNS, Sharma A, Andrade C. A pilot, open-label investigation of the efficacy of glucosamine for the treatment of major depression. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020;52:102113. View abstract.
  6. Ma H, Li X, Zhou T, et al. Glucosamine use, inflammation, and genetic susceptibility, and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in UK Biobank. Diabetes Care. 2020;43:719-25. View abstract.
  7. Bruyere O, Honvo G, Veronese N, et al. An updated algorithm recommendation for the management of knee osteoarthritis from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis, and Musculoskeletal Disease (ESCEO). Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2019 Dec;49:337-50. View abstract.
  8. Navarro SL, Levy L, Curtis KR, Lampe JW, Hullar MAJ. Modulation of Gut Microbiota by Glucosamine and Chondroitin in a Randomized, Double-Blind Pilot Trial in Humans. Microorganisms. 2019 Nov 23;7. pii: E610. View abstract.
  9. Restaino OF, Finamore R, Stellavato A, et al. European chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine food supplements: A systematic quality and quantity assessment compared to pharmaceuticals. Carbohydr Polym. 2019 Oct 15;222:114984. View abstract.
  10. Hoban C, Byard R, Musgrave I. Hypersensitive adverse drug reactions to glucosamine and chondroitin preparations in Australia between 2000 and 2011. Postgrad Med J. 2019 Oct 9. pii: postgradmedj-2019-136957. View abstract.
  11. Kolasinski SL, Neogi T, Hochberg MC, et al. 2019 American College of Rheumatology/Arthritis Foundation guideline for the management of osteoarthritis of the hand, hip, and knee. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2020 Feb;72:220-33. View abstract.
  12. Tsuruta A, Horiike T, Yoshimura M, Nagaoka I. Evaluation of the effect of the administration of a glucosamine containing supplement on biomarkers for cartilage metabolism in soccer players: A randomized double blind placebo controlled study. Mol Med Rep. 2018 Oct;18:3941-3948. Epub 2018 Aug 17. View abstract.
  13. Simental-Mendía M, Sánchez-García A, Vilchez-Cavazos F, Acosta-Olivo CA, Peña-Martínez VM, Simental-Mendía LE. Effect of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Rheumatol Int. 2018 Aug;38:1413-1428. Epub 2018 Jun 11. Review. View abstract.
  14. Gregori D, Giacovelli G, Minto C, et al. Association of Pharmacological Treatments with Long-term Pain Control in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA. 2018 Dec 25;320:2564-2579. View abstract.
  15. Ogata T, Ideno Y, Akai M, et al. Effects of glucosamine in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Rheumatol. 2018 Sep;37:2479-2487. Epub 2018 Apr 30. View abstract.
  16. Ma H, Li X, Sun D, et al. Association of habitual glucosamine use with risk of cardiovascular disease: prospective study in UK Biobank. BMJ. 2019 May 14;365:l1628. View abstract.
  17. de Vos BC, Landsmeer MLA, van Middelkoop M, et al. Long-term effects of a lifestyle intervention and oral glucosamine sulphate in primary care on incident knee OA in overweight women. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017;56:1326-1334. View abstract.
  18. Tsuji T, Yoon J, Kitano N, Okura T, Tanaka K. Effects of N-acetyl glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate supplementation on knee pain and self-reported knee function in middle-aged and older Japanese adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2016;28:197-205. View abstract.
  19. Runhaar J, Deroisy R, van Middelkoop M, et al. The role of diet and exercise and of glucosamine sulfate in the prevention of knee osteoarthritis: Further results from the PRevention of knee Osteoarthritis in Overweight Females (PROOF) study. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2016;45(4 Suppl):S42-8. View abstract.
  20. Roman-Blas JA, Castañeda S, Sánchez-Pernaute O, et al. Combined Treatment With Chondroitin Sulfate and Glucosamine Sulfate Shows No Superiority Over Placebo for Reduction of Joint Pain and Functional Impairment in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Six-Month Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017;69:77-85. View abstract.
  21. Kongtharvonskul J, Anothaisintawee T, McEvoy M, Attia J, Woratanarat P, Thakkinstian A. Efficacy and safety of glucosamine, diacerein, and NSAIDs in osteoarthritis knee: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Eur J Med Res. 2015;20:24. View abstract.
  22. Kanzaki N, Ono Y, Shibata H, Moritani T. Glucosamine-containing supplement improves locomotor functions in subjects with knee pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Interv Aging. 2015;10:1743-53. View abstract.
  23. Gueniche A, Castiel-Higounenc I. Efficacy of Glucosamine Sulphate in Skin Ageing: Results from an ex vivo Anti-Ageing Model and a Clinical Trial. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2017;30:36-41. View abstract.
  24. Eraslan A, Ulkar B. Glucosamine supplementation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in athletes: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Res Sports Med. 2015;23:14-26. View abstract.
  25. Esfandiari H, Pakravan M, Zakeri Z, et al. Effect of glucosamine on intraocular pressure: a randomized clinical trial. Eye. 2017;31:389-394.
  26. Murphy RK, Jaccoma EH, Rice RD, Ketzler L. Glucosamine as a Possible Risk Factor for Glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009;50:5850.
  27. Eriksen P, Bartels EM, Altman RD, Bliddal H, Juhl C, Christensen R. Risk of bias and brand explain the observed inconsistency in trials on glucosamine for symptomatic relief of osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2014;66:1844-55. View abstract.
  28. Singh JA, Noorbaloochi S, MacDonald R, Maxwell LJ. Chondroitin for osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jan 28;1:CD005614. View abstract.
