URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/472.html


What is it?

Grapes are the fruit of a vine (Vitis vinifera). The whole fruit, skin, leaves and seed of the grape plant are used as medicine. Grape seeds are by-products of the manufacturing of wine. Be careful not to confuse grape with grapefruit, and other similar sounding medicines.

Grape is used for preventing diseases of the heart and blood vessels, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis), high blood pressure, swelling after injury or surgery, heart attack, and stroke.

Some people also use grape as a mild laxative for constipation. You have probably heard of grape “fasts” as part of “detoxification.”

Grape seed is used for diabetes complications such as nerve and eye problems, improving wound healing, preventing tooth decay, preventing cancer, an eye disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), poor night vision, liver disorders, and hay fever.

Dried grapes, raisins, or sultanas (white raisins) are used for cough.

Grape leaf is used for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), diarrhea, heavy menstrual bleeding, uterine bleeding, and canker sores.

Grape leaf is used as a food, particularly in Greek cooking.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for GRAPE are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Poor circulation that can cause the legs to swell (chronic venous insufficiency). Taking grape seed extract by mouth seems to reduce symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency such as tired or heavy legs, tension, and tingling and pain. Research suggests that taking a specific grape leaf extract (AS 195, Antistax, Boehringer Ingelheim) by mouth decreases leg swelling after 6 weeks.
  • Eye stress. Taking grape seed extract by mouth might help decrease stress on the eyes from glare.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Hay fever. Taking grape seed extract for 8 weeks before ragweed pollen season does not seem to decrease seasonal allergy symptoms or the need to use allergy medications.
  • Tissue hardness and pain caused by radiation. Research shows that taking proanthocyanidin, a chemical found in grape seed extract, three times daily for 6 months does not reduce breast tissue hardness, pain, or tenderness in people treated with radiation therapy for breast cancer.
  • Nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. Evidence shows that taking 4 ounces of chilled Concord grape juice 30 minutes before meals for a week following each cycle of chemotherapy does not seem to reduce nausea or vomiting caused by chemotherapy.
  • Weight loss. Evidence suggests that drinking Concord grape juice for 12 weeks does not reduce weight in overweight people.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Athletic performance. Early research shows that taking 400 mg of grape extract daily for one month might increase an athlete’s overall power when jumping, but not the initial power or maintenance of power.
  • Heart disease. There is some early evidence that drinking grape juice or red wine might help to prevent heart disease by reducing cholesterol levels, reducing inflammation, and preventing clot formations.
  • Eye damage caused by diabetes (diabetic retinopathy). Early evidence suggests that taking a specific grape seed extract product (Endotelon) can slow the progression of eye damage caused by diabetes.
  • High cholesterol. Some research shows that taking 100 mg of grape seed extract twice daily for up to 2 months does not lower cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol. However, other research shows that grape seed extract might lower cholesterol when taken in combination with other ingredients, including chromium or policosanol, tomato extract, and evening primrose oil.
  • High blood pressure. Research suggests that grape seed extract does not reduce blood pressure in healthy people or people with high blood pressure. However, in men with metabolic syndrome, a cluster of conditions that increase the risk for heart disease, taking freeze-dried, dehydrated whole grapes for 20 days seems to lower blood pressure. Additionally, some studies suggest that drinking grape juice can lower blood pressure in people with high blood pressure; however, other research shows that grape juice does not have this effect.
  • Dark skin patches on the face (melasma). Early research suggests that taking grape seed extract by mouth for 6-11 months reduces dark skin discolorations in Japanese women.
  • Age-related mental decline. Early research shows that drinking Concord grape juice daily for 12 weeks can improve verbal learning, but does not improve memory, in older people with age-related mental decline.
  • Metabolic syndrome. Early research suggests that whole grapes might improve some of the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome, a cluster of conditions that increase the risk for heart disease, in men. Taking freeze-dried, dehydrated whole grapes for 30 days lowers blood pressure and increases blood flow. However, it is not known if these changes decrease the risk for diabetes or other aspects of metabolic syndrome. Also, other research shows that taking a specific product containing grape seed extract (Meganatural BP) for 4 weeks does not reduce blood pressure in people with metabolic syndrome.
  • Poor night vision. Early research suggests grape seed extract containing chemicals called proanthocyanidins might improve night vision.
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Research shows that taking grape seed extract twice daily for 3 months improves some but not all markers of liver damage compared to vitamin C supplementation in people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Early research suggests that taking a specific grape seed extract product (Endetelon) might reduce PMS symptoms, including pain and swelling.
  • Treating varicose veins.
  • Hemorrhoids.
  • Constipation.
  • Cough.
  • Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Diarrhea.
  • Heavy menstrual periods.
  • Age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
  • Canker sores.
  • Liver damage.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of grape for these uses.

How does it work?

Grape contains flavonoids, which can have antioxidant effects, lower the levels of low density lipoproteins (LDLs, or “bad cholesterol”), relax blood vessels, and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The antioxidants in grape might help to prevent heart disease and have other potentially beneficial effects. Red grape varieties provide more antioxidants than white or blush grape varieties.

Grape leaf might reduce inflammation and have astringent effects. In other words, grape leaf seems to be able to draw tissue together, which could help stop bleeding and diarrhea. These properties appear to be greatest in the red leaves.

Are there safety concerns?

Grape is LIKELY SAFE when consumed in amounts commonly found in foods.

Grape is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in medicinal amounts. Grape seed extracts have been used safely in studies for up to 14 weeks. Eating large quantities of grapes, dried grapes, raisins, or sultanas might cause diarrhea. Some people have allergic reactions to grapes and grape products. Some other potential side effects include stomach upset, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, cough, dry mouth, sore throat, infections, headache, and muscular problems.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of grape in medicinal amounts (supplements or amounts that are higher than normal food amounts) during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Bleeding conditions: Grape might slow blood clotting. Taking grape might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding in people with bleeding conditions. However, there are no reports of this occurring in humans.

Surgery: Grape might slow blood clotting. It might cause extra bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using medicinal amounts of grape at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Are there interactions with medications?

Be cautious with this combination.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Grape juice might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking grape along with some medications that are changed by the liver can decrease the effectiveness of these medications. Before taking grape, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), caffeine, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), clomipramine (Anafranil), clopidogrel (Plavix), clozapine (Clozaril), cyclobenzaprine (Flexaril), desipramine (Norpramin), diazepam (Valium), estradiol (Estrace, others), flutamide (Eulexin), fluvoxamine (Luvox), grepafloxacin (Raxar), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), mexiletine (Mexitil), mirtazapine (Remeron), naproxen (Naprosyn), nortriptyline (Pamelor), olanzapine (Zyprexa), ondansetron (Zofran), propafenone (Rythmol), propranolol (Inderal), riluzole (Rilutek), ropinirole (Requip), ropivacaine (Naropin), tacrine (Cognex), theophylline (Theo-Dur, others), verapamil (Calan, Covera-HS, others), warfarin (Coumadin), and zileuton (Zyflo).
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Grape might slow blood clotting. Taking grape along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, indomethacin (Indocin), ticlopidine (Ticlid), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
The body breaks down phenacetin to get rid of it. Drinking grape juice might increase how quickly the body breaks down phenacetin. Taking phenacetin along with grape juice might decrease the effectiveness of phenacetin.
Warfarin (Coumadin)
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Grape seed might also slow blood clotting. Taking grape seed along with warfarin (Coumadin) might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.
Be watchful with this combination.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Grape seed might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking grape along with some medications that are changed by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of these medications. Before taking grape, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), diazepam (Valium), zileuton (Zyflo), celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Voltaren), fluvastatin (Lescol), glipizide (Glucotrol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), phenytoin (Dilantin), piroxicam (Feldene), tamoxifen (Nolvadex), tolbutamide (Tolinase), torsemide (Demadex), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Grape seed might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking grape along with some medications that are changed by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of these medications. Before taking grape, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and numerous others. Use eucalyptus oil cautiously or avoid in patients taking these drugs.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Lactobacillus acidophilus
Grape might slow or stop the growth of lactobacillus acidophilus in the intestinal tract and cancel its effects. Don't take grape and lactobacillus at the same time.
Vitamin C
Early research suggests that people with high blood pressure who take both vitamin C 500 mg/day plus grape seed polyphenols 1000 mg/day have significantly increased blood pressure. The increase is seen in both the top (systolic) and bottom (diastolic) numbers. Researchers don't know yet why this happens.

Are there interactions with foods?

There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

  • For poor blood flow in the legs (chronic venous insufficiency):
    • Standardized red vine grape extract AS 195 (Antistax, Boehringer Ingelheim 360 mg or 720 mg once daily.
    • Grape seed extract as tablets or capsules dosed at 75-300 mg daily for three weeks followed by a maintenance dose of 40-80 mg daily.
    • Grape seed extract proanthocyanidin doses of 150-300 mg per day. Proanthocyanidin is one of the active ingredients in grape.
  • For reducing eye stress due to glare: Grape seed extract proanthocyanidin doses of 200-300 mg per day.

Other names

Activin, Black Grape Raisins, Calzin, Draksha, Enocianina, European Wine Grape, Extrait de Feuille de Raisin, Extrait de Feuille de Vigne Rouge, Extrait de Peau de Raisin, Extrait de Pepins de Raisin, Feuille de Raisin, Feuille de Vigne Rouge, Feuille de Vigne Rouge AS 195, Flame Grape, Flame Raisins, Flame Seedless, Folia Vitis Viniferae, Grape Fruit, Grape Fruit Skin, Grape Juice, Grape Leaf, Grape Leaf Extract, Grape Seed, Grape Seed Extract, Grape Seed Oil, Grape Skin, Grape Skin Extract, Grapes, Grapeseed, Huile de Pépins de Raisin, Kali Draksha, Leucoanthocyanin, Muscat, Muskat, Oligomères Procyanidoliques, Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins, Oligomeric Procyanidins, OPC, OPCs, PCO, PCOs, Peau de Raisin, Pépin de Raisin, Petite Sirah, Proanthocyanidines Oligomériques, Proanthodyn, Proanthodyne, Procyanidines Oligomériques, Procyanidolic Oligomers, Purple Grape, Raisin, Raisin Blanc, Raisin de Table, Raisin de Vigne, Raisins, Raisins Noirs, Red Globe, Red Grape, Red Malaga, Red Vine Leaf AS 195, Red Vine Leaf Extract, Sultanas, Table Grapes, Thompson Seedless, Uva, Vitis vinifera, White Grape, Wine Grape, Wine Grapes.


To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.


