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Uva

¿Qué es?

Las uvas son los frutos de una vid (Vitis vinifera). La fruta entera, la piel, las hojas y la semilla de la planta de uva se utilizan como medicina. Las semillas de la uva son subproductos de la elaboración del vino.

La uva se usa para prevenir las enfermedades del corazón y los vasos sanguíneos, para las venas varicosas, las hemorroides, el “endurecimiento de las arterias” (arterioesclerosis), para la presión arterial alta, para la hinchazón que ocurre después de una lesión o cirugía, para la prevención de un ataque al corazón y de un derrame cerebral.

Algunas personas también usan la uva como un laxante suave para el estreñimiento. Usted probablemente ha oído hablar de “ayunos” de uvas como parte de una “desintoxicación.”

La semilla de uva se utiliza para el tratamiento de las complicaciones de la diabetes tales como los problemas oculares y de los nervios. También se usa para mejorar la cicatrización de las heridas, para prevenir las caries dentales, el cáncer y la enfermedad ocular llamada degeneración macular senil (DMS). Se usa también en los casos de mala visión nocturna, para los trastornos hepáticos y la fiebre de heno.

Las uvas secas, pasas o sultanas (pasas blancas) se usan para la tos.

La hoja de uva se utiliza para el trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH), para el síndrome de fatiga crónica (SFC), para la diarrea, para un sangrado menstrual abundante y para las aftas.

La hoja de uva se usa como un alimento, en especial en la cocina Griega.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • Mala circulación que puede causar inflamación en las piernas. La ingesta de extracto de semilla de uva parece reducir síntomas de la insuficiencia venosa crónica como el cansancio o pesadez de las piernas y el cosquilleo y el dolor. La vestigación sugiere que la ingesta de un extracto específico de hojas de uva (AS 195, Antistax, Boehringer Ingelheim) disminuye la inflamación en las piernas después de seis semanas.
  • Estrés visual. La ingesta de extracto de semilla de uva podría disminuir el estrés visual causado por sensibilidad al resplandor.

Posiblemente ineficaz para...

  • Fiebre de heno. La ingesta de un extracto de semilla de uva durante ocho semanas antes de la estación del polen de la ambrosia disminuye los síntomas de la alergia o la necesidad de usar antialérgicos.
  • Endurecimiento y dolor de los tejidos causados por la radiación. La investigación muestra que la ingesta de proantocianidina, un químico presente en el extracto de la semilla de uva, tres veces por día durante seis meses no disminuye el endurecimiento, dolor o molestia del tejido mamaria en personas tratadas con radioterapia por cáncer de mama.
  • Náuseas y vómitos causados por quimioterapia. La evidencia muestra que la ingesta de cuatro onzas de jugo de uva Concord frio 30 minutos antes de las comidas durante una semana por cada ciclo de quimioterapia no parece reducir las náuseas o vómitos causados por quimioterapia.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • Rendimiento atlético. La evidencia preliminar muestra que la ingesta diaria de 400 mg de extracto de uva durante un mes podría aumentar la potencia general del atleta durante el salto, pero no la potencia o el mantenimiento de esa potencia.
  • Cardiopatías. Hay algunas pruebas preliminares de que la ingesta de jugo de uva o vino tinto podría ayudar a prevenir las enfermedades del corazón.
  • Daño ocular causado por diabetes (retinopatía diabética). La evidencia preliminar sugiere que la ingesta de un producto específico de extracto de semilla de uva (Endotelon) puede disminuir el progreso del daño ocular causado por la diabetes.
  • Colesterol alto. Cierta investigación muestra que la ingesta diaria de 1oo mg de extracto de semilla de uva durante un máximo de dos meses no disminuye los niveles de colesterol en personas con niveles altos de colesterol. Sin embargo, otra investigación muestra que el extracto de semilla de uva podría disminuir los niveles de colesterol cuando se lo ingiere junto con otros ingredientes, incluidos cromo o policosanol, extracto de tomate y aceite de onagra.
  • Hipertensión arterial. La investigación sugiere que el extracto de semilla de uva no reduce la hipertensión arterial en personas sanas o con hipertensión arterial. Sin embargo en hombres con el síndrome metabólico, un conjunto de condiciones que aumentan el riesgo de sufrir cardiopatia, la ingesta de uvas enteras deshidratadas y liofilizadas parece disminuir la hipertensión arterial. Además, ciertas estudios sugieren que la ingesta de un jugo de uva puede disminuir la presión arterial en personas con hipertensión arterial; sin embargo, otra investigación muestra que el jugo de uva no muestra tal efecto.
  • Pigmentación oscura de la piel (melasma). La investigación preliminar sugiere que la ingesta de extracto de semilla de uva durante 6-11 meses reduce la pigmentación de la piel en mujeres japonesas.
  • Deterioro mental relacionado con el envejecimiento. La investigación preliminar sugiere que la ingesta diaria de jugo de uva Concord durante 12 semanas puede mejorar el aprendizaje verbal, pero no mejora la memoria en personas con deterioro mental relacionado con el envejecimiento.
  • Síndrome metabólico. La investigación preliminar sugiere que las uvas enteras podrían mejorar algunos de los factores de riesgo asociados con el síndrome metabólico, un conjunto de condiciones que aumentan el riesgo de cardiopatia en los hombres. La ingesta de uvas enteras deshidratadas y liofilizadas durante 30 días disminuye la presión arterial y aumenta el flujo sanguíneo. Sin embargo, se desconoce si estos cambios disminuyen el riesgo de diabetes u otros aspectos del síndrome metabólico. Además, la evidencia preliminar muestra que la ingesta de un producto específico que contiene extracto de semilla de uva (Meganatural BP) durante cuatro semanas no disminuye la presión arterial en personas con síndrome metabólico.
  • Mala visión nocturna. La evidencia preliminar sugiere que el extracto de semilla de uva que contiene químicos llamados proantocianidinas podría mejorar la visión nocturna.
  • Enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólica. La investigación muestra que la ingesta dos veces por día de un extracto de semilla de uva durante tres meses mejora algunos pero no todos los marcadores de daño hepático en comparación con la enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólico.
  • Síndrome premenstrual (SPM). La evidencia preliminar sugiere que la ingesta de un producto específico de extracto de semilla de uva (Endotelon) podría disminuir los síntomas de PMS, incluidos el dolor y la inflamación.
  • Hemorroides.
  • Eestreñimiento.
  • Tos.
  • La tos.
  • Trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH).
  • Síndrome de fatiga crónica (SFC).
  • Diarrea.
  • Períodos menstruates abundantes.
  • Degeneración macular senil (DMS).
  • Aftas.
  • Daño hepático.
  • Colesterol alto.
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesita más evidencia para poder aprobar la uva para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