  29. Bruyère O, Cooper C, Pelletier JP, et al. A consensus statement on the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) algorithm for the management of knee osteoarthritis-From evidence-based medicine to the real-life setting. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2016;45(4 Suppl):S3-11. View abstract.
  30. Kimball AB, Kaczvinsky JR, Li J, et al. Reduction in the appearance of facial hyperpigmentation after use of moisturizers with a combination of topical niacinamide and N-acetyl glucosamine: results of a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial. Br J Dermatol 2010;162:435-41. View abstract.
  31. Madhu K, Chanda K, Saji MJ. Safety and efficacy of Curcuma longa extract in the treatment of painful knee osteoarthritis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Inflammopharmacology 2013;21:129-36. View abstract.
  32. Vetter G. [Topical therapy of arthroses with glucosamines (Dona 200)]. Munch Med Wochenschr 1969;111:1499-502. View abstract.
  33. Setnikar I, Giacchetti C, Zanolo G. Pharmacokinetics of glucosamine in the dog and in man. Arzneimittelforschung 1986;36:729-35. View abstract.
  34. Basak M, Joseph S, Joshi S, Sawant S. Comparative bioavailability of a novel timed release and powder-filled glucosamine sulfate formulation--a multi-dose, randomized, crossover study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004;42:597-601. View abstract.
  35. Phitak T, Pothacharoen P, Kongtawelert P. Comparison of glucose derivatives effects on cartilage degradation. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2010;11:162. View abstract.
  36. Setnikar I, Cereda R, Pacini MA, Revel L. Antireactive properties of glucosamine sulfate. Arzneimittelforschung 1991;41:157-61. View abstract.
  37. Sumantran VN, Chandwaskar R, Joshi AK, Boddul S, Patwardhan B, Chopra A, Wagh UV. The relationship between chondroprotective and antiinflammatory effects of Withania somnifera root and glucosamine sulphate on human osteoarthritic cartilage in vitro. Phytother Res 2008;22:1342-8. View abstract.
  38. Setnikar I, Pacini MA, Revel L. Antiarthritic effects of glucosamine sulfate studied in animal models. Arzneimittelforschung 1991;41:542-5. View abstract.
  39. Bassleer C, Henrotin Y, Franchimont P. In-vitro evaluation of drugs proposed as chondroprotective agents. Int J Tissue React 1992;14:231-41. View abstract.
  40. Calamia V, Ruiz-Romero C, Rocha B, Fernández-Puente P, Mateos J, Montell E, Vergés J, Blanco FJ. Pharmacoproteomic study of the effects of chondroitin and glucosamine sulfate on human articular chondrocytes. Arthritis Res Ther 2010;12:R138. View abstract.
  41. Graeser AC, Giller K, Wiegand H, Barella L, Boesch Saadatmandi C, Rimbach G. Synergistic chondroprotective effect of alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and selenium as well as glucosamine and chondroitin on oxidant induced cell death and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-3--studies in cultured chondrocytes. Molecules. 2009;15:27-39. View abstract.
  42. Murphy RK, Ketzler L, Rice RD, Johnson SM, Doss MS, Jaccoma EH. Oral glucosamine supplements as a possible ocular hypertensive agent. JAMA Ophthalmol 2013;131:955-7. View abstract.
  43. Swinburne LM. Glucosamine sulphate and osteoarthritis. Lancet 2001;357:1617. View abstract.
  44. Akarasereenont P, Chatsiricharoenkul S, Pongnarin P, Sathirakul K, Kongpatanakul S. Bioequivalence study of 500 mg glucosamine sulfate in Thai healthy volunteers. J Med Assoc Thai 2009;92:1234-9. View abstract.
  45. Chopra A, Saluja M, Tillu G, Venugopalan A, Sarmukaddam S, Raut AK, Bichile L, Narsimulu G, Handa R, Patwardhan B. A Randomized Controlled Exploratory Evaluation of Standardized Ayurvedic Formulations in Symptomatic Osteoarthritis Knees: A Government of India NMITLI Project. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011;2011:724291. View abstract.
  46. Wangroongsub Y, Tanavalee A, Wilairatana V, Ngarmukos S. Comparable clinical outcomes between glucosamine sulfate-potassium chloride and glucosamine sulfate sodium chloride in patients with mild and moderate knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind study. J Med Assoc Thai 2010;93:805-11. View abstract.
  47. Smidt D, Torpet LA, Nauntofte B, Heegaard KM, Pedersen AM. Associations between labial and whole salivary flow rates, systemic diseases and medications in a sample of older people. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2010;38:422-35. View abstract.
  48. Simon RR, Marks V, Leeds AR, Anderson JW. A comprehensive review of oral glucosamine use and effects on glucose metabolism in normal and diabetic individuals. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2011;27:14-27. View abstract.
  49. Wilkens, P., Scheel, I. B., Grundnes, O., Hellum, C., and Storheim, K. Effect of glucosamine on pain-related disability in patients with chronic low back pain and degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2010;304:45-52. View abstract.
  50. Greenlee H, Crew KD, Shao T, Kranwinkel G, Kalinsky K, Maurer M, Brafman L, Insel B, Tsai WY, Hershman DL. Phase II study of glucosamine with chondroitin on aromatase inhibitor-associated joint symptoms in women with breast cancer. Support Care Cancer 2013;21:1077-87. View abstract.
  51. Nieman DC, Shanely RA, Luo B, Dew D, Meaney MP, Sha W. A commercialized dietary supplement alleviates joint pain in community adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled community trial. Nutr J 2013;12:154. View abstract.