  1. Bombardelli E and Morazonni P. Vitis vinifera L. Fitoterapia 1995;66:291-317.
  2. Amsellem M, Masson JM, Negui B, and et al. [Endotelon in the treatment of venolymphatic problems in premenstrual syndrome. Multicenter study on 165 patients]. Tempo Medical 1987;282 :46-51.
  3. Pinelo, M., Rubilar, M., Sineiro, J., and Nunez, M. J. A thermal treatment to increase the antioxidant capacity of natural phenols: catechin, resveratrol and grape extract cases. European Food Research and Technology 2005;3-4:284-290.
  4. Sarneckis, C. J., Dambergs, R. G., Jones, P., Mercurio, M., Herderich, M. J., and Smith, P. A. Quantification of condensed tannins by precipitation with methyl cellulose: development and validation of an optimised tool for grape and wine analysis. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 2006;12:39-49.
  5. Arevalo Villena, M., Diez Perez, J., Ubeda, J. F., Navascues, E., and Briones, A. I. A rapid method for quantifying aroma precursors: Application to grape extract, musts and wines made from several varieties. Food Chemistry 2006;99:183-190.
  6. Treeby, M. T., Holzapfel, B. P., Walker, R. R., and Nicholas, P. R. Profiles of free amino acids in grapes of grafted Chardonnay grapevines. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 1998;4:121-126.
  7. Tebib K et al. Polymeric grape seed tannins prevent plasma cholesterol changes in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Food Chem 1994;49:403-406.
  8. Han, J., Britten, M., St-Gelais, D., Champagne, C. P., Fustier, P., Salmieri, S., and Lacroix, M. Polyphenolic compounds as functional ingredients in cheese. Food Chemistry 2011;124:1589-1594.
  9. Shirahigue, L. D., Plata-Ovideo, M., de Alencar, S. M., D'Arce, M. A. B. R., de Souza Vieira, T. M. F., Oldoni, T. L. C., and Contreras-Castillo, C. J. Wine industry residue as antioxidant in cooked chicken meat. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 2010;45:863-870.
  10. Jongberg, S., Skov, S. H., Torngren, M. A., Skibsted, L. H., and Lund, M. N. Effect of white grape extract and modified atmosphere packaging on lipid and protein oxidation in chill stored beef patties. Food Chemistry 2011;128:276-283.
  11. Pazos, M., Gallardo, J. M., Torres, J. L., and Medina, I. Activity of grape polyphenols as inhibitors of the oxidation of fish lipids and frozen fish muscle. Food Chemistry 2005;92:547-557.
  12. Caillet, S., Salmieri, S., and Lacroix, M. Evaluation of free radical scavenging properties of grape phenolic extracts by a fast colorimetric method. Acta Horticulturae 2007;744:425-429.
  13. Aguirre, M. J., Chen, Y. Y., Isaacs, M., Matsuhiro, B., Mendoza, L., and Torres, S. Electrochemical behaviour and antioxidant capacity of anthocyanins from Chilean red wine, grape and raspberry. Food Chemistry 2010;121:44-48.
  14. Nuttall SL, Kendall MJ, Bombardelli E, and et al. An evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a standardized grape seed extract, Leucoselect. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1998;23:385-389.
  15. Al-Awwadi, N., Bornet, A., Delbosc, S., Cristol, J. P., Auger, C., Rouanet, J. M., Cros, G., and Teissedre, P. L. Skins and seeds grape polyphenolic extracts (anthocyanins, procyanidins and oligomers) reduce oxidative stress and NADPH oxidase activation in insulin resistance-induced cardiac hypertrophy and cardiovascular complications in the fructose fed rat. Bulletin de l'OIV 2005;78(891-892):361-375.
  16. Voronina, L., Zagayko, A., and Strel'chenko, K. Grape substances effect on antioxidant-prooxidant status and some parameters of lipid metabolism in blood serum of hamsters with metabolic syndrome. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skodowska.Sectio DDD, Pharmacia 2004;17:281-284.
  17. Eriz, G., Sanhueza, V., Roeckel, M., and Fernandez, K. Inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme by grape seed and skin proanthocyanidins extracted from Vitis vinífera L. cv. País. LWT - Food Science and Technology 2011;44:860-865.
  18. Shchelkunov, D. F., Dudkin, M. S., and Danilova, E. I. The influence of dietary fibre on indicators of gastrointestinal tract activity in rats. Voprosy Pitaniya 2000;69:18-21.
  19. Piper, J., Kohler, S., Niestroj, M., and Malek, F. A. Medical nutrition therapy of patients with atherosclerotic vascular diseases and hypertension by means of perilla oil and black grape extract as dietary food for special medical purposes. Diätetische Intervention mit Perilla-Öl und Rotweintrauben-Extrakt als ergänzende bilanzierte Diät bei Patienten mit atherosklerotischen Gefässerkrankungen und Bluthochdruck 2005;20:20-26.
  20. Pecking A, Desperez-Curely JP, and Megret G. OPC (Endotelon) in the treatment of post-therapy lymphedemas of the upper extremities. Int'l d'Antiologie 1989.
  21. Sarrat L. [Therapeutic relief of functional problems of the lower legs by Endotelon, a microangioprotector]. Bordeaux Med 1981;14:685-688.
  22. Parienti J and Pareinti-Amsellem J. [Post-traumatic edemas in sports: a controlled test of endotelon]. Gaz Med France 1983;90:231-235.
  23. Verin MM, Vildy A, and Maurin JF. [Retinopathies and OPC]. Bordeaux Medicale 1978;11:1467-1474.
  24. Fromantin M. [OPC in the treatment of capillary weakness and retinopathy in diabetics. A propos of 26 cases]. Med Int 1982;16:432-434.
  25. Arne JL. [Contribution to the study of procyanidolic oligomers: Endotelon in diabetic retinopathy (based on 30 cases).]. Gaz Med France 1982;89:3610-3614.
  26. Bernstein CK, Deng C, Shuklah R, and et al. Double blind placebo controlled (DBPC) study of grapeseed extract in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107:s311.
  27. Skarpan´ska-Stejnborn, A., Basta, P., Pilaczyn´ska-Szczesniak, L., and Horoszkiewicz-Hassan, M. Black grape extract supplementation attenuates blood oxidative stress in response to acute exercise. Biology of Sport 2010;27:41-46.
  28. Lafay, S., Jan, C., Nardon, K., Lemaire, B., Ibarra, A., Roller, M., Houvenaeghel, M., Juhel, C., and Cara, L. Grape extract improves antioxidant status and physical performance in elite male athletes. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine 2009;8:468.
  29. Lesbre FX and Tigaud JD. [The effect of Endotelon on the capillary fragility index of a specified controlled group: cirrhosis patients]. Gazette Medicale de France 1983;90:2333-2337.
  30. Delacroix P. [Double-blind study of Endotelon in chronic venous insufficiency] [translated from French]. La Revue de Medecine 1981;31(27-28):1793-1802.
  31. Thebaut JF, Thebaut P, and Vin F. Study of Endotelon in the functional manifestations of peripheral venous insufficiency. Results of a double-blind study of 92 patients. Gazette Medicale 1985;92:96-100.
  32. Dartenuc P, Marache P, and Choussat H. [Capillary resistance in geriatry. Study of a microangioprotector: endotelon.]. Bordeaux Medicale 1980;13:903-907.
  33. Araghi-Niknam M, Hosseini S, Larson D, and et al. Pine bark extract reduces platelet aggregation. Integr Med 2000;2:73-77.
  34. Krešic, G., Dragovic-Uzelac, V., Saftic, M., and Blazevic, N. Cereal bakery products enriched with bioflavonoids - new possibilities of functional food. Flour - Bread '01: Proceedings of International Congress, 3rd Croatian Congress of Cereal Technologists, Opatija, Croatia 2002;111-121.
  35. Murgov, I., Acikbas, M., and Nikolova, R. Antimicrobial activity of citric acid and grape seed extract on pathogenic microorganisms and lactobacilli. Scientific Works of the University of Food Technologies - Plovdiv 2008;55:367-372.
  36. Butkhup, L., Chowtivannakul, S., Gaensakoo, R., Prathepha, P., and Samappito, S. Study of the phenolic composition of Shiraz red grape cultivar (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivated in North-eastern Thailand and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture 2010;31:89-98.
  37. Brito, FF., Martinez, A., Palacios, R., Mur, P., Gomez, E., Galindo, P. A., Borja, J., and Martinez, J. Rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma caused by vine pollen: a case report. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103(2 Pt 1):262-266. View abstract.
  38. Yamakoshi, J., Kataoka, S., Koga, T., and Ariga, T. Proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds attenuates the development of aortic atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis 1999;142:139-149. View abstract.
  39. Day, A. P., Kemp, H. J., Bolton, C., Hartog, M., and Stansbie, D. Effect of concentrated red grape juice consumption on serum antioxidant capacity and low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Ann.Nutr.Metab 1997;41:353-357. View abstract.
  40. Aslan, Y., Erduran, E., Mocan, H., Gedik, Y., Okten, A., Soylu, H., and Deger, O. Absorption of iron from grape-molasses and ferrous sulfate: a comparative study in normal subjects and subjects with iron deficiency anemia. Turk.J Pediatr 1997;39:465-471. View abstract.
  41. Miyagi, Y., Miwa, K., and Inoue, H. Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation by flavonoids in red wine and grape juice. Am J Cardiol 12-15-1997;80:1627-1631. View abstract.
  42. Folts, J. D., Begolli, B., Shanmuganayagam, D., Osman, H., and Maalej, N. Inhibition of platelet activity with red wine and grape products. Biofactors 1997;6:411-414. View abstract.
  43. Merillon, J. M., Fauconneau, B., Teguo, P. W., Barrier, L., Vercauteren, J., and Huguet, F. Antioxidant activity of the stilbene astringin, newly extracted from Vitis vinifera cell cultures. Clin.Chem 1997;43(6 Pt 1):1092-1093. View abstract.
  44. Ledig, M., Holownia, A., Copin, J. C., Tholey, G., and Anokhina, I. Development of glial cells cultured from prenatally alcohol treated rat brain: effect of supplementation of the maternal alcohol diet with a grape extract. Neurochem.Res 1996;21:313-317. View abstract.
  45. Bagchi, D., Garg, A., Krohn, R. L., Bagchi, M., Tran, M. X., and Stohs, S. J. Oxygen free radical scavenging abilities of vitamins C and E, and a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in vitro. Res Commun Mol Pathol.Pharmacol 1997;95:179-189. View abstract.
  46. Zimmerli, B. and Dick, R. Ochratoxin A in table wine and grape-juice: occurrence and risk assessment. Food Addit.Contam 1996;13:655-668. View abstract.
  47. Lanningham-Foster, L., Chen, C., Chance, D. S., and Loo, G. Grape extract inhibits lipid peroxidation of human low density lipoprotein. Biol.Pharm Bull. 1995;18:1347-1351. View abstract.
  48. Fitzpatrick, D. F., Hirschfield, S. L., and Coffey, R. G. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxing activity of wine and other grape products. Am J Physiol 1993;265(2 Pt 2):H774-H778. View abstract.
  49. Henriet, J. P. [Veno-lymphatic insufficiency. 4,729 patients undergoing hormonal and procyanidol oligomer therapy]. Phlebologie. 1993;46:313-325. View abstract.
  50. Yabe, N., Sudo, T., Iizuka, M., and Matsui, H. A hidden mitogenic activity of Vitis (grape) extract for human lymphocytes in the presence of monocytes or serum. In Vitro Cell Dev.Biol.Anim 1994;30A:349-352. View abstract.
  51. Maffei, Facino R., Carini, M., Aldini, G., Bombardelli, E., Morazzoni, P., and Morelli, R. Free radicals scavenging action and anti-enzyme activities of procyanidines from Vitis vinifera. A mechanism for their capillary protective action. Arzneimittelforschung. 1994;44:592-601. View abstract.
  52. Oshima, Y., Namao, K., Kamijou, A., Matsuoka, S., Nakano, M., Terao, K., and Ohizumi, Y. Powerful hepatoprotective and hepatotoxic plant oligostilbenes, isolated from the Oriental medicinal plant Vitis coignetiae (Vitaceae). Experientia 1-15-1995;51:63-66. View abstract.
  53. Marguerie, C. and Drouet, M. [Occupational eosinophilic lung in a grape grower: role of sulfites]. Allerg.Immunol.(Paris) 1995;27:163-167. View abstract.
  54. Faircloth, D. E. and Robison, W. J. Obstruction of the sigmoid colon by grape seeds. JAMA 11-27-1981;246:2430. View abstract.
  55. Abdushelishvili, G. V., Grigorashvili, G. Z., and Topuridze, E. P. [Biomedical evaluation of the protein concentrate obtained from grape seeds]. Vopr.Pitan. 1983;:44-48. View abstract.
  56. Wegrowski, J., Robert, A. M., and Moczar, M. The effect of procyanidolic oligomers on the composition of normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbit aortas. Biochem Pharmacol 11-1-1984;33:3491-3497. View abstract.
  57. Lagrue, G., Olivier-Martin, F., and Grillot, A. [A study of the effects of procyanidol oligomers on capillary resistance in hypertension and in certain nephropathies (author's transl)]. Sem Hop 9-18-1981;57(33-36):1399-1401. View abstract.
  58. Baruch, J. [Effect of Endotelon in postoperative edema. Results of a double-blind study versus placebo in 32 female patients]. Ann.Chir Plast.Esthet. 1984;29:393-395. View abstract.
  59. Sousa, J., Nath, J., and Ong, T. Dietary factors affecting the urinary mutagenicity assay system. II. The absence of mutagenic activity in human urine following consumption of red wine or grape juice. Mutat.Res 1985;156:171-176. View abstract.
  60. Cox, J. and Grigg, M. Small bowel obstruction by an intact grape. J Am Geriatr.Soc 1986;34:550. View abstract.
  61. Soyeux, A., Seguin, J. P., Le, Devehat C., and Bertrand, A. [Endotelon. Diabetic retinopathy and hemorheology (preliminary study)]. Bull.Soc Ophtalmol.Fr. 1987;87:1441-1444. View abstract.
  62. Corbe, C., Boissin, J. P., and Siou, A. [Light vision and chorioretinal circulation. Study of the effect of procyanidolic oligomers (Endotelon)]. J Fr.Ophtalmol. 1988;11:453-460. View abstract.
  63. Yamasaki, R., Dekio, S., and Jidoi, J. Contact dermatitis from grape bud. Contact Dermatitis 1985;12:226-227. View abstract.
  64. Boissin, J. P., Corbe, C., and Siou, A. [Chorioretinal circulation and dazzling: use of procyanidol oligomers (Endotelon)]. Bull.Soc.Ophtalmol.Fr. 1988;88:173-179. View abstract.
  65. Meunier, M. T., Villie, F., Jonadet, M., Bastide, J., and Bastide, P. Inhibition of angiotensin I converting enzyme by flavanolic compounds: in vitro and in vivo studies. Planta Med 1987;53:12-15. View abstract.
  66. Winter, C. K. and Kurtz, P. H. Factors influencing grape worker susceptibility to skin rashes. Bull.Environ.Contam Toxicol. 1985;35:418-426. View abstract.
  67. Nakamura, K., Ono, T., Tamura, R., Indo, M., Takashima, Y., and Kawasaki, M. Characteristics of rat lateral hypothalamic neuron responses to smell and taste in emotional behavior. Brain Res 7-3-1989;491:15-32. View abstract.
  68. McCurdy, S. A., Wiggins, P., Schenker, M. B., Munn, S., Shaieb, A. M., Weinbaum, Z., Goldsmith, D., McGillis, S. T., Berman, B., and Samuels, S. Assessing dermatitis in epidemiologic studies: occupational skin disease among California grape and tomato harvesters. Am J Ind.Med 1989;16:147-157. View abstract.
  69. Chang, W. C. and Hsu, F. L. Inhibition of platelet aggregation and arachidonate metabolism in platelets by procyanidins. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1989;38:181-188. View abstract.