La uva contiene flavonoides, los que pueden tener efectos antioxidantes, pueden bajar el nivel de las lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDLs, o “colesterol malo”), relajar los vasos sanguíneos y disminuir el riesgo de enfermedades coronarias. Los antioxidantes en la uva podrían ayudar a prevenir las enfermedades del corazón y posiblemente podrían tener otros efectos beneficiosos. Las variedades de uva negra proporcionan más antioxidantes que las variedades blancas o rosadas.

La hoja de uva podría reducir la inflamación y tener efectos astringentes. En otras palabras, la hoja de uva parece ser capaz de juntar los tejidos lo que podría ayudar a parar la pérdida de sangre y la diarrea. Estos efectos parecen ser mayores en las hojas de la uva negra.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

La uva es PROBABLEMENTE SEGURA cuando se la ingiere en cantidades que comúnmente se encuentran en los alimentos.

La uva es POSIBLEMENTE SEGURA cuando se lo ingiere por vía oral en cantidades presentes en los alimentos. Se ha informado un uso seguro de los extractos de semilla de uva durante 14 semanas en investigaciones realizadas. La ingesta de grandes cantidades de uvas, uvas secas, pasas de uva o pasas de uva doradas podrían causar diarrea. SE han informado casos de reacciones alérgicas a las uvas o productos a base de uva. Algunos otros posibles efectos secundarios incluyen molestia estomacal, indigestión, nausea, vómitos, tos, boca seca, infecciones, dolor de cabeza y problemas musculares.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: No se tiene suficiente información sobre el uso de la uva en cantidades medicinales (suplementos o cantidades mayores que las que hay en los alimentos) durante el embarazo y la lactancia. Sea precavida y evite su uso.

Trastornos hemorrágicos: La uva podría disminuir la coagulación de la sangre. La ingesta de uva podría incrementar el riesgo de sufrir hematomas y hemorragia en personas con trastornos hemorrágicos. No obstante, no existe evidencia de que esto suceda en seres humanos.