  52. Fransen M, Agaliotis M, Nairn L, Votrubec M, Bridgett L, Su S, Jan S, March L,Edmonds J, Norton R, Woodward M, Day R; LEGS study collaborative group. Glucosamine and chondroitin for knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluating single and combination regimens. Ann Rheum Dis 2015;74:851-8. View abstract.
  53. Chopra A, Saluja M, Tillu G, Sarmukkaddam S, Venugopalan A, Narsimulu G, Handa R, Sumantran V, Raut A, Bichile L, Joshi K, Patwardhan B. Ayurvedic medicine offers a good alternative to glucosamine and celecoxib in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, controlled equivalence drug trial. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2013;52:1408-17. View abstract.
  54. Levin RM, Krieger NN, and Winzler RJ. Glucosamine and acetylglucosamine tolerance in man. J Lab Clin Med 1961;58:927-932.
  55. Wu H, Liu M, Wang S, Zhao H, Yao W, Feng W, Yan M, Tang Y, Wei M. Comparative fasting bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties of 2 formulations of glucosamine hydrochloride in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers. Arzneimittelforschung. 2012 Aug;62:367-71. View abstract.
  56. Liang CM, Tai MC, Chang YH, Chen YH, Chen CL, Chien MW, Chen JT. Glucosamine inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced proliferation and cell-cycle progression in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Mol Vis 2010;16:2559-71. View abstract.
  57. Yomogida S, Hua J, Sakamoto K, Nagaoka I. Glucosamine suppresses interleukin-8 production and ICAM-1 expression by TNF-alpha-stimulated human colonic epithelial HT-29 cells. Int J Mol Med 2008;22:205-11. View abstract.
  58. Kim CH, Cheong KA, Park CD, Lee AY. Glucosamine improved atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by inhibition of Th2 cell development. Scand J Immunol 2011;73:536-45. View abstract.
  59. Ju Y, Hua J, Sakamoto K, Ogawa H, Nagaoka I. Glucosamine, a naturally occurring amino monosaccharide modulates LL-37-induced endothelial cell activation. Int J Mol Med 2008;22:657-62. View abstract.
  60. Qiu W, Su Q, Rutledge AC, Zhang J, Adeli K. Glucosamine-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress attenuates apolipoprotein B100 synthesis via PERK signaling. J Lipid Res 2009;50:1814-23. View abstract.
  61. Ju Y, Hua J, Sakamoto K, Ogawa H, Nagaoka I. Modulation of TNF-alpha-induced endothelial cell activation by glucosamine, a naturally occurring amino monosaccharide. Int J Mol Med 2008;22:809-15. View abstract.
  62. Ilic MZ, Martinac B, Samiric T, Handley CJ. Effects of glucosamine on proteoglycan loss by tendon, ligament and joint capsule explant cultures. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2008;16:1501-8. View abstract.
  63. Toegel S, Wu SQ, Piana C, Unger FM, Wirth M, Goldring MB, Gabor F, Viernstein H. Comparison between chondroprotective effects of glucosamine, curcumin, and diacerein in IL-1beta-stimulated C-28/I2 chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2008;16:1205-12. View abstract.
  64. Lin YC, Liang YC, Sheu MT, Lin YC, Hsieh MS, Chen TF, Chen CH. Chondroprotective effects of glucosamine involving the p38 MAPK and Akt signaling pathways. Rheumatol Int 2008;28:1009-16. View abstract.
  65. Scotto d'Abusco A, Politi L, Giordano C, Scandurra R. A peptidyl-glucosamine derivative affects IKKalpha kinase activity in human chondrocytes. Arthritis Res Ther 2010;12:R18. View abstract.
  66. Shikhman AR, Brinson DC, Valbracht J, Lotz MK. Differential metabolic effects of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine in human articular chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2009;17:1022-8. View abstract.
  67. Uitterlinden EJ, Koevoet JL, Verkoelen CF, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Jahr H, Weinans H, Verhaar JA, van Osch GJ. Glucosamine increases hyaluronic acid production in human osteoarthritic synovium explants. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2008;9:120. View abstract.
  68. Hong H, Park YK, Choi MS, Ryu NH, Song DK, Suh SI, Nam KY, Park GY, Jang BC. Differential down-regulation of COX-2 and MMP-13 in human skin fibroblasts by glucosamine-hydrochloride. J Dermatol Sci 2009;56:43-50. View abstract.
  69. Wu YL, Kou YR, Ou HL, Chien HY, Chuang KH, Liu HH, Lee TS, Tsai CY, Lu ML. Glucosamine regulation of LPS-mediated inflammation in human bronchial epithelial cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2010;635(1-3):219-26. View abstract.
  70. Imagawa K, de Andrés MC, Hashimoto K, Pitt D, Itoi E, Goldring MB, Roach HI, Oreffo RO. The epigenetic effect of glucosamine and a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) inhibitor on primary human chondrocytes--implications for osteoarthritis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2011;405:362-7. View abstract.
  71. Yomogida S, Kojima Y, Tsutsumi-Ishii Y, Hua J, Sakamoto K, Nagaoka I. Glucosamine, a naturally occurring amino monosaccharide, suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats. Int J Mol Med 2008;22:317-23. View abstract.
  72. Sakai S, Sugawara T, Kishi T, Yanagimoto K, Hirata T. Effect of glucosamine and related compounds on the degranulation of mast cells and ear swelling induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in mice. Life Sci 2010;86(9-10):337-43. View abstract.