  70. Barona, J., Blesso, C. N., Andersen, C. J., Park, Y., Lee, J., and Fernandez, M. L. Grape consumption increases anti-inflammatory markers and upregulates peripheral nitric oxide synthase in the absence of dyslipidemias in men with metabolic syndrome. Nutrients. 2012;4:1945-1957. View abstract.
  71. Chuang, C. C., Shen, W., Chen, H., Xie, G., Jia, W., Chung, S., and McIntosh, M. K. Differential effects of grape powder and its extract on glucose tolerance and chronic inflammation in high-fat-fed obese mice. J Agric.Food Chem 12-26-2012;60:12458-12468. View abstract.
  72. Benjamin, S., Sharma, R., Thomas, S. S., and Nainan, M. T. Grape seed extract as a potential remineralizing agent: a comparative in vitro study. J Contemp.Dent.Pract. 2012;13:425-430. View abstract.
  73. Pasinetti, G. M. Novel role of red wine-derived polyphenols in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease dementia and brain pathology: experimental approaches and clinical implications. Planta Med 2012;78:1614-1619. View abstract.
  74. Rotches-Ribalta, M., Andres-Lacueva, C., Estruch, R., Escribano, E., and Urpi-Sarda, M. Pharmacokinetics of resveratrol metabolic profile in healthy humans after moderate consumption of red wine and grape extract tablets. Pharmacol Res 2012;66:375-382. View abstract.
  75. Jeronimo, E., Alfaia, C. M., Alves, S. P., Dentinho, M. T., Prates, J. A., Vasta, V., Santos-Silva, J., and Bessa, R. J. Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality. Meat.Sci 2012;92:841-847. View abstract.
  76. Milella, R. A., Antonacci, D., Crupi, P., Incampo, F., Carrieri, C., Semeraro, N., and Colucci, M. Skin extracts from 2 Italian table grapes (Italia and Palieri) inhibit tissue factor expression by human blood mononuclear cells. J Food Sci 2012;77:H154-H159. View abstract.
  77. Mildner-Szkudlarz, S., Bajerska, J., Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R., and Gorecka, D. White grape pomace as a source of dietary fibre and polyphenols and its effect on physical and nutraceutical characteristics of wheat biscuits. J Sci Food Agric. 2013;93:389-395. View abstract.
  78. De, Groote D., Van, Belleghem K., Deviere, J., Van, Brussel W., Mukaneza, A., and Amininejad, L. Effect of the intake of resveratrol, resveratrol phosphate, and catechin-rich grape seed extract on markers of oxidative stress and gene expression in adult obese subjects. Ann Nutr Metab 2012;61:15-24. View abstract.
  79. Stockley, C., Teissedre, P. L., Boban, M., Di, Lorenzo C., and Restani, P. Bioavailability of wine-derived phenolic compounds in humans: a review. Food Funct. 2012;3:995-1007. View abstract.
  80. Islam, S. M., Hiraishi, N., Nassar, M., Sono, R., Otsuki, M., Takatsura, T., Yiu, C., and Tagami, J. In vitro effect of hesperidin on root dentin collagen and de/re-mineralization. Dent.Mater.J 2012;31:362-367. View abstract.
  81. Prabhakar, A. R., Sharma, D., and Sugandhan, S. Comparative evaluation of the remineralising effects and surface microhardness of glass ionomer cement containing grape seed extract and casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate: an in vitro study. Eur Arch Paediatr.Dent. 2012;13:138-143. View abstract.
  82. Tome-Carneiro, J., Gonzalvez, M., Larrosa, M., Garcia-Almagro, F. J., Aviles-Plaza, F., Parra, S., Yanez-Gascon, M. J., Ruiz-Ros, J. A., Garcia-Conesa, M. T., Tomas-Barberan, F. A., and Espin, J. C. Consumption of a grape extract supplement containing resveratrol decreases oxidized LDL and ApoB in patients undergoing primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a triple-blind, 6-month follow-up, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Mol.Nutr Food Res 2012;56:810-821. View abstract.
  83. Rababah, T. M., Al-u'datt, M., Almajwal, A., Brewer, S., Feng, H., Al-Mahasneh, M., Ereifej, K., and Yang, W. Evaluation of the nutraceutical, physiochemical and sensory properties of raisin jam. J Food Sci 2012;77:C609-C613. View abstract.
  84. Tome-Carneiro, J., Gonzalvez, M., Larrosa, M., Yanez-Gascon, M. J., Garcia-Almagro, F. J., Ruiz-Ros, J. A., Garcia-Conesa, M. T., Tomas-Barberan, F. A., and Espin, J. C. One-year consumption of a grape nutraceutical containing resveratrol improves the inflammatory and fibrinolytic status of patients in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol. 8-1-2012;110:356-363. View abstract.
  85. Cherniack, E. P. A berry thought-provoking idea: the potential role of plant polyphenols in the treatment of age-related cognitive disorders. Br J Nutr 2012;108:794-800. View abstract.
  86. Yang, H., Lee, B. K., Kook, K. H., Jung, Y. S., and Ahn, J. Protective effect of grape seed extract against oxidative stress-induced cell death in a staurosporine-differentiated retinal ganglion cell line. Curr Eye Res 2012;37:339-344. View abstract.
  87. Jacobs, D. M., Fuhrmann, J. C., van Dorsten, F. A., Rein, D., Peters, S., van Velzen, E. J., Hollebrands, B., Draijer, R., van, Duynhoven J., and Garczarek, U. Impact of short-term intake of red wine and grape polyphenol extract on the human metabolome. J Agric.Food Chem 3-28-2012;60:3078-3085. View abstract.
  88. Zheng, Y. Y., Viswanathan, B., Kesarwani, P., and Mehrotra, S. Dietary agents in cancer prevention: an immunological perspective. Photochem.Photobiol. 2012;88:1083-1098. View abstract.
  89. Fang, M., Liu, R., Xiao, Y., Li, F., Wang, D., Hou, R., and Chen, J. Biomodification to dentin by a natural crosslinker improved the resin-dentin bonds. J Dent. 2012;40:458-466. View abstract.
  90. Ruiz-Garcia, Y., Romero-Cascales, I., Gil-Munoz, R., Fernandez-Fernandez, J. I., Lopez-Roca, J. M., and Gomez-Plaza, E. Improving grape phenolic content and wine chromatic characteristics through the use of two different elicitors: methyl jasmonate versus benzothiadiazole. J Agric.Food Chem 2-8-2012;60:1283-1290. View abstract.
  91. Marzulli, G., Magrone, T., Kawaguchi, K., Kumazawa, Y., and Jirillo, E. Fermented grape marc (FGM): immunomodulating properties and its potential exploitation in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Curr Pharm.Des 2012;18:43-50. View abstract.
  92. Gazzani, G., Daglia, M., and Papetti, A. Food components with anticaries activity. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2012;23:153-159. View abstract.
  93. Mercolini, L., Mandrioli, R., and Raggi, M. A. Content of melatonin and other antioxidants in grape-related foodstuffs: measurement using a MEPS-HPLC-F method. J Pineal Res 2012;53:21-28. View abstract.
  94. Katiyar, S. K., Singh, T., Prasad, R., Sun, Q., and Vaid, M. Epigenetic alterations in ultraviolet radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis: interaction of bioactive dietary components on epigenetic targets. Photochem.Photobiol. 2012;88:1066-1074. View abstract.
  95. Giacosa, A., Adam-Blondon, A. F., Baer-Sinnott, S., Barale, R., Bavaresco, L., Di, Gaspero G., Dugo, L., Ellison, R. C., Gerbi, V., Gifford, D., Janssens, J., La, Vecchia C., Negri, E., Pezzotti, M., Santi, L., Santi, L., and Rondanelli, M. Alcohol and wine in relation to cancer and other diseases. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2012;21:103-108. View abstract.
  96. Trotta, M., Cesaretti, M., Conzi, R., Derchi, L. E., and Borgonovo, G. Elderly male with mesogastric pain. Small bowel obstruction caused by an intact fresh grape. Ann.Emerg.Med 2011;58:e1-e2. View abstract.
  97. Fraternale, D., De, Bellis R., Calcabrini, C., Potenza, L., Cucchiarini, L., Mancini, U., Dacha, M., and Ricci, D. Aqueous extract from Vitis vinifera tendrils is able to enrich keratinocyte antioxidant defences. Nat.Prod.Commun. 2011;6:1315-1319. View abstract.
  98. Vidhya, S., Srinivasulu, S., Sujatha, M., and Mahalaxmi, S. Effect of grape seed extract on the bond strength of bleached enamel. Oper.Dent. 2011;36:433-438. View abstract.
  99. Haniadka, R., Popouri, S., Palatty, P. L., Arora, R., and Baliga, M. S. Medicinal plants as antiemetics in the treatment of cancer: a review. Integr.Cancer Ther. 2012;11:18-28. View abstract.
  100. Pires, K. M., Valenca, S. S., Resende, A. C., Porto, L. C., Queiroz, E. F., Moreira, D. D., and de Moura, R. S. Grape skin extract reduced pulmonary oxidative response in mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Med Sci.Monit. 2011;17:BR187-BR195. View abstract.
  101. Feringa, H. H., Laskey, D. A., Dickson, J. E., and Coleman, C. I. The effect of grape seed extract on cardiovascular risk markers: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Diet.Assoc. 2011;111:1173-1181. View abstract.
  102. Kikalishvili, B. I., Zurabashvili, D. Z., Nikolaishvili, M. N., Zurabashvili, Z. A., and Giorgobiani, I. B. [The most biological important constances of Rkatsiteli grape oil and its effect as a 5% and 10% food-additive]. Georgian.Med News 2011;:85-87. View abstract.
  103. Vaid, M., Singh, T., and Katiyar, S. K. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit melanoma cell invasiveness by reduction of PGE2 synthesis and reversal of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. PLoS.One. 2011;6:e21539. View abstract.
  104. Li, Q. Z., Cho, H. S., Jeun, S. H., Kim, K. J., Choi, S. J., and Sung, K. W. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin on 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells. Biol.Pharm Bull. 2011;34:1109-1115. View abstract.
  105. Spanou, C., Veskoukis, A. S., Stagos, D., Liadaki, K., Anastasiadi, M., Haroutounian, S. A., Tsouka, M., Tzanakouli, E., and Kouretas, D. Effects of grape extracts on the in vitro activity of enzymes involved in oxidative stress regulation. In Vivo 2011;25:657-662. View abstract.
  106. Pacifico, S., D'Abrosca, B., Scognamiglio, M., Gallicchio, M., Potenza, N., Piccolella, S., Russo, A., Monaco, P., and Fiorentino, A. Metabolic profiling of strawberry grape ( Vitis x labruscana cv. 'Isabella') components by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and evaluation of their antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. J Agric.Food Chem 7-27-2011;59:7679-7687. View abstract.
  107. Pan, X., Dai, Y., Li, X., Niu, N., Li, W., Liu, F., Zhao, Y., and Yu, Z. Inhibition of arsenic-induced rat liver injury by grape seed exact through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-beta/Smad activation. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol. 8-1-2011;254:323-331. View abstract.
  108. Cefola, M., Pace, B., Buttaro, D., Santamaria, P., and Serio, F. Postharvest evaluation of soilless-grown table grape during storage in modified atmosphere. J Sci.Food Agric. 2011;91:2153-2159. View abstract.
  109. Over, K. F., Hettiarachchy, N. S., Perumalla, A. V., Johnson, M. G., Meullenet, J. F., Dickson, J. S., Holtzbauer, M. J., Niebuhr, S. E., and Davis, B. Antilisterial activity and consumer acceptance of irradiated chicken breast meat vacuum-infused with grape seed and green tea extracts and tartaric acid. J Food Sci. 2010;75:M455-M461. View abstract.
  110. Song, P., Zhang, R., Wang, X., He, P., Tan, L., and Ma, X. Dietary grape-seed procyanidins decreased postweaning diarrhea by modulating intestinal permeability and suppressing oxidative stress in rats. J Agric.Food Chem 6-8-2011;59:6227-6232. View abstract.
  111. Richard, T., Poupard, P., Nassra, M., Papastamoulis, Y., Iglesias, M. L., Krisa, S., Waffo-Teguo, P., Merillon, J. M., and Monti, J. P. Protective effect of epsilon-viniferin on beta-amyloid peptide aggregation investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Bioorg.Med Chem 5-15-2011;19:3152-3155. View abstract.
  112. Li, B. Y., Li, X. L., Cai, Q., Gao, H. Q., Cheng, M., Zhang, J. H., Wang, J. F., Yu, F., and Zhou, R. H. Induction of lactadherin mediates the apoptosis of endothelial cells in response to advanced glycation end products and protective effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 and resveratrol. Apoptosis. 2011;16:732-745. View abstract.
  113. Su, X. and D'Souza, D. H. Grape seed extract for control of human enteric viruses. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 2011;77:3982-3987. View abstract.
  114. Hudec, J., Mazur, R., Trebichalsky, P., Lacko-Bartosova, M., Losak, T., Musilova, J., Chlebo, P., and Kovacik, P. Effect of a polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor on the quality of grape and red wine. J Sci.Food Agric. 8-30-2011;91:2045-2052. View abstract.
  115. Kim, H., Kim, J. Y., Song, H. S., Park, K. U., Mun, K. C., and Ha, E. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract inhibits interleukin-17-induced interleukin-6 production via MAPK pathway in human pulmonary epithelial cells. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch.Pharmacol. 2011;383:555-562. View abstract.
  116. Lluis, L., Munoz, M., Nogues, M. R., Sanchez-Martos, V., Romeu, M., Giralt, M., Valls, J., and Sola, R. Toxicology evaluation of a procyanidin-rich extract from grape skins and seeds. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:1450-1454. View abstract.
  117. Eyheraguibel, B., Richard, C., Ledoigt, G., and Ter, Halle A. Inhibition of herbicide photodegradation by plant products. J Agric.Food Chem 5-11-2011;59:4868-4873. View abstract.
  118. Matito, C., Agell, N., Sanchez-Tena, S., Torres, J. L., and Cascante, M. Protective effect of structurally diverse grape procyanidin fractions against UV-induced cell damage and death. J Agric.Food Chem 5-11-2011;59:4489-4495. View abstract.
  119. Martinez-Gil, A. M., Garde-Cerdan, T., Martinez, L., Alonso, G. L., and Salinas, M. R. Effect of oak extract application to Verdejo grapevines on grape and wine aroma. J Agric.Food Chem 4-13-2011;59:3253-3263. View abstract.
  120. Wang, K. T., Chen, L. G., Tseng, S. H., Huang, J. S., Hsieh, M. S., and Wang, C. C. Anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol and oligostilbenes from Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana against lipopolysaccharide-induced arthritis. J Agric.Food Chem 4-27-2011;59:3649-3656. View abstract.
  121. Hsia, S. M., Wang, K. L., and Wang, P. S. Effects of resveratrol, a grape polyphenol, on uterine contraction and Ca+ mobilization in rats in vivo and in vitro. Endocrinology 2011;152:2090-2099. View abstract.
  122. Fredericks, I. N., du, Toit M., and Krugel, M. Efficacy of ultraviolet radiation as an alternative technology to inactivate microorganisms in grape juices and wines. Food Microbiol. 2011;28:510-517. View abstract.
  123. Huber, K. and Superti-Furga, G. After the grape rush: sirtuins as epigenetic drug targets in neurodegenerative disorders. Bioorg.Med Chem 6-15-2011;19:3616-3624. View abstract.
  124. Kedzierska, M., Olas, B., Wachowicz, B., Stochmal, A., Oleszek, W., and Erler, J. Changes of platelet antioxidative enzymes during oxidative stress: the protective effect of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa and grape seeds. Platelets. 2011;22:385-389. View abstract.