Cirugía: La uva podría disminuir la coagulación de la sangre. Podría causar hemorragia durante y después de una cirugía. Suspenda la ingesta de cantidades medicinales de uva al menos dos semanas antes de una cirugía programada.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

Moderadas
Tenga cuidado con esta combinación
Fenacetina
El cuerpo descompone la fenacetina para eliminarla. El tomar jugo de uva podría aumentar la rapidez con que el cuerpo descompone la fenacetina. El tomar fenacetina junto con jugo de uva podría disminuir la eficacia de la fenacetina.
Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del Citocromo P450 1A2 (CYP1A2))
Algunos medicamentos son modificados y descompuestos por el hígado. El jugo de uva podría aumentar la rapidez con que el hígado descompone algunos de los medicamentos. El tomar uva junto con algunos medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado podría disminuir la eficacia de esos medicamentos. Antes de tomar uva converse con su proveedor de atención médica si va a tomar medicamentos que pueden ser modificados por el hígado.

Algunos de los medicamentos que son alterados por el hígado incluyen amitriptilina (Elavil), cafeina, clordiazepóxido (Librium), clomipramina (Anafranil), clopidogrel (Plavix), clozapina (Clozaril), ciclobenzaprina (Flexaril), desipramina (Norpramin), diazepam (Valium), estradiol (Estrace y otros), flutamida (Eulexin), fluvoxamina (Luvox), grepafloxacina (Raxar), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramina (Tofranil), mexiletina (Mexitil), mirtazapina (Remeron), naproxeno (Naprosyn), nortriptilina (Pamelor), olanzapina (Zyprexa), ondansetron (Zofran), propafenona (Rythmol), propranolol (Inderal), riluzol (Rilutek), ropinirola (Requip), ropivacaina (Naropin), tacrina (Cognex), teofilina (Theo-Dur, others), verapamil (Calan, Covera-HS y otros), warfarina (Coumadin) y zileutono (Zyflo).
Medicamentos que disminuyen la coagulación de la sangre (Anticoagulantes / Antiplaquetarios)
La uva podría disminuir la coagulación de la sangre. La ingesta de uva junto con otros medicamentos que también disminuyen la coagulación podría reducir la probabilidad de sufrir hematomas y hemorragia.

Algunos medicamentos que disminuyen la coagulación de la sangre incluyen aspirina, clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparina (Fragmin), enoxaparina (Lovenox), heparina, indometacina (Indocin), ticlopidina (Ticlid), warfarina (Coumadin) entre otros.
Warfarina (Coumadin)
La warfarina (Coumadin) se usa para retardar la coagulación sanguínea. La semilla de uva también podría retardar la coagulación sanguínea. El tomar semilla de uva junto con warfarina podría aumentar las posibilidades de tener hematomas y pérdida de sangre. Asegúrese de controlar su sangre periódicamente. Puede ser necesario cambiar su dosis de warfarina.
Menores
Preste atención a esta combinación
Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del Citocromo P450 2C9 [CYP2C9])
Algunos medicamentos son alterados y descompuestos por el hígado. La uva podría disminuir la velocidad con la que hígado descompone ciertos medicamentos. La ingesta de uva junto con algunos medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado podría aumentar los efectos y los efectos secundarios de estos medicamentos. Antes de ingerir uva, consulte con su proveedor de salud si toma medicamentos que son alterados por el hígado.

Algunos de estos medicamentos modificados por el hígado incluyen amitriptilina (Elavil), diazepam (Valium), zileuton (Zyflo), celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Voltaren), fluvastatina (Lescol), glipizida (Glucotrol), ibuprofeno (Advil, Motrin), irbesartán (Avapro), losartán (Cozaar), fenitoína (Dilantin), piroxicam (Feldene), tamoxifeno (Nolvadex), tolbutamida (Tolinase), torsemida (Demadex), warfarina (Coumadin) y otros).
Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del Citocromo P450 3A4 (CYP3A4))
Algunos medicamentos son alterados y descompuestos por el hígado. La uva podría disminuir la velocidad con la que hígado descompone ciertos medicamentos. La ingesta de uva junto con algunos medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado podría aumentar los efectos y los efectos secundarios de estos medicamentos. Antes de ingerir uva, consulte con su proveedor de salud si toma medicamentos que son alterados por el hígado.