  73. Hwang MS, Baek WK. Glucosamine induces autophagic cell death through the stimulation of ER stress in human glioma cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010;399:111-6. View abstract.
  74. Park JY, Park JW, Suh SI, Baek WK. D-glucosamine down-regulates HIF-1alpha through inhibition of protein translation in DU145 prostate cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2009;382:96-101. View abstract.
  75. Chesnokov V, Sun C, Itakura K. Glucosamine suppresses proliferation of human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells through inhibition of STAT3 signaling. Cancer Cell Int 2009;9:25. View abstract.
  76. Tsai CY, Lee TS, Kou YR, Wu YL. Glucosamine inhibits IL-1beta-mediated IL-8 production in prostate cancer cells by MAPK attenuation. J Cell Biochem 2009;108:489-98. View abstract.
  77. Kim DS, Park KS, Jeong KC, Lee BI, Lee CH, Kim SY. Glucosamine is an effective chemo-sensitizer via transglutaminase 2 inhibition. Cancer Lett 2009;273:243-9. View abstract.
  78. Naito K, Watari T, Furuhata A, Yomogida S, Sakamoto K, Kurosawa H, Kaneko K,Nagaoka I. Evaluation of the effect of glucosamine on an experimental rat osteoarthritis model. Life Sci 2010;86(13-14):538-43. View abstract.
  79. Weiden S and Wood IJ. The fate of glucosamine hydrochloride injected intravenously in man. J Clin Pathol 1958;11:343-349.
  80. Satia JA, Littman A, Slatore CG, Galanko JA, White E. Associations of herbal and specialty supplements with lung and colorectal cancer risk in the VITamins and Lifestyle study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18:1419-28. View abstract.
  81. Audimoolam VK, Bhandari S. Acute interstitial nephritis induced by glucosamine. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006;21:2031. View abstract.
  82. Ossendza RA, Grandval P, Chinoune F, Rocher F, Chapel F, Bernardini D. [Acute cholestatic hepatitis due to glucosamine forte]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2007 Apr;31:449-50. View abstract.
  83. Wu D, Huang Y, Gu Y, Fan W. Efficacies of different preparations of glucosamine for the treatment of osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis of randomised,double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Int J Clin Pract 2013;67:585-94. View abstract.
  84. Provenza JR, Shinjo SK, Silva JM, Peron CR, Rocha FA. Combined glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, once or three times daily, provides clinically relevant analgesia in knee osteoarthritis. Clin Rheumatol 2015;34:1455-62.View abstract.
  85. Kwoh CK, Roemer FW, Hannon MJ, Moore CE, Jakicic JM, Guermazi A, Green SM, Evans RW, Boudreau R. Effect of oral glucosamine on joint structure in individuals with chronic knee pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014 Apr;66:930-9. View abstract.
  86. von Felden J, Montani M, Kessebohm K, Stickel F. Drug-induced acute liver injury mimicking autoimmune hepatitis after intake of dietary supplements containing glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2013;51:219-23. View abstract.
  87. Hochberg MC, Martel-Pelletier J, Monfort J, Möller I, Castillo JR, Arden N,Berenbaum F, Blanco FJ, Conaghan PG, Doménech G, Henrotin Y, Pap T, Richette P, Sawitzke A, du Souich P, Pelletier JP; on behalf of the MOVES Investigation Group. Combined chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine for painful knee osteoarthritis: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial versus celecoxib. Ann Rheum Dis 2016;75:37-44. View abstract.
  88. Cerda C, Bruguera M, Parés A. Hepatotoxicity associated with glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in patients with chronic liver disease. World J Gastroenterol 2013;19:5381-4. View abstract.
  89. Fox BA, Stephens MM. Glucosamine hydrochloride for the treatment of osteoarthritis symptoms. Clin Interv Aging 2007;2:599-604. View abstract.
  90. Vlad, S. C., LaValley, M. P., McAlindon, T. E., and Felson, D. T. Glucosamine for pain in osteoarthritis: why do trial results differ? Arthritis Rheum 2007;56:2267-2277. View abstract.
  91. Reginster, J. Y. The efficacy of glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis: financial and nonfinancial conflict of interest. Arthritis Rheum 2007;56:2105-2110. View abstract.
  92. Frestedt, J. L., Walsh, M., Kuskowski, M. A., and Zenk, J. L. A natural mineral supplement provides relief from knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Nutr J 2008;7:9. View abstract.
  93. Yue, J., Yang, M., Yi, S., Dong, B., Li, W., Yang, Z., Lu, J., Zhang, R., and Yong, J. Chondroitin sulfate and/or glucosamine hydrochloride for Kashin-Beck disease: a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled study. Osteoarthritis.Cartilage. 2012;20:622-629. View abstract.
  94. Kanzaki, N., Saito, K., Maeda, A., Kitagawa, Y., Kiso, Y., Watanabe, K., Tomonaga, A., Nagaoka, I., and Yamaguchi, H. Effect of a dietary supplement containing glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate and quercetin glycosides on symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J.Sci.Food Agric. 3-15-2012;92:862-869. View abstract.
  95. Wandel, S., Juni, P., Tendal, B., Nuesch, E., Villiger, P. M., Welton, N. J., Reichenbach, S., and Trelle, S. Effects of glucosamine, chondroitin, or placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee: network meta-analysis. BMJ 2010;341:c4675. View abstract.