  125. Inoue, J., Tanaka, M., Nanmoku, M., Yashiro, T., and Sato, R. Stabilization of small heterodimer partner mRNA by grape seed procyanidins extract in cultured hepatocytes. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2011;55:1052-1058. View abstract.
  126. Kaur, M., Tyagi, A., Singh, R. P., Sclafani, R. A., Agarwal, R., and Agarwal, C. Grape seed extract upregulates p21 (Cip1) through redox-mediated activation of ERK1/2 and posttranscriptional regulation leading to cell cycle arrest in colon carcinoma HT29 cells. Mol.Carcinog. 2011;50:553-562. View abstract.
  127. Jia, Z., Song, Z., Zhao, Y., Wang, X., and Liu, P. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract protects human lens epithelial cells from oxidative stress via reducing NF-small ka, CyrillicB and MAPK protein expression. Mol.Vis 2011;17:210-217. View abstract.
  128. Kolodziejczyk, J., Malinowska, J., Olas, B., Stochmal, A., Oleszek, W., and Erler, J. The polyphenol-rich extract from grape seeds suppresses toxicity of homocysteine and its thiolactone on the fibrinolytic system. Thromb.Res 2011;127:489-491. View abstract.
  129. Li, B. Y., Li, X. L., Gao, H. Q., Zhang, J. H., Cai, Q., Cheng, M., and Lu, M. Grape seed procyanidin B2 inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced endothelial cell apoptosis through regulating GSK3beta phosphorylation. Cell Biol.Int. 2011;35:663-669. View abstract.
  130. Park, S. Y., Lee, Y. H., Choi, K. C., Seong, A. R., Choi, H. K., Lee, O. H., Hwang, H. J., and Yoon, H. G. Grape seed extract regulates androgen receptor-mediated transcription in prostate cancer cells through potent anti-histone acetyltransferase activity. J Med Food 2011;14(1-2):9-16. View abstract.
  131. Rabe, E., Stucker, M., Esperester, A., Schafer, E., and Ottillinger, B. Efficacy and tolerability of a red-vine-leaf extract in patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency--results of a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Eur.J Vasc.Endovasc.Surg. 2011;41:540-547. View abstract.
  132. Kulkarni, S., DeSantos, F. A., Kattamuri, S., Rossi, S. J., and Brewer, M. S. Effect of grape seed extract on oxidative, color and sensory stability of a pre-cooked, frozen, re-heated beef sausage model system. Meat.Sci. 2011;88:139-144. View abstract.
  133. Rowe, C. A., Nantz, M. P., Nieves, C., Jr., West, R. L., and Percival, S. S. Regular consumption of concord grape juice benefits human immunity. J Med Food 2011;14(1-2):69-78. View abstract.
  134. Chao, C. L., Chang, N. C., Weng, C. S., Lee, K. R., Kao, S. T., Hsu, J. C., and Ho, F. M. Grape seed extract ameliorates tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced inflammatory status of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Eur.J Nutr. 2011;50:401-409. View abstract.
  135. Liu, T., Zhao, J., Li, H., and Ma, L. Evaluation on anti-hepatitis viral activity of Vitis vinifer L. Molecules. 2010;15:7415-7422. View abstract.
  136. Park, M. K., Park, J. S., Cho, M. L., Oh, H. J., Heo, Y. J., Woo, Y. J., Heo, Y. M., Park, M. J., Park, H. S., Park, S. H., Kim, H. Y., and Min, J. K. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) differentially regulates Foxp3(+) regulatory and IL-17(+) pathogenic T cell in autoimmune arthritis. Immunol.Lett. 3-30-2011;135(1-2):50-58. View abstract.
  137. Wang, J., Santa-Maria, I., Ho, L., Ksiezak-Reding, H., Ono, K., Teplow, D. B., and Pasinetti, G. M. Grape derived polyphenols attenuate tau neuropathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers.Dis 2010;22:653-661. View abstract.
  138. Dohadwala, M. M., Hamburg, N. M., Holbrook, M., Kim, B. H., Duess, M. A., Levit, A., Titas, M., Chung, W. B., Vincent, F. B., Caiano, T. L., Frame, A. A., Keaney, J. F., Jr., and Vita, J. A. Effects of Concord grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension. Am J Clin.Nutr. 2010;92:1052-1059. View abstract.
  139. Choi, Y., Lee, S. M., Kim, Y., Yoon, J., Jeong, H. S., and Lee, J. A tocotrienol-rich fraction from grape seeds inhibits oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells. J Med Food 2010;13:1240-1246. View abstract.
  140. Gross, G., Jacobs, D. M., Peters, S., Possemiers, S., van, Duynhoven J., Vaughan, E. E., and van de Wiele, T. In vitro bioconversion of polyphenols from black tea and red wine/grape juice by human intestinal microbiota displays strong interindividual variability. J Agric.Food Chem 9-22-2010;58:10236-10246. View abstract.
  141. Green, B., Yao, X., Ganguly, A., Xu, C., Dusevich, V., Walker, M. P., and Wang, Y. Grape seed proanthocyanidins increase collagen biodegradation resistance in the dentin/adhesive interface when included in an adhesive. J Dent. 2010;38:908-915. View abstract.
  142. van Mierlo, L. A., Zock, P. L., van der Knaap, H. C., and Draijer, R. Grape polyphenols do not affect vascular function in healthy men. J Nutr. 2010;140:1769-1773. View abstract.
  143. Jing, Yu, Yumin, Xu, Khaoustov, V., and Yoffe, B. Identification of components of grape powder with anti-apoptotic effects. Toxicol.Ind.Health 2011;27:19-28. View abstract.
  144. Zhang, F. J., Yang, J. Y., Mou, Y. H., Sun, B. S., Wang, J. M., and Wu, C. F. Oligomer procyanidins from grape seeds induce a paraptosis-like programmed cell death in human glioblastoma U-87 cells. Pharm Biol. 2010;48:883-890. View abstract.
  145. Janle, E. M., Lila, M. A., Grannan, M., Wood, L., Higgins, A., Yousef, G. G., Rogers, R. B., Kim, H., Jackson, G. S., Ho, L., and Weaver, C. M. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of 14C-labeled grape polyphenols in the periphery and the central nervous system following oral administration. J Med Food 2010;13:926-933. View abstract.
  146. Shah, N. P., Ding, W. K., Fallourd, M. J., and Leyer, G. Improving the stability of probiotic bacteria in model fruit juices using vitamins and antioxidants. J Food Sci. 2010;75:M278-M282. View abstract.
  147. Khoshbaten, M., Aliasgarzadeh, A., Masnadi, K., Farhang, S., Tarzamani, M. K., Babaei, H., Kiani, J., Zaare, M., and Najafipoor, F. Grape seed extract to improve liver function in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver change. Saudi.J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:194-197. View abstract.
  148. Maestre, R., Micol, V., Funes, L., and Medina, I. Incorporation and interaction of grape seed extract in membranes and relation with efficacy in muscle foods. J Agric.Food Chem 7-28-2010;58:8365-8374. View abstract.
  149. Dinicola, S., Cucina, A., Pasqualato, A., Proietti, S., D'Anselmi, F., Pasqua, G., Santamaria, A. R., Coluccia, P., Lagana, A., Antonacci, D., Giuliani, A., and Bizzarri, M. Apoptosis-inducing factor and caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways triggered by different grape seed extracts on human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Br J Nutr. 2010;104:824-832. View abstract.
  150. Feng, Z., Wei, R. B., Hong, Q., Cui, S. Y., and Chen, X. M. Grape seed extract enhances eNOS expression and NO production through regulating calcium-mediated AKT phosphorylation in H2O2-treated endothelium. Cell Biol.Int. 2010;34:1055-1061. View abstract.
  151. Kim, S. J., Lee, Y. H., Han, M. D., Mar, W., Kim, W. K., and Nam, K. W. Resveratrol, purified from the stem of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat, inhibits food intake in C57BL/6J Mice. Arch.Pharm Res 2010;33:775-780. View abstract.
  152. Uchino, R., Madhyastha, R., Madhyastha, H., Dhungana, S., Nakajima, Y., Omura, S., and Maruyama, M. NFkappaB-dependent regulation of urokinase plasminogen activator by proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract: effect on invasion by prostate cancer cells. Blood Coagul.Fibrinolysis 2010;21:528-533. View abstract.
  153. Fan, W., Xu, Y., Jiang, W., and Li, J. Identification and quantification of impact aroma compounds in 4 nonfloral Vitis vinifera varieties grapes. J Food Sci. 2010;75:S81-S88. View abstract.
  154. Weekes, L. N., Walsh, D., Ferguson, H., and Ross, C. F. Impact of Multicolored Asian Lady Beetles on the sensory properties of Concord and Niagara grape juice. J Food Sci. 2010;75:S68-S73. View abstract.
  155. Meng, C. K., Zweigenbaum, J., Furst, P., and Blanke, E. Finding and confirming nontargeted pesticides using GC/MS, LC/quadrupole-time-of-flight MS, and databases. J AOAC Int. 2010;93:703-711. View abstract.
  156. Hollis, J. H., Houchins, J. A., Blumberg, J. B., and Mattes, R. D. Effects of concord grape juice on appetite, diet, body weight, lipid profile, and antioxidant status of adults. J Am Coll.Nutr. 2009;28:574-582. View abstract.
  157. Kiyici, A., Okudan, N., Gokbel, H., and Belviranli, M. The effect of grape seed extracts on serum paraoxonase activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Food 2010;13:725-728. View abstract.
  158. Chuang, C. C., Bumrungpert, A., Kennedy, A., Overman, A., West, T., Dawson, B., and McIntosh, M. K. Grape powder extract attenuates tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in primary cultures of human adipocytes. J Nutr.Biochem. 2011;22:89-94. View abstract.
  159. Argarate, N., Arestin, M., Ramon-Azcon, J., Alfaro, B., Barranco, A., Sanchez-Baeza, F., and Marco, M. P. Evaluation of immunoassays as an alternative for the rapid determination of pesticides in wine and grape samples. J AOAC Int. 2010;93:2-11. View abstract.
  160. Oliveira-Freitas, V. L., Dalla, Costa T., Manfro, R. C., Cruz, L. B., and Schwartsmann, G. Influence of purple grape juice in cyclosporine bioavailability. J Ren Nutr. 2010;20:309-313. View abstract.
  161. Patil, J. A., Patil, A. J., Sontakke, A. V., and Govindwar, S. P. Occupational pesticides exposure of sprayers of grape gardens in western Maharashtra (India): effects on liver and kidney function. J Basic Clin.Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;20:335-355. View abstract.
  162. Ingersoll, G. L., Wasilewski, A., Haller, M., Pandya, K., Bennett, J., He, H., Hoffmire, C., and Berry, C. Effect of concord grape juice on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: results of a pilot study. Oncol.Nurs.Forum 2010;37:213-221. View abstract.
  163. Hashemi, M., Kelishadi, R., Hashemipour, M., Zakerameli, A., Khavarian, N., Ghatrehsamani, S., and Poursafa, P. Acute and long-term effects of grape and pomegranate juice consumption on vascular reactivity in paediatric metabolic syndrome. Cardiol Young. 2010;20:73-77. View abstract.
  164. Song, X., Siriwardhana, N., Rathore, K., Lin, D., and Wang, H. C. Grape seed proanthocyanidin suppression of breast cell carcinogenesis induced by chronic exposure to combined 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and benzo[a]pyrene. Mol.Carcinog. 2010;49:450-463. View abstract.
  165. Matias, A. A., Serra, A. T., Silva, A. C., Perdigao, R., Ferreira, T. B., Marcelino, I., Silva, S., Coelho, A. V., Alves, P. M., and Duarte, C. M. Portuguese winemaking residues as a potential source of natural anti-adenoviral agents. Int.J Food Sci.Nutr. 2010;61:357-368. View abstract.
  166. Overman, A., Bumrungpert, A., Kennedy, A., Martinez, K., Chuang, C. C., West, T., Dawson, B., Jia, W., and McIntosh, M. Polyphenol-rich grape powder extract (GPE) attenuates inflammation in human macrophages and in human adipocytes exposed to macrophage-conditioned media. Int.J Obes.(Lond) 2010;34:800-808. View abstract.
  167. Kamiyama, M., Kishimoto, Y., Tani, M., Andoh, K., Utsunomiya, K., and Kondo, K. Inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation by Nagano purple grape (Vitis viniferaxVitis labrusca). J Nutr.Sci.Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2009;55:471-478. View abstract.
  168. Cai, H., Marczylo, T. H., Teller, N., Brown, K., Steward, W. P., Marko, D., and Gescher, A. J. Anthocyanin-rich red grape extract impedes adenoma development in the Apc(Min) mouse: pharmacodynamic changes and anthocyanin levels in the murine biophase. Eur.J Cancer 2010;46:811-817. View abstract.
  169. Yun, J. W., Lee, W. S., Kim, M. J., Lu, J. N., Kang, M. H., Kim, H. G., Kim, D. C., Choi, E. J., Choi, J. Y., Kim, H. G., Lee, Y. K., Ryu, C. H., Kim, G., Choi, Y. H., Park, O. J., and Shin, S. C. Characterization of a profile of the anthocyanins isolated from Vitis coignetiae Pulliat and their anti-invasive activity on HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:903-909. View abstract.
  170. Kaliora, A. C., Kountouri, A. M., and Karathanos, V. T. Antioxidant properties of raisins (Vitis vinifera L.). J Med Food 2009;12:1302-1309. View abstract.
  171. Krikorian, R., Nash, T. A., Shidler, M. D., Shukitt-Hale, B., and Joseph, J. A. Concord grape juice supplementation improves memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Br J Nutr. 2010;103:730-734. View abstract.
  172. van Dorsten, F. A., Grun, C. H., van Velzen, E. J., Jacobs, D. M., Draijer, R., and van Duynhoven, J. P. The metabolic fate of red wine and grape juice polyphenols in humans assessed by metabolomics. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2010;54:897-908. View abstract.
  173. Di, Cagno R., Mazzacane, F., Rizzello, C. G., De, Angelis M., Giuliani, G., Meloni, M., De, Servi B., and Gobbetti, M. Synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by Lactobacillus plantarum DSM19463: functional grape must beverage and dermatological applications. Appl.Microbiol.Biotechnol. 2010;86:731-741. View abstract.
  174. Long, J., Gao, H., Sun, L., Liu, J., and Zhao-Wilson, X. Grape extract protects mitochondria from oxidative damage and improves locomotor dysfunction and extends lifespan in a Drosophila Parkinson's disease model. Rejuvenation.Res 2009;12:321-331. View abstract.
  175. La, V. D., Bergeron, C., Gafner, S., and Grenier, D. Grape seed extract suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion by macrophages and inhibits human MMP-1 and -9 activities. J Periodontol. 2009;80:1875-1882. View abstract.
  176. Shin, D. Y., Lee, W. S., Kim, S. H., Kim, M. J., Yun, J. W., Lu, J. N., Lee, S. J., Tsoy, I., Kim, H. J., Ryu, C. H., Kim, G. Y., Kang, H. S., Shin, S. C., and Choi, Y. H. Anti-invasive activity of anthocyanins isolated from Vitis coignetiae in human hepatocarcinoma cells. J Med Food 2009;12:967-972. View abstract.
  177. Kim, E. J., Park, H., Park, S. Y., Jun, J. G., and Park, J. H. The grape component piceatannol induces apoptosis in DU145 human prostate cancer cells via the activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. J Med Food 2009;12:943-951. View abstract.
  178. Kidd, P. M. Bioavailability and activity of phytosome complexes from botanical polyphenols: the silymarin, curcumin, green tea, and grape seed extracts. Altern.Med.Rev. 2009;14:226-246. View abstract.
  179. Hsu, Y. L., Liang, H. L., Hung, C. H., and Kuo, P. L. Syringetin, a flavonoid derivative in grape and wine, induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2009;53:1452-1461. View abstract.
  180. Xu, Y., Khaoustov, V. I., Wang, H., Yu, J., Tabassam, F., and Yoffe, B. Freeze-dried grape powder attenuates mitochondria- and oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in liver cells. J Agric.Food Chem 10-14-2009;57:9324-9331. View abstract.