Algunos de los medicamentos alterados por el hígado incluyen lovastatina (Mevacor), ketoconazol (Nizoral), itraconazol (Sporanox), fexofenadina (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion) y muchos otros. Usar con precaución el aceite de eucalipto o evitarlo en pacientes que ingieren estos medicamentos.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

Lactobacilo acidófilo
La uva podría retardar o parar el crecimiento del lactobacilo acidófilo en el tracto intestinal y eliminar sus efectos. No tome uva y lactobacilo al mismo tiempo.
Vitamina C
Investigaciones preliminares sugieren que a las personas que ya tienen la presión arterial alta y que toman 500 mg/día de vitamina C más 1000 mg/día de polifenoles de semillas de uva les sube la presión arterial en forma significativa. El aumento se ve tanto en el número de arriba (sistólico) como en el número de abajo (diastólico). Los investigadores todavía no saben porque pasa esto.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

La siguiente dosis se ha estudiado en investigaciones científicas:

POR VÍA ORAL:
  • Para un bajo flujo de sangre en las piernas (insuficiencia venosa crónica):
    • Se usa 360 mg o 720 mg una vez al día del extracto estandarizado AS 195 de uva de vid negra (Antistat, Boehringer Ingelheim).
    • Se usan tabletas o cápsulas de extracto de semilla de uva en dosis de 75-300 mg diarios por tres semanas y se sigue con una dosis de mantenimiento de 40-80 mg diarios.
    • Se usan dosis de 150-300 mg por día de proantocianidina del extracto de semillas de uva.
  • Para disminuir el estrés ocular debido a los reflejos: se usan dosis de 200-300 mg por día de proantocianidina del extracto de semillas de uva.

Otros nombres

Activin, Black Grape Raisins, Calzin, Draksha, Enocianina, European Wine Grape, Extrait de Feuille de Raisin, Extrait de Feuille de Vigne Rouge, Extrait de Peau de Raisin, Extrait de Pepins de Raisin, Feuille de Raisin, Feuille de Vigne Rouge, Feuille de Vigne Rouge AS 195, Flame Grape, Flame Raisins, Flame Seedless, Folia Vitis Viniferae, Grape Fruit, Grape Fruit Skin, Grape Juice, Grape Leaf, Grape Leaf Extract, Grape Seed, Grape Seed Extract, Grape Seed Oil, Grape Skin, Grape Skin Extract, Grapes, Grapeseed, Huile de Pépins de Raisin, Kali Draksha, Leucoanthocyanin, Muscat, Muskat, Oligomères Procyanidoliques, Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins, Oligomeric Procyanidins, OPC, OPCs, PCO, PCOs, Peau de Raisin, Pépin de Raisin, Petite Sirah, Proanthocyanidines Oligomériques, Proanthodyn, Proanthodyne, Procyanidines Oligomériques, Procyanidolic Oligomers, Purple Grape, Raisin, Raisin Blanc, Raisin de Table, Raisin de Vigne, Raisins, Raisins Noirs, Red Globe, Red Grape, Red Malaga, Red Vine Leaf AS 195, Red Vine Leaf Extract, Sultanas, Table Grapes, Thompson Seedless, Vitis vinifera, White Grape, Wine Grape, Wine Grapes.