  96. Sawitzke, A. D., Shi, H., Finco, M. F., Dunlop, D. D., Harris, C. L., Singer, N. G., Bradley, J. D., Silver, D., Jackson, C. G., Lane, N. E., Oddis, C. V., Wolfe, F., Lisse, J., Furst, D. E., Bingham, C. O., Reda, D. J., Moskowitz, R. W., Williams, H. J., and Clegg, D. O. Clinical efficacy and safety of glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate, their combination, celecoxib or placebo taken to treat osteoarthritis of the knee: 2-year results from GAIT. Ann.Rheum.Dis. 2010;69:1459-1464. View abstract.
  97. Jackson, C. G., Plaas, A. H., Sandy, J. D., Hua, C., Kim-Rolands, S., Barnhill, J. G., Harris, C. L., and Clegg, D. O. The human pharmacokinetics of oral ingestion of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate taken separately or in combination. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2010;18:297-302. View abstract.
  98. Lee, Y. H., Woo, J. H., Choi, S. J., Ji, J. D., and Song, G. G. Effect of glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate on the osteoarthritis progression: a meta-analysis. Rheumatol Int 2010;30:357-363. View abstract.
  99. Theoharides, T. C., Kempuraj, D., Vakali, S., and Sant, G. R. Treatment of refractory interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome with CystoProtek--an oral multi-agent natural supplement. Can J Urol 2008;15:4410-4414. View abstract.
  100. Dudics, V., Kunstar, A., Kovacs, J., Lakatos, T., Geher, P., Gomor, B., Monostori, E., and Uher, F. Chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: measurements in a microculture system. Cells Tissues.Organs 2009;189:307-316. View abstract.
  101. Cahlin, B. J. and Dahlstrom, L. No effect of glucosamine sulfate on osteoarthritis in the temporomandibular joints--a randomized, controlled, short-term study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011;112:760-766. View abstract.
  102. Shaygannejad, V., Janghorbani, M., Savoj, M. R., and Ashtari, F. Effects of adjunct glucosamine sulfate on relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis progression: preliminary findings of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Neurol Res 2010;32:981-985. View abstract.
  103. Ostojic, S. M., Arsic, M., Prodanovic, S., Vukovic, J., and Zlatanovic, M. Glucosamine administration in athletes: effects on recovery of acute knee injury. Res Sports Med 2007;15:113-124. View abstract.
  104. Rozendaal, R. M., Uitterlinden, E. J., van Osch, G. J., Garling, E. H., Willemsen, S. P., Ginai, A. Z., Verhaar, J. A., Weinans, H., Koes, B. W., and Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M. Effect of glucosamine sulphate on joint space narrowing, pain and function in patients with hip osteoarthritis; subgroup analyses of a randomized controlled trial. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2009;17:427-432. View abstract.
  105. Marti-Bonmati, L., Sanz-Requena, R., Rodrigo, J. L., Alberich-Bayarri, A., and Carot, J. M. Glucosamine sulfate effect on the degenerated patellar cartilage: preliminary findings by pharmacokinetic magnetic resonance modeling. Eur Radiol 2009;19:1512-1518. View abstract.
  106. Rovati LC, Giacovelli G, Annefeld N, and et al. A large, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of glucosamine sulfate vs piroxocam and vs their association on the kinetics of the symptomatic effect in knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarth Cartilage 1994;2(suppl 1):56.
  107. Nandhakumar J. Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of a multicomponent antiinflammatory with glucosamine hydrochloride vs glucosamine sulfate vs an NSAID in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis--a randomized, prospective, double-blind, comparative study. Integr Med Clin J 2009;8:32-38.
  108. Muller-Fassbender, H., Bach, G. L., Haase, W., Rovati, L. C., and Setnikar, I. Glucosamine sulfate compared to ibuprofen in osteoarthritis of the knee. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1994;2:61-69. View abstract.
  109. Towheed, T. E. and Anastassiades, T. P. Glucosamine therapy for osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 1999;26:2294-2297. View abstract.
  110. Zhang, W., Nuki, G., Moskowitz, R. W., Abramson, S., Altman, R. D., Arden, N. K., Bierma-Zeinstra, S., Brandt, K. D., Croft, P., Doherty, M., Dougados, M., Hochberg, M., Hunter, D. J., Kwoh, K., Lohmander, L. S., and Tugwell, P. OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis: part III: Changes in evidence following systematic cumulative update of research published through January 2009. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2010;18:476-499. View abstract.
  111. Petersen, S. G., Beyer, N., Hansen, M., Holm, L., Aagaard, P., Mackey, A. L., and Kjaer, M. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or glucosamine reduced pain and improved muscle strength with resistance training in a randomized controlled trial of knee osteoarthritis patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:1185-1193. View abstract.
  112. Noack, W., Fischer, M., Forster, K. K., Rovati, L. C., and Setnikar, I. Glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis of the knee. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1994;2:51-59. View abstract.
  113. Giordano N, Fioravanti A, Papakostas P, et al. The efficacy and tolerability of glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 2009;70:185-196. View abstract.
  114. Yamamoto, T., Kukuminato, Y., Nui, I., Takada, R., Hirao, M., Kamimura, M., Saitou, H., Asakura, K., and Kataura, A. [Relationship between birch pollen allergy and oral and pharyngeal hypersensitivity to fruit]. Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho 1995;98:1086-1091. View abstract.
  115. Kawasaki T, Kurosawa H, Ikeda H, et al. Additive effects of glucosamine or risedronate for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee combined with home exercise: a prospective randomized 18-month trial. J Bone Miner Metab 2008;26:279-87. View abstract.