  181. Park, Y. K., Lee, S. H., Park, E., Kim, J. S., and Kang, M. H. Changes in antioxidant status, blood pressure, and lymphocyte DNA damage from grape juice supplementation. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2009;1171:385-390. View abstract.
  182. Kar, P., Laight, D., Rooprai, H. K., Shaw, K. M., and Cummings, M. Effects of grape seed extract in Type 2 diabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial examining metabolic markers, vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity. Diabet.Med 2009;26:526-531. View abstract.
  183. Wu, C. D. Grape products and oral health. J Nutr. 2009;139:1818S-1823S. View abstract.
  184. Kaur, M., Agarwal, C., and Agarwal, R. Anticancer and cancer chemopreventive potential of grape seed extract and other grape-based products. J Nutr. 2009;139:1806S-1812S. View abstract.
  185. Percival, S. S. Grape consumption supports immunity in animals and humans. J Nutr. 2009;139:1801S-1805S. View abstract.
  186. Sandra, D., Radha, M., Harishkumar, M., Yuichi, N., Sayuri, O., and Masugi, M. Downregulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:42-46. View abstract.
  187. Lazze, M. C., Pizzala, R., Gutierrez Pecharroman, F. J., Gaton, Garnica P., Antolin Rodriguez, J. M., Fabris, N., and Bianchi, L. Grape waste extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction contains bioactive antioxidant molecules and induces antiproliferative effects in human colon adenocarcinoma cells. J Med Food 2009;12:561-568. View abstract.
  188. Sivaprakasapillai, B., Edirisinghe, I., Randolph, J., Steinberg, F., and Kappagoda, T. Effect of grape seed extract on blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Metabolism 2009;58:1743-1746. View abstract.
  189. Chacon, M. R., Ceperuelo-Mallafre, V., Maymo-Masip, E., Mateo-Sanz, J. M., Arola, L., Guitierrez, C., Fernandez-Real, J. M., Ardevol, A., Simon, I., and Vendrell, J. Grape-seed procyanidins modulate inflammation on human differentiated adipocytes in vitro. Cytokine 2009;47:137-142. View abstract.
  190. Kaur, M., Velmurugan, B., Rajamanickam, S., Agarwal, R., and Agarwal, C. Gallic acid, an active constituent of grape seed extract, exhibits anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-tumorigenic effects against prostate carcinoma xenograft growth in nude mice. Pharm Res 2009;26:2133-2140. View abstract.
  191. Mahadeswaraswamy, Y. H., Devaraja, S., Kumar, M. S., Goutham, Y. N., and Kemparaju, K. Inhibition of local effects of Indian Daboia/Vipera russelli venom by the methanolic extract of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds. Indian J Biochem.Biophys. 2009;46:154-160. View abstract.
  192. Chen, C., Liu, C., Zhang, J., Yang, Q., and Teng, F. [Grape seed extract inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cell MCF-7 and decrease the gene expression of survivin]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:433-437. View abstract.
  193. Davalos, A., de la Pena, G., Sanchez-Martin, C. C., Teresa, Guerra M., Bartolome, B., and Lasuncion, M. A. Effects of red grape juice polyphenols in NADPH oxidase subunit expression in human neutrophils and mononuclear blood cells. Br J Nutr. 2009;102:1125-1135. View abstract.
  194. Wang, Y. J., Thomas, P., Zhong, J. H., Bi, F. F., Kosaraju, S., Pollard, A., Fenech, M., and Zhou, X. F. Consumption of grape seed extract prevents amyloid-beta deposition and attenuates inflammation in brain of an Alzheimer's disease mouse. Neurotox.Res 2009;15:3-14. View abstract.
  195. Amico, V., Barresi, V., Chillemi, R., Condorelli, D. F., Sciuto, S., Spatafora, C., and Tringali, C. Bioassay-guided isolation of antiproliferative compounds from grape (Vitis vinifera) stems. Nat.Prod.Commun. 2009;4:27-34. View abstract.
  196. Hsu, C. P., Lin, Y. H., Chou, C. C., Zhou, S. P., Hsu, Y. C., Liu, C. L., Ku, F. M., and Chung, Y. C. Mechanisms of grape seed procyanidin-induced apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma cells. Anticancer Res 2009;29:283-289. View abstract.
  197. Cheah, K. Y., Howarth, G. S., Yazbeck, R., Wright, T. H., Whitford, E. J., Payne, C., Butler, R. N., and Bastian, S. E. Grape seed extract protects IEC-6 cells from chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity and improves parameters of small intestinal mucositis in rats with experimentally-induced mucositis. Cancer Biol.Ther 2009;8:382-390. View abstract.
  198. Castillo-Pichardo, L., Martinez-Montemayor, M. M., Martinez, J. E., Wall, K. M., Cubano, L. A., and Dharmawardhane, S. Inhibition of mammary tumor growth and metastases to bone and liver by dietary grape polyphenols. Clin.Exp.Metastasis 2009;26:505-516. View abstract.
  199. Rao, A. V., Shen, H., Agarwal, A., Yatcilla, M. T., and Agarwal, S. Bioabsorption and in vivo antioxidant properties of grape extract biovin((r)): a human intervention study. J Med Food 2000;3:15-22. View abstract.
  200. Ha, do T., Chen, Q. C., Hung, T. M., Youn, U. J., Ngoc, T. M., Thuong, P. T., Kim, H. J., Seong, Y. H., Min, B. S., and Bae, K. Stilbenes and oligostilbenes from leaf and stem of Vitis amurensis and their cytotoxic activity. Arch.Pharm Res 2009;32:177-183. View abstract.
  201. Pickering, G. J., Karthik, A., Inglis, D., Sears, M., and Ker, K. Detection thresholds for 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine in Concord and Niagara grape juice. J Food Sci. 2008;73:S262-S266. View abstract.
  202. Akhtar, S., Meeran, S. M., Katiyar, N., and Katiyar, S. K. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit the growth of human non-small cell lung cancer xenografts by targeting insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, tumor cell proliferation, and angiogenic factors. Clin.Cancer Res 2-1-2009;15:821-831. View abstract.
  203. Zhang, F. J., Yang, J. Y., Mou, Y. H., Sun, B. S., Ping, Y. F., Wang, J. M., Bian, X. W., and Wu, C. F. Inhibition of U-87 human glioblastoma cell proliferation and formyl peptide receptor function by oligomer procyanidins (F2) isolated from grape seeds. Chem Biol.Interact. 5-15-2009;179(2-3):419-429. View abstract.
  204. Shang, X. J., Yin, H. L., Ge, J. P., Sun, Y., Teng, W. H., and Huang, Y. F. [Grape seed extract induces morphological changes of prostate cancer PC-3 cells]. Zhonghua Nan.Ke.Xue. 2008;14:1090-1093. View abstract.
  205. Zi, S. X., Ma, H. J., Li, Y., Liu, W., Yang, Q. Q., Zhao, G., and Lian, S. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins from grape seeds effectively inhibit ultraviolet-induced melanogenesis of human melanocytes in vitro. Int.J Mol.Med 2009;23:197-204. View abstract.
  206. Wen, W., Lu, J., Zhang, K., and Chen, S. Grape seed extract inhibits angiogenesis via suppression of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway. Cancer Prev.Res (Phila) 2008;1:554-561. View abstract.
  207. Lu, J., Zhang, K., Chen, S., and Wen, W. Grape seed extract inhibits VEGF expression via reducing HIF-1alpha protein expression. Carcinogenesis 2009;30:636-644. View abstract.
  208. Medina, I., Lois, S., Lizarraga, D., Pazos, M., Tourino, S., Cascante, M., and Torres, J. L. Functional fatty fish supplemented with grape procyanidins. Antioxidant and proapoptotic properties on colon cell lines. J Agric.Food Chem 5-17-2006;54:3598-3603. View abstract.
  209. Gao, N., Budhraja, A., Cheng, S., Yao, H., Zhang, Z., and Shi, X. Induction of apoptosis in human leukemia cells by grape seed extract occurs via activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase. Clin.Cancer Res 1-1-2009;15:140-149. View abstract.
  210. Chira, K., Schmauch, G., Saucier, C., Fabre, S., and Teissedre, P. L. Grape variety effect on proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of skin and seed tannin extracts from bordeaux wine grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) for two consecutive vintages (2006 and 2007). J Agric.Food Chem 1-28-2009;57:545-553. View abstract.
  211. Leifert, W. R. and Abeywardena, M. Y. Grape seed and red wine polyphenol extracts inhibit cellular cholesterol uptake, cell proliferation, and 5-lipoxygenase activity. Nutr.Res 2008;28:842-850. View abstract.
  212. Leifert, W. R. and Abeywardena, M. Y. Cardioprotective actions of grape polyphenols. Nutr.Res 2008;28:729-737. View abstract.
  213. Hakimuddin, F., Tiwari, K., Paliyath, G., and Meckling, K. Grape and wine polyphenols down-regulate the expression of signal transduction genes and inhibit the growth of estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB231 tumors in nu/nu mouse xenografts. Nutr.Res 2008;28:702-713. View abstract.
  214. Thomas, P., Wang, Y. J., Zhong, J. H., Kosaraju, S., O'Callaghan, N. J., Zhou, X. F., and Fenech, M. Grape seed polyphenols and curcumin reduce genomic instability events in a transgenic mouse model for Alzheimer's disease. Mutat.Res 2-10-2009;661(1-2):25-34. View abstract.
  215. Novak, I., Janeiro, P., Seruga, M., and Oliveira-Brett, A. M. Ultrasound extracted flavonoids from four varieties of Portuguese red grape skins determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Anal.Chim.Acta 12-23-2008;630:107-115. View abstract.
  216. Kaliora, A. C., Kountouri, A. M., Karathanos, V. T., Koumbi, L., Papadopoulos, N. G., and Andrikopoulos, N. K. Effect of Greek raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) from different origins on gastric cancer cell growth. Nutr.Cancer 2008;60:792-799. View abstract.
  217. Kaur, M., Mandair, R., Agarwal, R., and Agarwal, C. Grape seed extract induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells. Nutr.Cancer 2008;60 Suppl 1:2-11. View abstract.
  218. Sivarooban, T., Hettiarachchy, N. S., and Johnson, M. G. Transmission electron microscopy study of Listeria monocytogenes treated with nisin in combination with either grape seed or green tea extract. J Food Prot. 2008;71:2105-2109. View abstract.
  219. Wang, M. L., Suo, X., Gu, J. H., Zhang, W. W., Fang, Q., and Wang, X. Influence of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in broiler chickens: effect on chicken coccidiosis and antioxidant status. Poult.Sci. 2008;87:2273-2280. View abstract.
  220. Ahmed, T., Sajid, M., Singh, T., Saini, G. S., Monif, T., Saha, N., and Pillai, K. K. Influence of grape juice and orange juice on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of diltiazem in healthy human male subjects. Int.J Clin.Pharmacol.Ther 2008;46:511-518. View abstract.
  221. Xie, Q., Bedran-Russo, A. K., and Wu, C. D. In vitro remineralization effects of grape seed extract on artificial root caries. J Dent. 2008;36:900-906. View abstract.
  222. Ono, K., Condron, M. M., Ho, L., Wang, J., Zhao, W., Pasinetti, G. M., and Teplow, D. B. Effects of grape seed-derived polyphenols on amyloid beta-protein self-assembly and cytotoxicity. J Biol.Chem 11-21-2008;283:32176-32187. View abstract.
  223. Chaves, A. A., Joshi, M. S., Coyle, C. M., Brady, J. E., Dech, S. J., Schanbacher, B. L., Baliga, R., Basuray, A., and Bauer, J. A. Vasoprotective endothelial effects of a standardized grape product in humans. Vascul.Pharmacol. 2009;50(1-2):20-26. View abstract.
  224. Liu, J. Y. and Zhong, J. Y. [Study on protective effect of grape procyanidins in radiation injury in radiation-contacted persons]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 2008;42:264-267. View abstract.
  225. Punathil, T. and Katiyar, S. K. Inhibition of non-small cell lung cancer cell migration by grape seed proanthocyanidins is mediated through the inhibition of nitric oxide, guanylate cyclase, and ERK1/2. Mol.Carcinog. 2009;48:232-242. View abstract.
  226. Iriti, M. Melatonin in grape, not just a myth, maybe a panacea. J Pineal Res 2009;46:353. View abstract.
  227. Mahadeswaraswamy, Y. H., Nagaraju, S., Girish, K. S., and Kemparaju, K. Local tissue destruction and procoagulation properties of Echis carinatus venom: inhibition by Vitis vinifera seed methanol extract. Phytother.Res 2008;22:963-969. View abstract.
  228. Stankovic, M., Tesevic, V., Vajs, V., Todorovic, N., Milosavljevic, S., and Godevac, D. Antioxidant properties of grape seed extract on human lymphocyte oxidative defence. Planta Med 2008;74:730-735. View abstract.
  229. Jimenez, J. P., Serrano, J., Tabernero, M., Arranz, S., Diaz-Rubio, M. E., Garcia-Diz, L., Goni, I., and Saura-Calixto, F. Effects of grape antioxidant dietary fiber in cardiovascular disease risk factors. Nutrition 2008;24(7-8):646-653. View abstract.
  230. Huang, T. T., Shang, X. J., Yao, G. H., Ge, J. P., Teng, W. H., Sun, Y., and Huang, Y. F. [Grape seed extract inhibits the growth of prostate cancer PC-3 cells]. Zhonghua Nan.Ke.Xue. 2008;14:331-333. View abstract.
  231. Castilla, P., Davalos, A., Teruel, J. L., Cerrato, F., Fernandez-Lucas, M., Merino, J. L., Sanchez-Martin, C. C., Ortuno, J., and Lasuncion, M. A. Comparative effects of dietary supplementation with red grape juice and vitamin E on production of superoxide by circulating neutrophil NADPH oxidase in hemodialysis patients. Am J Clin.Nutr. 2008;87:1053-1061. View abstract.
  232. Katiyar, S. K. Grape seed proanthocyanidines and skin cancer prevention: inhibition of oxidative stress and protection of immune system. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2008;52 Suppl 1:S71-S76. View abstract.
  233. Marel, A. K., Lizard, G., Izard, J. C., Latruffe, N., and Delmas, D. Inhibitory effects of trans-resveratrol analogs molecules on the proliferation and the cell cycle progression of human colon tumoral cells. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2008;52:538-548. View abstract.
  234. Kuo, P. L. and Hsu, Y. L. The grape and wine constituent piceatannol inhibits proliferation of human bladder cancer cells via blocking cell cycle progression and inducing Fas/membrane bound Fas ligand-mediated apoptotic pathway. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2008;52:408-418. View abstract.
  235. Olas, B., Wachowicz, B., Tomczak, A., Erler, J., Stochmal, A., and Oleszek, W. Comparative anti-platelet and antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extracts from: berries of Aronia melanocarpa, seeds of grape and bark of Yucca schidigera in vitro. Platelets. 2008;19:70-77. View abstract.
  236. Brannan, R. G. Effect of grape seed extract on physicochemical properties of ground, salted, chicken thigh meat during refrigerated storage at different relative humidity levels. J Food Sci. 2008;73:C36-C40. View abstract.
  237. Koo, M., Kim, S. H., Lee, N., Yoo, M. Y., Ryu, S. Y., Kwon, D. Y., and Kim, Y. S. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitory effect of Vitis vinifera. Fitoterapia 2008;79:204-206. View abstract.
  238. Ohno, M., Ka, T., Inokuchi, T., Moriwaki, Y., Yamamoto, A., Takahashi, S., Tsutsumi, Z., Tsuzita, J., Yamamoto, T., and Nishiguchi, S. Effects of exercise and grape juice ingestion in combination on plasma concentrations of purine bases and uridine. Clin.Chim.Acta 2008;388(1-2):167-172. View abstract.