Metodología

Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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  138. Dohadwala, M. M., Hamburg, N. M., Holbrook, M., Kim, B. H., Duess, M. A., Levit, A., Titas, M., Chung, W. B., Vincent, F. B., Caiano, T. L., Frame, A. A., Keaney, J. F., Jr., and Vita, J. A. Effects of Concord grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension. Am J Clin.Nutr. 2010;92:1052-1059. View abstract.
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  144. Zhang, F. J., Yang, J. Y., Mou, Y. H., Sun, B. S., Wang, J. M., and Wu, C. F. Oligomer procyanidins from grape seeds induce a paraptosis-like programmed cell death in human glioblastoma U-87 cells. Pharm Biol. 2010;48:883-890. View abstract.
  145. Janle, E. M., Lila, M. A., Grannan, M., Wood, L., Higgins, A., Yousef, G. G., Rogers, R. B., Kim, H., Jackson, G. S., Ho, L., and Weaver, C. M. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of 14C-labeled grape polyphenols in the periphery and the central nervous system following oral administration. J Med Food 2010;13:926-933. View abstract.
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  150. Feng, Z., Wei, R. B., Hong, Q., Cui, S. Y., and Chen, X. M. Grape seed extract enhances eNOS expression and NO production through regulating calcium-mediated AKT phosphorylation in H2O2-treated endothelium. Cell Biol.Int. 2010;34:1055-1061. View abstract.
  151. Kim, S. J., Lee, Y. H., Han, M. D., Mar, W., Kim, W. K., and Nam, K. W. Resveratrol, purified from the stem of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat, inhibits food intake in C57BL/6J Mice. Arch.Pharm Res 2010;33:775-780. View abstract.
  152. Uchino, R., Madhyastha, R., Madhyastha, H., Dhungana, S., Nakajima, Y., Omura, S., and Maruyama, M. NFkappaB-dependent regulation of urokinase plasminogen activator by proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract: effect on invasion by prostate cancer cells. Blood Coagul.Fibrinolysis 2010;21:528-533. View abstract.
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  154. Weekes, L. N., Walsh, D., Ferguson, H., and Ross, C. F. Impact of Multicolored Asian Lady Beetles on the sensory properties of Concord and Niagara grape juice. J Food Sci. 2010;75:S68-S73. View abstract.
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  158. Chuang, C. C., Bumrungpert, A., Kennedy, A., Overman, A., West, T., Dawson, B., and McIntosh, M. K. Grape powder extract attenuates tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in primary cultures of human adipocytes. J Nutr.Biochem. 2011;22:89-94. View abstract.
  159. Argarate, N., Arestin, M., Ramon-Azcon, J., Alfaro, B., Barranco, A., Sanchez-Baeza, F., and Marco, M. P. Evaluation of immunoassays as an alternative for the rapid determination of pesticides in wine and grape samples. J AOAC Int. 2010;93:2-11. View abstract.
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  161. Patil, J. A., Patil, A. J., Sontakke, A. V., and Govindwar, S. P. Occupational pesticides exposure of sprayers of grape gardens in western Maharashtra (India): effects on liver and kidney function. J Basic Clin.Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;20:335-355. View abstract.
  162. Ingersoll, G. L., Wasilewski, A., Haller, M., Pandya, K., Bennett, J., He, H., Hoffmire, C., and Berry, C. Effect of concord grape juice on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: results of a pilot study. Oncol.Nurs.Forum 2010;37:213-221. View abstract.
  163. Hashemi, M., Kelishadi, R., Hashemipour, M., Zakerameli, A., Khavarian, N., Ghatrehsamani, S., and Poursafa, P. Acute and long-term effects of grape and pomegranate juice consumption on vascular reactivity in paediatric metabolic syndrome. Cardiol Young. 2010;20:73-77. View abstract.
  164. Song, X., Siriwardhana, N., Rathore, K., Lin, D., and Wang, H. C. Grape seed proanthocyanidin suppression of breast cell carcinogenesis induced by chronic exposure to combined 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and benzo[a]pyrene. Mol.Carcinog. 2010;49:450-463. View abstract.
  165. Matias, A. A., Serra, A. T., Silva, A. C., Perdigao, R., Ferreira, T. B., Marcelino, I., Silva, S., Coelho, A. V., Alves, P. M., and Duarte, C. M. Portuguese winemaking residues as a potential source of natural anti-adenoviral agents. Int.J Food Sci.Nutr. 2010;61:357-368. View abstract.
  166. Overman, A., Bumrungpert, A., Kennedy, A., Martinez, K., Chuang, C. C., West, T., Dawson, B., Jia, W., and McIntosh, M. Polyphenol-rich grape powder extract (GPE) attenuates inflammation in human macrophages and in human adipocytes exposed to macrophage-conditioned media. Int.J Obes.(Lond) 2010;34:800-808. View abstract.