  116. Nelson BA, Robinson KA, Buse MG. High glucose and glucosamine induce insulin resistance via different mechanisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Diabetes 2000;49:981-91. View abstract.
  117. Baron AD, Zhu JS, Zhu JH, et al. Glucosamine induces insulin resistance in vivo by affecting GLUT 4 translocation in skeletal muscle. Implications for glucose toxicity. J Clin Invest 1995;96:2792-801. View abstract.
  118. Eggertsen R, Andreasson A, Andren L. No changes of cholesterol levels with a commercially available glucosamine product in patients treated with lipid lowering drugs: a controlled, randomised, open cross-over trial. BMCPharmacol Toxicol 2012;13:10. View abstract.
  119. Liu W, Liu G, Pei F, et al. Kashin-Beck disease in Sichuan, China: report of a pilot open therapeutic trial. J Clin Rheumatol 2012;18:8-14. View abstract.
  120. Nakamura H, Masuko K, Yudoh K, et al. Effects of glucosamine administration on patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int 2007;27:213-8. View abstract.
  121. Bruyere O, Pavelka K, Rovati LC, et al. Total joint replacement after glucosamine sulphate treatment in knee osteoarthritis: results of a mean 8-year observation of patients from two previous 3-year, randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2008;16:254-60. View abstract.
  122. Bijlsma JWJ, Lafeber FPJG. Glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis: The jury is still out. Ann Intern Med 2008;148:315-6. View abstract.
  123. Rozendaal RM, Koes BW, van Osch GJVM, et al. Effect of glucosamine sulfate on hip osteoarthritis: A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2008;148:268-77. View abstract.
  124. Persiani S, Rotini R, Trisolino G, et al. Synovial and plasma glucosamine concentrations in osteoarthritic patients following oral crystalline glucosamine sulphate at therapeutic dose. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2007;15:764-72. View abstract.
  125. Yue QY, Strandell J, Myrberg O. Concomitant use of glucosamine potentiates the effect of warfarin. Jan 2006. Drug Safety 29:911-1010.
  126. Knudsen J, Sokol GH. Potential glucosamine-warfarin interaction resulting in increased international normalized ratio: Case report and review of the literature and MedWatch database. Pharmacotherapy 2008;28:540-8. View abstract.
  127. Muniyappa R, Karne RJ, Hall G, et al. Oral glucosamine for 6 weeks at standard doses does not cause or worsen insulin resistance or endothelial dysfunction in lean or obese subjects. Diabetes 2006;55:3142-50. View abstract.
  128. Tannock LR, Kirk EA, King VL, et al. Glucosamine supplementation accelerates early but not late atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice. J Nutr 2006;136:2856-61. View abstract.
  129. Pham T, Cornea A, Blick KE, et al. Oral glucosamine in doses used to treat osteoarthritis worsens insulin resistance. Am J Med Sci 2007;333:333-9. View abstract.
  130. Messier SP, Mihalko S, Loeser RF, et al. Glucosamine/chondroitin combined with exercise for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a preliminary study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2007;15:1256-66. View abstract.
  131. Stumpf JL, Lin SW. Effect of glucosamine on glucose control. Ann Pharmacother 2006;40:694-8. View abstract.
  132. Bush TM, Rayburn KS, Holloway SW, et al. Adverse interactions between herbal and dietary substances and prescription medications: a clinical survey. Altern Ther Health Med 2007;13:30-5. View abstract.
  133. Towheed TE, Maxwell L, Anastassiades TP, et al. Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;:CD002946. View abstract.
  134. Poolsup N, Suthisisang C, Channark P, Kittikulsuth W. Glucosamine long-term treatment and the progression of knee osteoarthritis: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Ann Pharmacother 2005;39:1080-7. View abstract.
  135. Qiu GX, Weng XS, Zhang K, et al. [A multi-central, randomized, controlled clinical trial of glucosamine hydrochloride/sulfate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2005;85:3067-70. View abstract.
  136. Clegg DO, Reda DJ, Harris CL, et al. Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis. N Engl J Med 2006;354:795-808. View abstract.
  137. Herrero-Beaumont G, Ivorra JA, Del Carmen Trabado M, et al. Glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using acetaminophen as a side comparator. Arthritis Rheum 2007;56:555-67. View abstract.
  138. Theodosakis J. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial of a topical cream containing glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and camphor for osteoarthritis of the knee. J Rheumatol 2004;31:826. View abstract.
  139. Zhang W, Doherty M, Arden N, et al. EULAR evidence based recommendations for the management of hip osteoarthritis: report of a task force of the EULAR Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis 2005;64:669-81. View abstract.
  140. Towheed TE, Anastassiades TP, Shea B, et al. Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;1:CD002946. View abstract.
  141. McAlindon T. Why are clinical trials of glucosamine no longer uniformly positive? Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2003;29:789-801. View abstract.
  142. Cibere J, Kopec JA, Thorne A, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled glucosamine discontinuation trial in knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2004;51:738-45. View abstract.
  143. McAlindon T, Formica M, LaValley M, et al. Effectiveness of glucosamine for symptoms of knee osteoarthritis: results from an internet-based randomized double-blind controlled trial. Am J Med 2004;117:643-9. View abstract.
  144. Bruyere O, Pavelka K, Rovati LC, et al. Glucosamine sulfate reduces osteoarthritis progression in postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis: evidence from two 3-year studies. Menopause 2004;11:138-43. View abstract.