  239. Erdogrul, O. Pesticide residues in liquid pekmez (grape molasses). Environ.Monit.Assess. 2008;144(1-3):323-328. View abstract.
  240. Shenoy, S. F., Keen, C. L., Kalgaonkar, S., and Polagruto, J. A. Effects of grape seed extract consumption on platelet function in postmenopausal women. Thromb.Res 2007;121:431-432. View abstract.
  241. Edirisinghe, I., Burton-Freeman, B., and Tissa, Kappagoda C. Mechanism of the endothelium-dependent relaxation evoked by a grape seed extract. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 2008;114:331-337. View abstract.
  242. Engelbrecht, A. M., Mattheyse, M., Ellis, B., Loos, B., Thomas, M., Smith, R., Peters, S., Smith, C., and Myburgh, K. Proanthocyanidin from grape seeds inactivates the PI3-kinase/PKB pathway and induces apoptosis in a colon cancer cell line. Cancer Lett. 12-8-2007;258:144-153. View abstract.
  243. Tangolar, S. G., Ozogul, Y., Tangolar, S., and Torun, A. Evaluation of fatty acid profiles and mineral content of grape seed oil of some grape genotypes. Int.J Food Sci.Nutr. 2009;60:32-39. View abstract.
  244. Ugartondo, V., Mitjans, M., Tourino, S., Torres, J. L., and Vinardell, M. P. Comparative antioxidant and cytotoxic effect of procyanidin fractions from grape and pine. Chem Res Toxicol. 2007;20:1543-1548. View abstract.
  245. Cornacchione, S., Sadick, N. S., Neveu, M., Talbourdet, S., Lazou, K., Viron, C., Renimel, I., de, Queral D., Kurfurst, R., Schnebert, S., Heusele, C., Andre, P., and Perrier, E. In vivo skin antioxidant effect of a new combination based on a specific Vitis vinifera shoot extract and a biotechnological extract. J Drugs Dermatol 2007;6(6 Suppl):s8-13. View abstract.
  246. Singletary, K. W., Jung, K. J., and Giusti, M. Anthocyanin-rich grape extract blocks breast cell DNA damage. J Med Food 2007;10:244-251. View abstract.
  247. Sano, A., Uchida, R., Saito, M., Shioya, N., Komori, Y., Tho, Y., and Hashizume, N. Beneficial effects of grape seed extract on malondialdehyde-modified LDL. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2007;53:174-182. View abstract.
  248. Etheridge, A. S., Black, S. R., Patel, P. R., So, J., and Mathews, J. M. An in vitro evaluation of cytochrome P450 inhibition and P-glycoprotein interaction with goldenseal, Ginkgo biloba, grape seed, milk thistle, and ginseng extracts and their constituents. Planta Med 2007;73:731-741. View abstract.
  249. Parker, M., Pollnitz, A. P., Cozzolino, D., Francis, I. L., and Herderich, M. J. Identification and quantification of a marker compound for 'pepper' aroma and flavor in shiraz grape berries by combination of chemometrics and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Agric.Food Chem 7-25-2007;55:5948-5955. View abstract.
  250. de Lange, D. W., Verhoef, S., Gorter, G., Kraaijenhagen, R. J., van de Wiel, A., and Akkerman, J. W. Polyphenolic grape extract inhibits platelet activation through PECAM-1: an explanation for the French paradox. Alcohol Clin.Exp.Res 2007;31:1308-1314. View abstract.
  251. Stagos, D., Spanou, C., Margariti, M., Stathopoulos, C., Mamuris, Z., Kazantzoglou, G., Magiatis, P., and Kouretas, D. Cytogenetic effects of grape extracts (Vitis vinifera) and polyphenols on mitomycin C-induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in human blood lymphocytes. J Agric.Food Chem 6-27-2007;55:5246-5252. View abstract.
  252. Ma, L., Gao, H. Q., Li, B. Y., Ma, Y. B., You, B. A., and Zhang, F. L. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts inhibit vascular cell adhesion molecule expression induced by advanced glycation end products through activation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 2007;49:293-298. View abstract.
  253. Sivarooban, T., Hettiarachchy, N. S., and Johnson, M. G. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes using nisin with grape seed extract on turkey frankfurters stored at 4 and 10 degrees C. J Food Prot. 2007;70:1017-1020. View abstract.
  254. Meeran, S. M. and Katiyar, S. K. Grape seed proanthocyanidins promote apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells through alterations in Cdki-Cdk-cyclin cascade, and caspase-3 activation via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Exp Dermatol 2007;16:405-415. View abstract.
  255. Petit, P., Granier, T., d'Estaintot, B. L., Manigand, C., Bathany, K., Schmitter, J. M., Lauvergeat, V., Hamdi, S., and Gallois, B. Crystal structure of grape dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, a key enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis. J Mol.Biol. 5-18-2007;368:1345-1357. View abstract.
  256. Gamsky, T. E., McCurdy, S. A., Samuels, S. J., and Schenker, M. B. Reduced FVC among California grape workers. Am Rev.Respir.Dis 1992;145(2 Pt 1):257-262. View abstract.
  257. Samet, J. M. and Coultas, D. B. Reduced forced vital capacity in California grape workers. What does it mean? Am Rev.Respir.Dis 1992;145(2 Pt 1):255-256. View abstract.
  258. Nikitina, N. A., Sobenin, I. A., Myasoedova, V. A., Korennaya, V. V., Mel'nichenko, A. A., Khalilov, E. M., and Orekhov, A. N. Antiatherogenic effect of grape flavonoids in an ex vivo model. Bull.Exp.Biol.Med 2006;141:712-715. View abstract.
  259. Sharma, S. D., Meeran, S. M., and Katiyar, S. K. Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit UVB-induced oxidative stress and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB signaling in in vivo SKH-1 hairless mice. Mol.Cancer Ther 2007;6:995-1005. View abstract.
  260. Urios, P., Grigorova-Borsos, A. M., and Sternberg, M. Flavonoids inhibit the formation of the cross-linking AGE pentosidine in collagen incubated with glucose, according to their structure. Eur J Nutr 2007;46:139-146. View abstract.
  261. Agarwal, C., Veluri, R., Kaur, M., Chou, S. C., Thompson, J. A., and Agarwal, R. Fractionation of high molecular weight tannins in grape seed extract and identification of procyanidin B2-3,3'-di-O-gallate as a major active constituent causing growth inhibition and apoptotic death of DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells. Carcinogenesis 2007;28:1478-1484. View abstract.
  262. Rathel, T. R., Samtleben, R., Vollmar, A. M., and Dirsch, V. M. Activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by red wine polyphenols: impact of grape cultivars, growing area and the vinification process. J Hypertens. 2007;25:541-549. View abstract.
  263. Lin, A. D., Mannikarottu, A., Kogan, B. A., Whitbeck, C., Leggett, R. E., and Levin, R. M. Effect of bilateral in vivo ischemia/reperfusion on the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase: response to a standardized grape suspension. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2007;296(1-2):11-16. View abstract.
  264. Davalos, A., Castilla, P., Gomez-Cordoves, C., and Bartolome, B. Quercetin is bioavailable from a single ingestion of grape juice. Int.J Food Sci.Nutr. 2006;57(5-6):391-398. View abstract.
  265. Kar, P., Laight, D., Shaw, K. M., and Cummings, M. H. Flavonoid-rich grapeseed extracts: a new approach in high cardiovascular risk patients? Int J Clin Pract 2006;60:1484-1492. View abstract.
  266. Kaur, M., Singh, R. P., Gu, M., Agarwal, R., and Agarwal, C. Grape seed extract inhibits in vitro and in vivo growth of human colorectal carcinoma cells. Clin Cancer Res 10-15-2006;12(20 Pt 1):6194-6202. View abstract.
  267. A review of evidence on red vine leaf extract in the prevention and management of venous disease. J Wound Care 2006;15:393-396. View abstract.
  268. Suppasrivasuseth, J., Bellantone, R. A., Plakogiannis, F. M., and Stagni, G. Permeability and retention studies of (-)epicatechin gel formulations in human cadaver skin. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2006;32:1007-1017. View abstract.
  269. Hakimuddin, F., Paliyath, G., and Meckling, K. Treatment of mcf-7 breast cancer cells with a red grape wine polyphenol fraction results in disruption of calcium homeostasis and cell cycle arrest causing selective cytotoxicity. J Agric.Food Chem 10-4-2006;54:7912-7923. View abstract.
  270. Zhang, F. L., Gao, H. Q., Wu, J. M., Ma, Y. B., You, B. A., Li, B. Y., and Xuan, J. H. Selective inhibition by grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts of cell adhesion molecule expression induced by advanced glycation end products in endothelial cells. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2006;48:47-53. View abstract.
  271. Ugartondo, V., Mitjans, M., Lozano, C., Torres, J. L., and Vinardell, M. P. Comparative study of the cytotoxicity induced by antioxidant epicatechin conjugates obtained from grape. J Agric.Food Chem 9-6-2006;54:6945-6950. View abstract.
  272. Fumagalli, F., Rossoni, M., Iriti, M., di, Gennaro A., Faoro, F., Borroni, E., Borgo, M., Scienza, A., Sala, A., and Folco, G. From field to health: a simple way to increase the nutraceutical content of grape as shown by NO-dependent vascular relaxation. J Agric.Food Chem 7-26-2006;54:5344-5349. View abstract.
  273. Yanez, M., Fraiz, N., Cano, E., and Orallo, F. (-)-Trans-epsilon-viniferin, a polyphenol present in wines, is an inhibitor of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake and of monoamine oxidase activity. Eur.J Pharmacol. 8-7-2006;542(1-3):54-60. View abstract.
  274. Jo, J. Y., de Mejia, E. G., and Lila, M. A. Cytotoxicity of bioactive polymeric fractions from grape cell culture on human hepatocellular carcinoma, murine leukemia and non-cancerous PK15 kidney cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006;44:1758-1767. View abstract.
  275. Castilla, P., Echarri, R., Davalos, A., Cerrato, F., Ortega, H., Teruel, J. L., Lucas, M. F., Gomez-Coronado, D., Ortuno, J., and Lasuncion, M. A. Concentrated red grape juice exerts antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiinflammatory effects in both hemodialysis patients and healthy subjects. Am J Clin.Nutr. 2006;84:252-262. View abstract.
  276. O'Brien, N. M., Carpenter, R., O'Callaghan, Y. C., O'Grady, M. N., and Kerry, J. P. Modulatory effects of resveratrol, citroflavan-3-ol, and plant-derived extracts on oxidative stress in U937 cells. J Med Food 2006;9:187-195. View abstract.
  277. Davalos, A., Fernandez-Hernando, C., Cerrato, F., Martinez-Botas, J., Gomez-Coronado, D., Gomez-Cordoves, C., and Lasuncion, M. A. Red grape juice polyphenols alter cholesterol homeostasis and increase LDL-receptor activity in human cells in vitro. J Nutr. 2006;136:1766-1773. View abstract.
  278. Iriti, M. and Faoro, F. Grape phytochemicals: a bouquet of old and new nutraceuticals for human health. Med Hypotheses 2006;67:833-838. View abstract.
  279. Wang, Z., Chen, Y., Labinskyy, N., Hsieh, T. C., Ungvari, Z., and Wu, J. M. Regulation of proliferation and gene expression in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells by resveratrol and standardized grape extracts. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 7-21-2006;346:367-376. View abstract.
  280. Kijima, I., Phung, S., Hur, G., Kwok, S. L., and Chen, S. Grape seed extract is an aromatase inhibitor and a suppressor of aromatase expression. Cancer Res 6-1-2006;66:5960-5967. View abstract.
  281. Kaur, M., Agarwal, R., and Agarwal, C. Grape seed extract induces anoikis and caspase-mediated apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells: possible role of ataxia telangiectasia mutated-p53 activation. Mol.Cancer Ther 2006;5:1265-1274. View abstract.
  282. Wright, T. I., Spencer, J. M., and Flowers, F. P. Chemoprevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer. J Am.Acad.Dermatol. 2006;54:933-946. View abstract.
  283. Skovgaard, G. R., Jensen, A. S., and Sigler, M. L. Effect of a novel dietary supplement on skin aging in post-menopausal women. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006;60:1201-1206. View abstract.
  284. Mantena, S. K. and Katiyar, S. K. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit UV-radiation-induced oxidative stress and activation of MAPK and NF-kappaB signaling in human epidermal keratinocytes. Free Radic.Biol Med 5-1-2006;40:1603-1614. View abstract.
  285. Katiyar, S. K. Matrix metalloproteinases in cancer metastasis: molecular targets for prostate cancer prevention by green tea polyphenols and grape seed proanthocyanidins. Endocr.Metab Immune.Disord Drug Targets. 2006;6:17-24. View abstract.
  286. Rabovsky, A., Cuomo, J., and Eich, N. Measurement of plasma antioxidant reserve after supplementation with various antioxidants in healthy subjects. Clin Chim Acta 2006;371(1-2):55-60. View abstract.
  287. Mantena, S. K., Baliga, M. S., and Katiyar, S. K. Grape seed proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis and inhibit metastasis of highly metastatic breast carcinoma cells. Carcinogenesis 2006;27:1682-1691. View abstract.
  288. Prokop, J., Abrman, P., Seligson, A. L., and Sovak, M. Resveratrol and its glycon piceid are stable polyphenols. J Med Food 2006;9:11-14. View abstract.
  289. Brooker, S., Martin, S., Pearson, A., Bagchi, D., Earl, J., Gothard, L., Hall, E., Porter, L., and Yarnold, J. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase II trial of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with radiation-induced breast induration. Radiother.Oncol 2006;79:45-51. View abstract.
  290. Hu, H. and Qin, Y. M. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract induced mitochondria-associated apoptosis in human acute myeloid leukaemia 14.3D10 cells. Chin Med J (Engl.) 3-5-2006;119:417-421. View abstract.
  291. Faria, A., Calhau, C., de, Freitas, V, and Mateus, N. Procyanidins as antioxidants and tumor cell growth modulators. J Agric Food Chem 3-22-2006;54:2392-2397. View abstract.
  292. Jo, J. Y., Gonzalez de, Mejia E., and Lila, M. A. Catalytic inhibition of human DNA topoisomerase II by interactions of grape cell culture polyphenols. J Agric.Food Chem 3-22-2006;54:2083-2087. View abstract.
  293. Monsieur, R. and Van, Snick G. [Efficacy of the red vine leaf extract AS 195 in Chronic Venous Insufficiency]. Praxis.(Bern.1994.) 1-25-2006;95:187-190. View abstract.
  294. Veluri, R., Singh, R. P., Liu, Z., Thompson, J. A., Agarwal, R., and Agarwal, C. Fractionation of grape seed extract and identification of gallic acid as one of the major active constituents causing growth inhibition and apoptotic death of DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells. Carcinogenesis 2006;27:1445-1453. View abstract.
  295. Do, Q. T., Renimel, I., Andre, P., Lugnier, C., Muller, C. D., and Bernard, P. Reverse pharmacognosy: application of selnergy, a new tool for lead discovery. The example of epsilon-viniferin. Curr.Drug Discov.Technol. 2005;2:161-167. View abstract.
  296. Baliga, M. S. and Katiyar, S. K. Chemoprevention of photocarcinogenesis by selected dietary botanicals. Photochem.Photobiol.Sci. 2006;5:243-253. View abstract.
  297. Barthomeuf, C., Lamy, S., Blanchette, M., Boivin, D., Gingras, D., and Beliveau, R. Inhibition of sphingosine-1-phosphate- and vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial cell chemotaxis by red grape skin polyphenols correlates with a decrease in early platelet-activating factor synthesis. Free Radic.Biol.Med 2-15-2006;40:581-590. View abstract.