  167. Kamiyama, M., Kishimoto, Y., Tani, M., Andoh, K., Utsunomiya, K., and Kondo, K. Inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation by Nagano purple grape (Vitis viniferaxVitis labrusca). J Nutr.Sci.Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2009;55:471-478. View abstract.
  168. Cai, H., Marczylo, T. H., Teller, N., Brown, K., Steward, W. P., Marko, D., and Gescher, A. J. Anthocyanin-rich red grape extract impedes adenoma development in the Apc(Min) mouse: pharmacodynamic changes and anthocyanin levels in the murine biophase. Eur.J Cancer 2010;46:811-817. View abstract.
  169. Yun, J. W., Lee, W. S., Kim, M. J., Lu, J. N., Kang, M. H., Kim, H. G., Kim, D. C., Choi, E. J., Choi, J. Y., Kim, H. G., Lee, Y. K., Ryu, C. H., Kim, G., Choi, Y. H., Park, O. J., and Shin, S. C. Characterization of a profile of the anthocyanins isolated from Vitis coignetiae Pulliat and their anti-invasive activity on HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:903-909. View abstract.
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  171. Krikorian, R., Nash, T. A., Shidler, M. D., Shukitt-Hale, B., and Joseph, J. A. Concord grape juice supplementation improves memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Br J Nutr. 2010;103:730-734. View abstract.
  172. van Dorsten, F. A., Grun, C. H., van Velzen, E. J., Jacobs, D. M., Draijer, R., and van Duynhoven, J. P. The metabolic fate of red wine and grape juice polyphenols in humans assessed by metabolomics. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2010;54:897-908. View abstract.
  173. Di, Cagno R., Mazzacane, F., Rizzello, C. G., De, Angelis M., Giuliani, G., Meloni, M., De, Servi B., and Gobbetti, M. Synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by Lactobacillus plantarum DSM19463: functional grape must beverage and dermatological applications. Appl.Microbiol.Biotechnol. 2010;86:731-741. View abstract.
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  175. La, V. D., Bergeron, C., Gafner, S., and Grenier, D. Grape seed extract suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion by macrophages and inhibits human MMP-1 and -9 activities. J Periodontol. 2009;80:1875-1882. View abstract.
  176. Shin, D. Y., Lee, W. S., Kim, S. H., Kim, M. J., Yun, J. W., Lu, J. N., Lee, S. J., Tsoy, I., Kim, H. J., Ryu, C. H., Kim, G. Y., Kang, H. S., Shin, S. C., and Choi, Y. H. Anti-invasive activity of anthocyanins isolated from Vitis coignetiae in human hepatocarcinoma cells. J Med Food 2009;12:967-972. View abstract.
  177. Kim, E. J., Park, H., Park, S. Y., Jun, J. G., and Park, J. H. The grape component piceatannol induces apoptosis in DU145 human prostate cancer cells via the activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. J Med Food 2009;12:943-951. View abstract.
  178. Kidd, P. M. Bioavailability and activity of phytosome complexes from botanical polyphenols: the silymarin, curcumin, green tea, and grape seed extracts. Altern.Med.Rev. 2009;14:226-246. View abstract.
  179. Hsu, Y. L., Liang, H. L., Hung, C. H., and Kuo, P. L. Syringetin, a flavonoid derivative in grape and wine, induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2009;53:1452-1461. View abstract.
  180. Xu, Y., Khaoustov, V. I., Wang, H., Yu, J., Tabassam, F., and Yoffe, B. Freeze-dried grape powder attenuates mitochondria- and oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in liver cells. J Agric.Food Chem 10-14-2009;57:9324-9331. View abstract.
  181. Park, Y. K., Lee, S. H., Park, E., Kim, J. S., and Kang, M. H. Changes in antioxidant status, blood pressure, and lymphocyte DNA damage from grape juice supplementation. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2009;1171:385-390. View abstract.
  182. Kar, P., Laight, D., Rooprai, H. K., Shaw, K. M., and Cummings, M. Effects of grape seed extract in Type 2 diabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial examining metabolic markers, vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity. Diabet.Med 2009;26:526-531. View abstract.
  183. Wu, C. D. Grape products and oral health. J Nutr. 2009;139:1818S-1823S. View abstract.
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  185. Percival, S. S. Grape consumption supports immunity in animals and humans. J Nutr. 2009;139:1801S-1805S. View abstract.
  186. Sandra, D., Radha, M., Harishkumar, M., Yuichi, N., Sayuri, O., and Masugi, M. Downregulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:42-46. View abstract.
  187. Lazze, M. C., Pizzala, R., Gutierrez Pecharroman, F. J., Gaton, Garnica P., Antolin Rodriguez, J. M., Fabris, N., and Bianchi, L. Grape waste extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction contains bioactive antioxidant molecules and induces antiproliferative effects in human colon adenocarcinoma cells. J Med Food 2009;12:561-568. View abstract.