  145. Gray HC, Hutcheson PS, Slavin RG. Is glucosamine safe in patients with seafood allergy (letter)? J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114:459-60. View abstract.
  146. Tannis AJ, Barban J, Conquer JA. Effect of glucosamine supplementation on fasting and non-fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations in healthy individuals. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004;12:506-11. View abstract.
  147. Weimann G, Lubenow N, Selleng K, et al. Glucosamine sulfate does not crossreact with the antibodies of patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Eur J Haematol 2001;66:195-9. View abstract.
  148. Hughes R, Carr A. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of glucosamine sulphate as an analgesic in osteoarthritis of the knee. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2002;41:279-84. . View abstract.
  149. Rozenfeld V, Crain JL, Callahan AK. Possible augmentation of warfarin effect by glucosamine-chondroitin. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2004;61:306-307. View abstract.
  150. Towheed TE. Current status of glucosamine therapy in osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2003;49:601-4. View abstract.
  151. Guillaume MP, Peretz A. Possible association between glucosamine treatment and renal toxicity: comment on the letter by Danao-Camara. Arthritis Rheum 2001;44:2943-4. View abstract.
  152. Danao-Camara T. Potential side effects of treatment with glucosamine and chondroitin. Arthritis Rheum 2000;43:2853. View abstract.
  153. Cohen M, Wolfe R, Mai T, Lewis D. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial of a topical cream containing glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and camphor for osteoarthritis of the knee. J Rheumatol 2003;30:523-8.. View abstract.
  154. Yu JG, Boies SM, Olefsky JM. The effect of oral glucosamine sulfate on insulin sensitivity in human subjects. Diabetes Care 2003;26:1941-2. View abstract.
  155. Setnikar I, Rovati LC. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of glucosamine sulfate. A review. Arzneimittelforschung 2001;51:699-725. View abstract.
  156. Hoffer LJ, Kaplan LN, Hamadeh MJ, et al. Sulfate could mediate the therapeutic effect of glucosamine sulfate. Metabolism 2001;50:767-70.. View abstract.
  157. Braham R, Dawson B, Goodman C. The effect of glucosamine supplementation on people experiencing regular knee pain. Br J Sports Med 2003;37:45-9. View abstract.
  158. Scroggie DA, Albright A, Harris MD. The effect of glucosamine-chondroitin supplementation on glycosylated hemoglobin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:1587-90. View abstract.
  159. Richy F, Bruyere O, Ethgen O, et al. Structural and symptomatic efficacy of glucosamine and chondroitin in knee osteoarthritis: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:1514-22. View abstract.
  160. Salvatore S, Heuschkel R, Tomlin S, et al. A pilot study of N-acetyl glucosamine, a nutritional substrate for glycosaminoglycan synthesis, in paediatric chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000;14:1567-79.. View abstract.
  161. Tallia AF, Cardone DA. Asthma exacerbation associated with glucosamine-chondroitin supplement. J Am Board Fam Pract 2002;15:481-4.. View abstract.
  162. Tiku ML, Narla H, Karry SK, et al. Glucosamine Inhibits Advanced Lipoxidation Reaction and Chemical Modification of Lipoproteins by Scavenging Reactive Carbonyl Intermediates. American College of Rheumatology Meeting; October 25-29, 2002. Abstract 11.
  163. Alvarez-Soria MA, Largo R, Diez-Ortego E, et al. Glucosamine Inhibits IL-1ß-induced NF-kappa B Activation in Human Osteoarthritic chondrocytes. American College of Rheumatology Meeting; October 25-29, 2002. Abstract 118.
  164. Ganu VA, Hu SI, Strassman J, et al. Inhibitors of N-glycosylation Reduce Cytokine-induced Production of Matrix Metalloproteinases, Nitric oxide, and PGE2 from Articular Chondrocytes: A Candidate Mechanism for the Chondroprotective Effects of d-Glucosamine. American College of Rheumatology Meeting; October 25-29, 2002. Abstract 616.
  165. Du XL, Edelstein D, Dimmeler S, et al. Hyperglycemia inhibits endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity by post-translational modification at the Akt site. J Clin Invest 2001;108:1341-8. View abstract.
  166. Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Olejarova M, et al. Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of knee osteoarthritis: A 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:2113-23. View abstract.
  167. Adebowale AO, Cox DS, Liang Z, et al. Analysis of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate content in marketed products and the Caco-2 permeability of chondroitin sulfate raw materials. JANA 2000;3:37-44.
  168. Bagasra O, Whittle P, Heins B, Pomerantz RJ. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity of sulfated monosaccharides: comparison with sulfated polysaccharides and other polyions. J Infect Dis 1991;164:1082-90. View abstract.
  169. Nowak A, Szczesniak L, Rychlewski T, et al. Glucosamine levels in people with ischaemic heart disease with and without type II diabetes. Pol Arch Med Wewn 1998;100:419-25. View abstract.
  170. Olszewski AJ, Szostak WB, McCully KS. Plasma glucosamine and galactosamine in ischemic heart disease. Atherosclerosis 1990;82:75-83. View abstract.
  171. Yun J, Tomida A, Nagata K, Tsuruo T. Glucose-regulated stresses confer resistance to VP-16 in human cancer cells through a decreased expression of DNA topoisomerase II. Oncol Res 1995;7:583-90. View abstract.
  172. Pouwels MJ, Jacobs JR, Span PN, et al. Short-term glucosamine infusion does not affect insulin sensitivity in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:2099-103. View abstract.