  298. Furzer, G. S., Veldhuis, L., and Hall, J. C. Development and comparison of three diagnostic immunoassay formats for the detection of azoxystrobin. J Agric.Food Chem 2-8-2006;54:688-693. View abstract.
  299. Faria, A., Mateus, N., de, Freitas, V, and Calhau, C. Modulation of MPP+ uptake by procyanidins in Caco-2 cells: involvement of oxidation/reduction reactions. FEBS Lett 1-9-2006;580:155-160. View abstract.
  300. Godichaud, S., Si-Tayeb, K., Auge, N., Desmouliere, A., Balabaud, C., Payrastre, B., Negre-Salvayre, A., and Rosenbaum, J. The grape-derived polyphenol resveratrol differentially affects epidermal and platelet-derived growth factor signaling in human liver myofibroblasts. Int.J Biochem.Cell Biol. 2006;38:629-637. View abstract.
  301. Lekakis, J., Rallidis, L. S., Andreadou, I., Vamvakou, G., Kazantzoglou, G., Magiatis, P., Skaltsounis, A. L., and Kremastinos, D. T. Polyphenolic compounds from red grapes acutely improve endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease. Eur.J Cardiovasc.Prev.Rehabil. 2005;12:596-600. View abstract.
  302. Garcia-Alonso, M., Rimbach, G., Sasai, M., Nakahara, M., Matsugo, S., Uchida, Y., Rivas-Gonzalo, J. C., and De Pascual-Teresa, S. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy studies on the free radical scavenging activity of wine anthocyanins and pyranoanthocyanins. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2005;49:1112-1119. View abstract.
  303. Yi, W., Fischer, J., and Akoh, C. C. Study of anticancer activities of muscadine grape phenolics in vitro. J Agric.Food Chem 11-2-2005;53:8804-8812. View abstract.
  304. Tao, H. Y., Wu, C. F., Zhou, Y., Gong, W. H., Zhang, X., Iribarren, P., Zhao, Y. Q., Le, Y. Y., and Wang, J. M. The grape component resveratrol interferes with the function of chemoattractant receptors on phagocytic leukocytes. Cell Mol.Immunol. 2004;1:50-56. View abstract.
  305. Larronde, F., Richard, T., Delaunay, J. C., Decendit, A., Monti, J. P., Krisa, S., and Merillon, J. M. New stilbenoid glucosides isolated from Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon). Planta Med 2005;71:888-890. View abstract.
  306. Vitseva, O., Varghese, S., Chakrabarti, S., Folts, J. D., and Freedman, J. E. Grape seed and skin extracts inhibit platelet function and release of reactive oxygen intermediates. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 2005;46:445-451. View abstract.
  307. Coimbra, S. R., Lage, S. H., Brandizzi, L., Yoshida, V., and da Luz, P. L. The action of red wine and purple grape juice on vascular reactivity is independent of plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic patients. Braz.J Med Biol.Res 2005;38:1339-1347. View abstract.
  308. Morre, D. M. and Morre, D. J. Anticancer activity of grape and grape skin extracts alone and combined with green tea infusions. Cancer Lett. 7-18-2006;238:202-209. View abstract.
  309. Zern, T. L., Wood, R. J., Greene, C., West, K. L., Liu, Y., Aggarwal, D., Shachter, N. S., and Fernandez, M. L. Grape polyphenols exert a cardioprotective effect in pre- and postmenopausal women by lowering plasma lipids and reducing oxidative stress. J Nutr. 2005;135:1911-1917. View abstract.
  310. Puiggros, F., Llopiz, N., Ardevol, A., Blade, C., Arola, L., and Salvado, M. J. Grape seed procyanidins prevent oxidative injury by modulating the expression of antioxidant enzyme systems. J Agric.Food Chem 7-27-2005;53:6080-6086. View abstract.
  311. Laurent, C., Besancon, P., and Caporiccio, B. Ethanol and polyphenolic free wine matrix stimulate the differentiation of human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Influence of their association with a procyanidin-rich grape seed extract. J Agric.Food Chem 7-13-2005;53:5541-5548. View abstract.
  312. Sharma, S. D. and Katiyar, S. K. Dietary grape-seed proanthocyanidin inhibition of ultraviolet B-induced immune suppression is associated with induction of IL-12. Carcinogenesis 2006;27:95-102. View abstract.
  313. Erguder, I. B., Cetin, R., Devrim, E., Kilicoglu, B., Avci, A., and Durak, I. Effects of cyclosporine on oxidant/antioxidant status in rat ovary tissues: protective role of black grape extract. Int.Immunopharmacol. 2005;5(7-8):1311-1315. View abstract.
  314. Combina, M., Mercado, L., Borgo, P., Elia, A., Jofre, V., Ganga, A., Martinez, C., and Catania, C. Yeasts associated to Malbec grape berries from Mendoza, Argentina. J Appl.Microbiol. 2005;98:1055-1061. View abstract.
  315. Durak, I., Cetin, R., Devrim, E., and Erguder, I. B. Effects of black grape extract on activities of DNA turn-over enzymes in cancerous and non cancerous human colon tissues. Life Sci. 5-6-2005;76:2995-3000. View abstract.
  316. Jo, J. Y., Gonzalez de, Mejia E., and Lila, M. A. Effects of grape cell culture extracts on human topoisomerase II catalytic activity and characterization of active fractions. J Agric.Food Chem 4-6-2005;53:2489-2498. View abstract.
  317. Ng, W., Mankotia, M., Pantazopoulos, P., Neil, R. J., and Scott, P. M. Ochratoxin A in wine and grape juice sold in Canada. Food Addit.Contam 2004;21:971-981. View abstract.
  318. Hansen, A. S., Marckmann, P., Dragsted, L. O., Finne Nielsen, I. L., Nielsen, S. E., and Gronbaek, M. Effect of red wine and red grape extract on blood lipids, haemostatic factors, and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Eur.J Clin.Nutr. 2005;59:449-455. View abstract.
  319. Park, Y. K., Kim, J. S., and Kang, M. H. Concord grape juice supplementation reduces blood pressure in Korean hypertensive men: double-blind, placebo controlled intervention trial. Biofactors 2004;22(1-4):145-147. View abstract.
  320. de Lange, D. W., Scholman, W. L., Kraaijenhagen, R. J., Akkerman, J. W., and van de Wiel, A. Alcohol and polyphenolic grape extract inhibit platelet adhesion in flowing blood. Eur.J Clin.Invest 2004;34:818-824. View abstract.
  321. Yamakoshi, J., Sano, A., Tokutake, S., Saito, M., Kikuchi, M., Kubota, Y., Kawachi, Y., and Otsuka, F. Oral intake of proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds improves chloasma. Phytother Res 2004;18:895-899. View abstract.
  322. Clifton, P. M. Effect of Grape Seed Extract and Quercetin on Cardiovascular and Endothelial Parameters in High-Risk Subjects. J Biomed.Biotechnol. 2004;2004:272-278. View abstract.
  323. Mitjans, M., del, Campo J., Abajo, C., Martinez, V., Selga, A., Lozano, C., Torres, J. L., and Vinardell, M. P. Immunomodulatory activity of a new family of antioxidants obtained from grape polyphenols. J Agric.Food Chem 12-1-2004;52:7297-7299. View abstract.
  324. Rapeanu, G., Van, Loey A., Smout, C., and Hendrickx, M. Thermostability of Victoria grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) polyphenoloxidase. Commun.Agric.Appl.Biol.Sci. 2004;69:231-234. View abstract.
  325. Albers, A. R., Varghese, S., Vitseva, O., Vita, J. A., and Freedman, J. E. The antiinflammatory effects of purple grape juice consumption in subjects with stable coronary artery disease. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 2004;24:e179-e180. View abstract.
  326. Nishikawa, M., Ariyoshi, N., Kotani, A., Ishii, I., Nakamura, H., Nakasa, H., Ida, M., Nakamura, H., Kimura, N., Kimura, M., Hasegawa, A., Kusu, F., Ohmori, S., Nakazawa, K., and Kitada, M. Effects of continuous ingestion of green tea or grape seed extracts on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2004;19:280-289. View abstract.
  327. Bejaoui, H., Mathieu, F., Taillandier, P., and Lebrihi, A. Ochratoxin A removal in synthetic and natural grape juices by selected oenological Saccharomyces strains. J Appl.Microbiol. 2004;97:1038-1044. View abstract.
  328. Nomoto, H., Iigo, M., Hamada, H., Kojima, S., and Tsuda, H. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by grape seed proanthocyanidin is accompanied by a decrease in proliferation and increase in apoptosis. Nutr Cancer 2004;49:81-88. View abstract.
  329. Sugisawa, A., Inoue, S., and Umegaki, K. Grape seed extract prevents HO-induced chromosomal damage in human lymphoblastoid cells. Biol.Pharm Bull. 2004;27:1459-1461. View abstract.
  330. Ward, N. C., Croft, K. D., Puddey, I. B., and Hodgson, J. M. Supplementation with grape seed polyphenols results in increased urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic Acid, an important metabolite of proanthocyanidins in humans. J Agric.Food Chem 8-25-2004;52:5545-5549. View abstract.
  331. Larrosa, M., Tomas-Barberan, F. A., and Espin, J. C. The grape and wine polyphenol piceatannol is a potent inducer of apoptosis in human SK-Mel-28 melanoma cells. Eur.J Nutr. 2004;43:275-284. View abstract.
  332. Kalus, U., Koscielny, J., Grigorov, A., Schaefer, E., Peil, H., and Kiesewetter, H. Improvement of cutaneous microcirculation and oxygen supply in patients with chronic venous insufficiency by orally administered extract of red vine leaves AS 195: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Drugs R.D. 2004;5:63-71. View abstract.
  333. Rosa, C. A., Magnoli, C. E., Fraga, M. E., Dalcero, A. M., and Santana, D. M. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in wine and grape juice marketed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Food Addit.Contam 2004;21:358-364. View abstract.
  334. Rawn, D. F., Roscoe, V., Krakalovich, T., and Hanson, C. N-methyl carbamate concentrations and dietary intake estimates for apple and grape juices available on the retail market in Canada. Food Addit.Contam 2004;21:555-563. View abstract.
  335. Laurent, C., Besancon, P., Auger, C., Rouanet, J. M., and Caporiccio, B. Grape seed extract affects proliferation and differentiation of human intestinal Caco-2 cells. J Agric.Food Chem 6-2-2004;52:3301-3308. View abstract.
  336. Shao, Z. H., Vanden Hoek, T. L., Li, C. Q., Schumacker, P. T., Becker, L. B., Chan, K. C., Qin, Y., Yin, J. J., and Yuan, C. S. Synergistic effect of Scutellaria baicalensis and grape seed proanthocyanidins on scavenging reactive oxygen species in vitro. Am J Chin Med 2004;32:89-95. View abstract.
  337. Palenzuela, B., Arce, L., Macho, A., Munoz, E., Rios, A., and Valcarcel, M. Bioguided extraction of polyphenols from grape marc by using an alternative supercritical-fluid extraction method based on a liquid solvent trap. Anal.Bioanal.Chem 2004;378:2021-2027. View abstract.
  338. Shi, J., Yu, J., Pohorly, J. E., and Kakuda, Y. Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality. J Med Food 2003;6:291-299. View abstract.
  339. Agarwal, C., Singh, R. P., Dhanalakshmi, S., and Agarwal, R. Anti-angiogenic efficacy of grape seed extract in endothelial cells. Oncol.Rep. 2004;11:681-685. View abstract.
  340. Vayalil, P. K., Mittal, A., and Katiyar, S. K. Proanthocyanidins from grape seeds inhibit expression of matrix metalloproteinases in human prostate carcinoma cells, which is associated with the inhibition of activation of MAPK and NF kappa B. Carcinogenesis 2004;25:987-995. View abstract.
  341. Larrosa, M., Tomas-Barberan, F. A., and Espin, J. C. Grape polyphenol resveratrol and the related molecule 4-hydroxystilbene induce growth inhibition, apoptosis, S-phase arrest, and upregulation of cyclins A, E, and B1 in human SK-Mel-28 melanoma cells. J Agric.Food Chem 7-30-2003;51:4576-4584. View abstract.
  342. Singh, R. P., Tyagi, A. K., Dhanalakshmi, S., Agarwal, R., and Agarwal, C. Grape seed extract inhibits advanced human prostate tumor growth and angiogenesis and upregulates insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3. Int.J Cancer 2-20-2004;108:733-740. View abstract.
  343. Wang, H., Race, E. J., and Shrikhande, A. J. Anthocyanin transformation in Cabernet Sauvignon wine during aging. J Agric.Food Chem 12-31-2003;51:7989-7994. View abstract.
  344. Singletary, K. W., Stansbury, M. J., Giusti, M., Van Breemen, R. B., Wallig, M., and Rimando, A. Inhibition of rat mammary tumorigenesis by concord grape juice constituents. J Agric.Food Chem 12-3-2003;51:7280-7286. View abstract.
  345. Vigna, G. B., Costantini, F., Aldini, G., Carini, M., Catapano, A., Schena, F., Tangerini, A., Zanca, R., Bombardelli, E., Morazzoni, P., Mezzetti, A., Fellin, R., and Maffei, Facino R. Effect of a standardized grape seed extract on low-density lipoprotein susceptibility to oxidation in heavy smokers. Metabolism 2003;52:1250-1257. View abstract.
  346. Aldini, G., Carini, M., Piccoli, A., Rossoni, G., and Facino, R. M. Procyanidins from grape seeds protect endothelial cells from peroxynitrite damage and enhance endothelium-dependent relaxation in human artery: new evidences for cardio-protection. Life Sci. 10-17-2003;73:2883-2898. View abstract.
  347. Dhanalakshmi, S., Agarwal, R., and Agarwal, C. Inhibition of NF-kappaB pathway in grape seed extract-induced apoptotic death of human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells. Int J Oncol. 2003;23:721-727. View abstract.
  348. Nees, S., Weiss, D. R., Reichenbach-Klinke, E., Rampp, F., Heilmeier, B., Kanbach, J., and Esperester, A. Protective effects of flavonoids contained in the red vine leaf on venular endothelium against the attack of activated blood components in vitro. Arzneimittelforschung. 2003;53:330-341. View abstract.
  349. Sano, A., Yamakoshi, J., Tokutake, S., Tobe, K., Kubota, Y., and Kikuchi, M. Procyanidin B1 is detected in human serum after intake of proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2003;67:1140-1143. View abstract.
  350. Piver, B., Berthou, F., Dreano, Y., and Lucas, D. Differential inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by epsilon-viniferin, the dimer of resveratrol: comparison with resveratrol and polyphenols from alcoholized beverages. Life Sci. 7-18-2003;73:1199-1213. View abstract.
  351. Shafiee, M., Carbonneau, M. A., Urban, N., Descomps, B., and Leger, C. L. Grape and grape seed extract capacities at protecting LDL against oxidation generated by Cu2+, AAPH or SIN-1 and at decreasing superoxide THP-1 cell production. A comparison to other extracts or compounds. Free Radic.Res 2003;37:573-584. View abstract.
  352. Schaefer, E., Peil, H., Ambrosetti, L., and Petrini, O. Oedema protective properties of the red vine leaf extract AS 195 (Folia vitis viniferae) in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. A 6-week observational clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung. 2003;53:243-246. View abstract.
  353. Frank, T., Netzel, M., Strass, G., Bitsch, R., and Bitsch, I. Bioavailability of anthocyanidin-3-glucosides following consumption of red wine and red grape juice. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2003;81:423-435. View abstract.
  354. Brown, K. L., Shefler, A., Cohen, G., DeMunter, C., Pigott, N., and Goldman, A. P. Near-fatal grape aspiration with complicating acute lung injury successfully treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2003;4:243-245. View abstract.