  188. Sivaprakasapillai, B., Edirisinghe, I., Randolph, J., Steinberg, F., and Kappagoda, T. Effect of grape seed extract on blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Metabolism 2009;58:1743-1746. View abstract.
  189. Chacon, M. R., Ceperuelo-Mallafre, V., Maymo-Masip, E., Mateo-Sanz, J. M., Arola, L., Guitierrez, C., Fernandez-Real, J. M., Ardevol, A., Simon, I., and Vendrell, J. Grape-seed procyanidins modulate inflammation on human differentiated adipocytes in vitro. Cytokine 2009;47:137-142. View abstract.
  190. Kaur, M., Velmurugan, B., Rajamanickam, S., Agarwal, R., and Agarwal, C. Gallic acid, an active constituent of grape seed extract, exhibits anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-tumorigenic effects against prostate carcinoma xenograft growth in nude mice. Pharm Res 2009;26:2133-2140. View abstract.
  191. Mahadeswaraswamy, Y. H., Devaraja, S., Kumar, M. S., Goutham, Y. N., and Kemparaju, K. Inhibition of local effects of Indian Daboia/Vipera russelli venom by the methanolic extract of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds. Indian J Biochem.Biophys. 2009;46:154-160. View abstract.
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  193. Davalos, A., de la Pena, G., Sanchez-Martin, C. C., Teresa, Guerra M., Bartolome, B., and Lasuncion, M. A. Effects of red grape juice polyphenols in NADPH oxidase subunit expression in human neutrophils and mononuclear blood cells. Br J Nutr. 2009;102:1125-1135. View abstract.
  194. Wang, Y. J., Thomas, P., Zhong, J. H., Bi, F. F., Kosaraju, S., Pollard, A., Fenech, M., and Zhou, X. F. Consumption of grape seed extract prevents amyloid-beta deposition and attenuates inflammation in brain of an Alzheimer's disease mouse. Neurotox.Res 2009;15:3-14. View abstract.
  195. Amico, V., Barresi, V., Chillemi, R., Condorelli, D. F., Sciuto, S., Spatafora, C., and Tringali, C. Bioassay-guided isolation of antiproliferative compounds from grape (Vitis vinifera) stems. Nat.Prod.Commun. 2009;4:27-34. View abstract.
  196. Hsu, C. P., Lin, Y. H., Chou, C. C., Zhou, S. P., Hsu, Y. C., Liu, C. L., Ku, F. M., and Chung, Y. C. Mechanisms of grape seed procyanidin-induced apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma cells. Anticancer Res 2009;29:283-289. View abstract.
  197. Cheah, K. Y., Howarth, G. S., Yazbeck, R., Wright, T. H., Whitford, E. J., Payne, C., Butler, R. N., and Bastian, S. E. Grape seed extract protects IEC-6 cells from chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity and improves parameters of small intestinal mucositis in rats with experimentally-induced mucositis. Cancer Biol.Ther 2009;8:382-390. View abstract.
  198. Castillo-Pichardo, L., Martinez-Montemayor, M. M., Martinez, J. E., Wall, K. M., Cubano, L. A., and Dharmawardhane, S. Inhibition of mammary tumor growth and metastases to bone and liver by dietary grape polyphenols. Clin.Exp.Metastasis 2009;26:505-516. View abstract.
  199. Rao, A. V., Shen, H., Agarwal, A., Yatcilla, M. T., and Agarwal, S. Bioabsorption and in vivo antioxidant properties of grape extract biovin((r)): a human intervention study. J Med Food 2000;3:15-22. View abstract.
  200. Ha, do T., Chen, Q. C., Hung, T. M., Youn, U. J., Ngoc, T. M., Thuong, P. T., Kim, H. J., Seong, Y. H., Min, B. S., and Bae, K. Stilbenes and oligostilbenes from leaf and stem of Vitis amurensis and their cytotoxic activity. Arch.Pharm Res 2009;32:177-183. View abstract.
  201. Pickering, G. J., Karthik, A., Inglis, D., Sears, M., and Ker, K. Detection thresholds for 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine in Concord and Niagara grape juice. J Food Sci. 2008;73:S262-S266. View abstract.
  202. Akhtar, S., Meeran, S. M., Katiyar, N., and Katiyar, S. K. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit the growth of human non-small cell lung cancer xenografts by targeting insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, tumor cell proliferation, and angiogenic factors. Clin.Cancer Res 2-1-2009;15:821-831. View abstract.
  203. Zhang, F. J., Yang, J. Y., Mou, Y. H., Sun, B. S., Ping, Y. F., Wang, J. M., Bian, X. W., and Wu, C. F. Inhibition of U-87 human glioblastoma cell proliferation and formyl peptide receptor function by oligomer procyanidins (F2) isolated from grape seeds. Chem Biol.Interact. 5-15-2009;179(2-3):419-429. View abstract.
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  205. Zi, S. X., Ma, H. J., Li, Y., Liu, W., Yang, Q. Q., Zhao, G., and Lian, S. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins from grape seeds effectively inhibit ultraviolet-induced melanogenesis of human melanocytes in vitro. Int.J Mol.Med 2009;23:197-204. View abstract.