  173. Monauni T, Zenti MG, Cretti A, et al. Effects of glucosamine infusion on insulin secretion and insulin action in humans. Diabetes 2000;49:926-35. View abstract.
  174. Das A Jr, Hammad TA. Efficacy of a combination of FCHG49 glucosamine hydrochloride, TRH122 low molecular weight sodium chondroitin sulfate and manganese ascorbate in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2000;8:343-50. View abstract.
  175. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. Available at: www.nap.edu/books/0309072794/html/.
  176. Does glucosamine increase serum lipid levels and blood pressure? Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter 2001;17:171115.
  177. Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Rovati LC, et al. Long-term effects of glucosamine sulfate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;357:251-6. View abstract.
  178. Almada A, Harvey P, Platt K. Effects of chronic oral glucosamine sulfate on fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) in non-diabetic individuals. FASEB J 2000;14:A750.
  179. Leffler CT, Philippi AF, Leffler SG, et al. Glucosamine, chondroitin, and manganese ascorbate for degenerative joint disease of the knee or low back: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Mil Med 1999;164:85-91. View abstract.
  180. Thie NM, Prasad NG, Major PW. Evaluation of glucosamine sulfate compared to ibuprofen for the treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis: a randomized double blind controlled 3 month clinical trial. J Rheumatol 2001;28:1347-55. View abstract.
  181. Shankar RR, Zhu JS, Baron AD. Glucosamine infusion in rats mimics the beta-cell dysfunction of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 1998;47:573-7. View abstract.
  182. Rossetti L, Hawkins M, Chen W, et al. In vivo glucosamine infusion induces insulin resistance in normoglycemic but not in hyperglycemic conscious rats. J Clin Invest 1995;96:132-40. View abstract.
  183. Burton AF, Anderson FH. Decreased incorporation of 14C-glucosamine relative to 3H-N-acetyl glucosamine in the intestinal mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1983;78:19-22. View abstract.
  184. Barclay TS, Tsourounis C, McCart GM. Glucosamine. Ann Pharmacother 1998;32:574-9. View abstract.
  185. Setnikar I, Palumbo R, Canali S, et al. Pharmacokinetics of glucosamine in man. Arzneimittelforschung 1993;43:1109-13. View abstract.
  186. Forster K, Schmid K, Rovati L, et al. Longer-term treatment of mild-to-moderate osteoarthritis of the knee with glucosamine sulfate- a randomized controlled, double-blind clinical study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1996;50:542.
  187. Reichelt A. Efficacy and safety of intramuscular glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis of the knee. A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arzneimittelforschung 1994;44:75-80. View abstract.
  188. Qiu GX, Gao SN, Giacovelli G, et al. Efficacy and safety of glucosamine sulfate versus ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Arzneimittelforschung 1998;48:469-74. View abstract.
  189. Pujalte JM, Llavore EP, Ylescupidez FR. Double-blind clinical evaluation of oral glucosamine sulphate in the basic treatment of osteoarthrosis. Curr Med Res Opin 1980;7:110-4. View abstract.
  190. Lopes Vaz A. Double-blind, clinical evaluation of the relative efficacy of ibuprofen and glucosamine sulphate in the management of osteoarthrosis of the knee in out-patients. Curr Med Res Opin 1982;8:145-9. View abstract.
  191. da Camara CC, Dowless GV. Glucosamine sulfate for osteoarthritis. Ann Pharmacother 1998;32:580-7. View abstract.
  192. Drovanti A, Bignamini AA, Rovati AL. Therapeutic activity of oral glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthrosis: a placebo-controlled double-blind investigation. Clin Ther 1980;3:260-72. View abstract.
  193. McAlindon TE, LaValley MP, Gulin JP, Felson DT. Glucosamine and chondroitin for treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic quality assessment and meta-analysis. JAMA 2000;283:1469-75. View abstract.
  194. Houpt JB, McMillan R, Wein C, Paget-Dellio SD. Effect of glucosamine hydrochloride in the treatment of pain of osteoarthritis of the knee. J Rheumatol 1999;26:2423-30. View abstract.
  195. Rindone JP, Hiller D, Collacott E, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of glucosamine for treating osteoarthritis of the knee. West J Med 2000;172:91-4. View abstract.
  196. Foerster KK, Schmid K, Rovati LC. Efficacy of glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis of the lumbar spine: a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study. Am Coll Rheumatol 64th Ann Scientific Mtg, Philadelphia, PA: 2000;Oct 29- Nov 2:abstract 1613.
  197. Kim YB, Zhu JS, Zierath JR, et al. Glucosamine infusion in rats rapidly impairs insulin stimulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase but does not alter activation of Akt/protein kinase B in skeletal muscle. Diabetes 1999;48:310-20. View abstract.
  198. Holmang A, Nilsson C, Niklasson M, et al. Induction of insulin resistance by glucosamine reduces blood flow but not interstitial levels of either glucose or insulin. Diabetes 1999;48:106-11. View abstract.
  199. Giaccari A, Morviducci L, Zorretta D, et al. In vivo effects of glucosamine on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in the rat: possible relevance to the maladaptive responses to chronic hyperglycaemia. Diabetologia 1995;38:518-24. View abstract.
  200. Balkan B, Dunning BE. Glucosamine inhibits glucokinase in vitro and produces a glucose-specific impairment of in vivo insulin secretion in rats. Diabetes 1994;43:1173-9. View abstract.
  201. Adams ME. Hype about glucosamine. Lancet 1999;354:353-4. View abstract.
Last reviewed - 01/25/2022