  206. Wen, W., Lu, J., Zhang, K., and Chen, S. Grape seed extract inhibits angiogenesis via suppression of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway. Cancer Prev.Res (Phila) 2008;1:554-561. View abstract.
  207. Lu, J., Zhang, K., Chen, S., and Wen, W. Grape seed extract inhibits VEGF expression via reducing HIF-1alpha protein expression. Carcinogenesis 2009;30:636-644. View abstract.
  208. Medina, I., Lois, S., Lizarraga, D., Pazos, M., Tourino, S., Cascante, M., and Torres, J. L. Functional fatty fish supplemented with grape procyanidins. Antioxidant and proapoptotic properties on colon cell lines. J Agric.Food Chem 5-17-2006;54:3598-3603. View abstract.
  209. Gao, N., Budhraja, A., Cheng, S., Yao, H., Zhang, Z., and Shi, X. Induction of apoptosis in human leukemia cells by grape seed extract occurs via activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase. Clin.Cancer Res 1-1-2009;15:140-149. View abstract.
  210. Chira, K., Schmauch, G., Saucier, C., Fabre, S., and Teissedre, P. L. Grape variety effect on proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of skin and seed tannin extracts from bordeaux wine grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) for two consecutive vintages (2006 and 2007). J Agric.Food Chem 1-28-2009;57:545-553. View abstract.
  211. Leifert, W. R. and Abeywardena, M. Y. Grape seed and red wine polyphenol extracts inhibit cellular cholesterol uptake, cell proliferation, and 5-lipoxygenase activity. Nutr.Res 2008;28:842-850. View abstract.
  212. Leifert, W. R. and Abeywardena, M. Y. Cardioprotective actions of grape polyphenols. Nutr.Res 2008;28:729-737. View abstract.
  213. Hakimuddin, F., Tiwari, K., Paliyath, G., and Meckling, K. Grape and wine polyphenols down-regulate the expression of signal transduction genes and inhibit the growth of estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB231 tumors in nu/nu mouse xenografts. Nutr.Res 2008;28:702-713. View abstract.
  214. Thomas, P., Wang, Y. J., Zhong, J. H., Kosaraju, S., O'Callaghan, N. J., Zhou, X. F., and Fenech, M. Grape seed polyphenols and curcumin reduce genomic instability events in a transgenic mouse model for Alzheimer's disease. Mutat.Res 2-10-2009;661(1-2):25-34. View abstract.
  215. Novak, I., Janeiro, P., Seruga, M., and Oliveira-Brett, A. M. Ultrasound extracted flavonoids from four varieties of Portuguese red grape skins determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Anal.Chim.Acta 12-23-2008;630:107-115. View abstract.
  216. Kaliora, A. C., Kountouri, A. M., Karathanos, V. T., Koumbi, L., Papadopoulos, N. G., and Andrikopoulos, N. K. Effect of Greek raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) from different origins on gastric cancer cell growth. Nutr.Cancer 2008;60:792-799. View abstract.
  217. Kaur, M., Mandair, R., Agarwal, R., and Agarwal, C. Grape seed extract induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells. Nutr.Cancer 2008;60 Suppl 1:2-11. View abstract.
  218. Sivarooban, T., Hettiarachchy, N. S., and Johnson, M. G. Transmission electron microscopy study of Listeria monocytogenes treated with nisin in combination with either grape seed or green tea extract. J Food Prot. 2008;71:2105-2109. View abstract.
  219. Wang, M. L., Suo, X., Gu, J. H., Zhang, W. W., Fang, Q., and Wang, X. Influence of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in broiler chickens: effect on chicken coccidiosis and antioxidant status. Poult.Sci. 2008;87:2273-2280. View abstract.
  220. Ahmed, T., Sajid, M., Singh, T., Saini, G. S., Monif, T., Saha, N., and Pillai, K. K. Influence of grape juice and orange juice on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of diltiazem in healthy human male subjects. Int.J Clin.Pharmacol.Ther 2008;46:511-518. View abstract.
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  223. Chaves, A. A., Joshi, M. S., Coyle, C. M., Brady, J. E., Dech, S. J., Schanbacher, B. L., Baliga, R., Basuray, A., and Bauer, J. A. Vasoprotective endothelial effects of a standardized grape product in humans. Vascul.Pharmacol. 2009;50(1-2):20-26. View abstract.
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  225. Punathil, T. and Katiyar, S. K. Inhibition of non-small cell lung cancer cell migration by grape seed proanthocyanidins is mediated through the inhibition of nitric oxide, guanylate cyclase, and ERK1/2. Mol.Carcinog. 2009;48:232-242. View abstract.
  226. Iriti, M. Melatonin in grape, not just a myth, maybe a panacea. J Pineal Res 2009;46:353. View abstract.
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  228. Stankovic, M., Tesevic, V., Vajs, V., Todorovic, N., Milosavljevic, S., and Godevac, D. Antioxidant properties of grape seed extract on human lymphocyte oxidative defence. Planta Med 2008;74:730-735. View abstract.
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Documento revisado - 03/03/2016