  355. Sovak, M. Grape Extract, Resveratrol, and Its Analogs: A Review. J Med Food 2001;4:93-105. View abstract.
  356. Bagchi, D., Sen, C. K., Ray, S. D., Das, D. K., Bagchi, M., Preuss, H. G., and Vinson, J. A. Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Mutat.Res 2003;523-524:87-97. View abstract.
  357. Tyagi, A., Agarwal, R., and Agarwal, C. Grape seed extract inhibits EGF-induced and constitutively active mitogenic signaling but activates JNK in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells: possible role in antiproliferation and apoptosis. Oncogene 3-6-2003;22:1302-1316. View abstract.
  358. Bagchi, D., Ray, S. D., Bagchi, M., Preuss, H. G., and Stohs, S. J. Mechanistic pathways of antioxidant cytoprotection by a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2002;40:717-726. View abstract.
  359. Katsuzaki, H., Hibasami, H., Ohwaki, S., Ishikawa, K., Imai, K., Date, K., Kimura, Y., and Komiya, T. Cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated from skin of black Glycine max and other anthocyanins isolated from skin of red grape induce apoptosis in human lymphoid leukemia Molt 4B cells. Oncol.Rep. 2003;10:297-300. View abstract.
  360. Billard, C., Izard, J. C., Roman, V., Kern, C., Mathiot, C., Mentz, F., and Kolb, J. P. Comparative antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of resveratrol, epsilon-viniferin and vine-shots derived polyphenols (vineatrols) on chronic B lymphocytic leukemia cells and normal human lymphocytes. Leuk.Lymphoma 2002;43:1991-2002. View abstract.
  361. Natella, F., Belelli, F., Gentili, V., Ursini, F., and Scaccini, C. Grape seed proanthocyanidins prevent plasma postprandial oxidative stress in humans. J Agric.Food Chem 12-18-2002;50:7720-7725. View abstract.
  362. Torres, J. L., Varela, B., Garcia, M. T., Carilla, J., Matito, C., Centelles, J. J., Cascante, M., Sort, X., and Bobet, R. Valorization of grape (Vitis vinifera) byproducts. Antioxidant and biological properties of polyphenolic fractions differing in procyanidin composition and flavonol content. J Agric.Food Chem 12-18-2002;50:7548-7555. View abstract.
  363. Shanmuganayagam, D., Beahm, M. R., Osman, H. E., Krueger, C. G., Reed, J. D., and Folts, J. D. Grape seed and grape skin extracts elicit a greater antiplatelet effect when used in combination than when used individually in dogs and humans. J Nutr. 2002;132:3592-3598. View abstract.
  364. Nair, M. P., Kandaswami, C., Mahajan, S., Nair, H. N., Chawda, R., Shanahan, T., and Schwartz, S. A. Grape seed extract proanthocyanidins downregulate HIV-1 entry coreceptors, CCR2b, CCR3 and CCR5 gene expression by normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Biol.Res 2002;35(3-4):421-431. View abstract.
  365. O'Byrne, D. J., Devaraj, S., Grundy, S. M., and Jialal, I. Comparison of the antioxidant effects of Concord grape juice flavonoids alpha-tocopherol on markers of oxidative stress in healthy adults. Am J Clin.Nutr. 2002;76:1367-1374. View abstract.
  366. Kalin, R., Righi, A., Del, Rosso A., Bagchi, D., Generini, S., Cerinic, M. M., and Das, D. K. Activin, a grape seed-derived proanthocyanidin extract, reduces plasma levels of oxidative stress and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin) in systemic sclerosis. Free Radic.Res 2002;36:819-825. View abstract.
  367. Agarwal, C., Singh, R. P., and Agarwal, R. Grape seed extract induces apoptotic death of human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells via caspases activation accompanied by dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. Carcinogenesis 2002;23:1869-1876. View abstract.
  368. Cui, J., Juhasz, B., Tosaki, A., Maulik, N., and Das, D. K. Cardioprotection with grapes. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 2002;40:762-769. View abstract.
  369. Khanna, S., Venojarvi, M., Roy, S., Sharma, N., Trikha, P., Bagchi, D., Bagchi, M., and Sen, C. K. Dermal wound healing properties of redox-active grape seed proanthocyanidins. Free Radic.Biol.Med 10-15-2002;33:1089-1096. View abstract.
  370. Simonetti, P., Ciappellano, S., Gardana, C., Bramati, L., and Pietta, P. Procyanidins from Vitis vinifera seeds: in vivo effects on oxidative stress. J Agric.Food Chem 10-9-2002;50:6217-6221. View abstract.
  371. Chidambara Murthy, K. N., Singh, R. P., and Jayaprakasha, G. K. Antioxidant activities of grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace extracts. J Agric.Food Chem 10-9-2002;50:5909-5914. View abstract.
  372. Cui, J., Cordis, G. A., Tosaki, A., Maulik, N., and Das, D. K. Reduction of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury with regular consumption of grapes. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2002;957:302-307. View abstract.
  373. Bagchi, D., Bagchi, M., Stohs, Sj, Ray, S. D., Sen, C. K., and Preuss, H. G. Cellular protection with proanthocyanidins derived from grape seeds. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2002;957:260-270. View abstract.
  374. Preuss, H. G., Bagchi, D., and Bagchi, M. Protective effects of a novel niacin-bound chromium complex and a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on advancing age and various aspects of syndrome X. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2002;957:250-259. View abstract.
  375. Fitzpatrick, D. F., Bing, B., Maggi, D. A., Fleming, R. C., and O'Malley, R. M. Vasodilating procyanidins derived from grape seeds. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2002;957:78-89. View abstract.
  376. Torres, J. L., Lozano, C., Julia, L., Sanchez-Baeza, F. J., Anglada, J. M., Centelles, J. J., and Cascante, M. Cysteinyl-flavan-3-ol conjugates from grape procyanidins. Antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. Bioorg.Med Chem 2002;10:2497-2509. View abstract.
  377. Nair, N., Mahajan, S., Chawda, R., Kandaswami, C., Shanahan, T. C., and Schwartz, S. A. Grape seed extract activates Th1 cells in vitro. Clin.Diagn.Lab Immunol. 2002;9:470-476. View abstract.
  378. Li, S., Zhong, J., and Sun, F. [Study on the protective effect of grape procyanidins on DNA damage induced by irradiation]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 2000;34:131-133. View abstract.
  379. Bhat, K. P. L., Kosmeder, J. W., and Pezzuto, J. M. Biological effects of resveratrol. Antioxid.Redox.Signal. 2001;3:1041-1064. View abstract.
  380. Carini, M., Stefani, R., Aldini, G., Ozioli, M., and Facino, R. M. Procyanidins from Vitis vinifera seeds inhibit the respiratory burst of activated human neutrophils and lysosomal enzyme release. Planta Med 2001;67:714-717. View abstract.
  381. Bub, A., Watzl, B., Heeb, D., Rechkemmer, G., and Briviba, K. Malvidin-3-glucoside bioavailability in humans after ingestion of red wine, dealcoholized red wine and red grape juice. Eur.J Nutr. 2001;40:113-120. View abstract.
  382. Fournier, J. [Grape sugar manufacture assays under Premier Empire]. Rev.Hist Pharm (Paris) 1999;47:227-234. View abstract.
  383. Chou, E. J., Keevil, J. G., Aeschlimann, S., Wiebe, D. A., Folts, J. D., and Stein, J. H. Effect of ingestion of purple grape juice on endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol 9-1-2001;88:553-555. View abstract.
  384. Joshi, S. S., Kuszynski, C. A., and Bagchi, D. The cellular and molecular basis of health benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Curr.Pharm Biotechnol. 2001;2:187-200. View abstract.
  385. Kundu, J. K., Rouf, A. S., Hossain, M. N., Hasan, C. M., and Rashid, M. A. Antitumor activity of epifriedelanol from Vitis trifolia. Fitoterapia 2000;71:577-579. View abstract.
  386. Khanna, S., Roy, S., Bagchi, D., Bagchi, M., and Sen, C. K. Upregulation of oxidant-induced VEGF expression in cultured keratinocytes by a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Free Radic.Biol.Med 7-1-2001;31:38-42. View abstract.
  387. Banerjee, B. and Bagchi, D. Beneficial effects of a novel ih636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in the treatment of chronic pancreatitis. Digestion 2001;63:203-206. View abstract.
  388. Ray, S. D., Parikh, H., Hickey, E., Bagchi, M., and Bagchi, D. Differential effects of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract and a DNA repair modulator 4-aminobenzamide on liver microsomal cytochrome 4502E1-dependent aniline hydroxylation. Mol Cell Biochem 2001;218(1-2):27-33. View abstract.
  389. Al, Nasir F., Jiries, A. G., Batarseh, M. I., and Beese, F. Pesticides and trace metals residue in grape and home made wine in Jordan. Environ.Monit.Assess. 2001;66:253-263. View abstract.
  390. Bagchi, D., Ray, S. D., Patel, D., and Bagchi, M. Protection against drug- and chemical-induced multiorgan toxicity by a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Drugs Exp.Clin.Res 2001;27:3-15. View abstract.
  391. Sen, C. K. and Bagchi, D. Regulation of inducible adhesion molecule expression in human endothelial cells by grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2001;216(1-2):1-7. View abstract.
  392. de, Santi C., Pietrabissa, A., Mosca, F., and Pacifici, G. M. Glucuronidation of resveratrol, a natural product present in grape and wine, in the human liver. Xenobiotica 2000;30:1047-1054. View abstract.
  393. Joshi, S. S., Kuszynski, C. A., Bagchi, M., and Bagchi, D. Chemopreventive effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on Chang liver cells. Toxicology 11-30-2000;155(1-3):83-90. View abstract.
  394. Young, J. F., Dragsted, L. O., Daneshvar, B., Lauridsen, S. T., Hansen, M., and Sandstrom, B. The effect of grape-skin extract on oxidative status. Br J Nutr 2000;84:505-513. View abstract.
  395. Agarwal, C., Sharma, Y., Zhao, J., and Agarwal, R. A polyphenolic fraction from grape seeds causes irreversible growth inhibition of breast carcinoma MDA-MB468 cells by inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinases activation and inducing G1 arrest and differentiation. Clin.Cancer Res 2000;6:2921-2930. View abstract.
  396. Tamura, H. and Matsui, M. Inhibitory effects of green tea and grape juice on the phenol sulfotransferase activity of mouse intestines and human colon carcinoma cell line, Caco-2. Biol.Pharm Bull. 2000;23:695-699. View abstract.
  397. Koide, T., Kamei, H., Hashimoto, Y., Kojima, T., and Hasegawa, M. Antitumor effect of hydrolyzed anthocyanin from grape rinds and red rice. Cancer Biother.Radiopharm. 1996;11:273-277. View abstract.
  398. Berthier, L., Marchal, R., Debray, H., Bonnet, E., Jeandet, P., and Maujean, A. Isolation of isolectins from Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Chardonnay grape berries. J Agric.Food Chem 1999;47:2193-2197. View abstract.
  399. Shirataki, Y., Kawase, M., Saito, S., Kurihara, T., Tanaka, W., Satoh, K., Sakagami, H., and Motohashi, N. Selective cytotoxic activity of grape peel and seed extracts against oral tumor cell lines. Anticancer Res 2000;20(1A):423-426. View abstract.
  400. Hsieh, T. C. and Wu, J. M. Grape-derived chemopreventive agent resveratrol decreases prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression in LNCaP cells by an androgen receptor (AR)-independent mechanism. Anticancer Res 2000;20(1A):225-228. View abstract.
  401. Gabetta, B., Fuzzati, N., Griffini, A., Lolla, E., Pace, R., Ruffilli, T., and Peterlongo, F. Characterization of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds. Fitoterapia 2000;71:162-175. View abstract.
  402. Cabras, P., Angioni, A., Caboni, P., Garau, V. L., Melis, M., Pirisi, F. M., and Cabitza, F. Distribution of folpet on the grape surface after treatment. J Agric.Food Chem 2000;48:915-916. View abstract.
  403. Sahach, V. F., Shymans'ka, T. V., Zul'fiharov, O. S., Ovchynnikova, O. H., and Hozhenko, A. I. [The effect of a grape extract on the contractile activity of the myocardium and on the coronary flow of the isolated guinea pig heart]. Fiziol.Zh. 1999;45:117-121. View abstract.
  404. Durak, I., Avci, A., Kacmaz, M., Buyukkocak, S., Cimen, M. Y., Elgun, S., and Ozturk, H. S. Comparison of antioxidant potentials of red wine, white wine, grape juice and alcohol. Curr.Med Res Opin. 1999;15:316-320. View abstract.
  405. Paul, B., Masih, I., Deopujari, J., and Charpentier, C. Occurrence of resveratrol and pterostilbene in age-old darakchasava, an ayurvedic medicine from India. J Ethnopharmacol. 12-15-1999;68(1-3):71-76. View abstract.
  406. Keevil, J. G., Osman, H. E., Reed, J. D., and Folts, J. D. Grape juice, but not orange juice or grapefruit juice, inhibits human platelet aggregation. J Nutr. 2000;130:53-56. View abstract.
  407. Palma, M., Taylor, L. T., Varela, R. M., Cutler, S. J., and Cutler, H. G. Fractional extraction of compounds from grape seeds by supercritical fluid extraction and analysis for antimicrobial and agrochemical activities. J Agric.Food Chem 1999;47:5044-5048. View abstract.
  408. Ozturk, H. S., Kacmaz, M., Cimen, M. Y., and Durak, I. Red wine and black grape strengthen blood antioxidant potential. Nutrition 1999;15(11-12):954-955. View abstract.
  409. Ye, X., Krohn, R. L., Liu, W., Joshi, S. S., Kuszynski, C. A., McGinn, T. R., Bagchi, M., Preuss, H. G., Stohs, S. J., and Bagchi, D. The cytotoxic effects of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on cultured human cancer cells. Mol.Cell Biochem 1999;196(1-2):99-108. View abstract.
  410. Lu, R. and Serrero, G. Resveratrol, a natural product derived from grape, exhibits antiestrogenic activity and inhibits the growth of human breast cancer cells. J Cell Physiol 1999;179:297-304. View abstract.
  411. Bonnet, D., Mejdoubi, S., Sommet, A., and Alric, L. [Acute hepatitis probably induced by Fumaria and Vitis vinifera tinctoria herbal products]. Gastroenterol.Clin.Biol. 2007;31:1041-1042. View abstract.
  412. Ahn, J., Grun, I. U., and Mustapha, A. Effects of plant extracts on microbial growth, color change, and lipid oxidation in cooked beef. Food Microbiol. 2007;24:7-14. View abstract.
  413. Agarwal, C., Tyagi, A., and Agarwal, R. Gallic acid causes inactivating phosphorylation of cdc25A/cdc25C-cdc2 via ATM-Chk2 activation, leading to cell cycle arrest, and induces apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells. Mol.Cancer Ther 2006;5:3294-3302. View abstract.
  414. Shivashankara, A. R., Azmidah, A., Haniadka, R., Rai, M. P., Arora, R., and Baliga, M. S. Dietary agents in the prevention of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicty: preclinical observations. Food Funct. 2012;3:101-109. View abstract.
  415. Preuss, H. G., Wallerstedt, D., Talpur, N., Tutuncuoglu, S. O., Echard, B., Myers, A., Bui, M., and Bagchi, D. Effects of niacin-bound chromium and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects: a pilot study. J Med 2000;31(5-6):227-246. View abstract.
  416. Gupta H, Pawar D, Riva A, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of an optimized botanical combination in the management of patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia. Phytother Res 2012;26:265-272. View abstract.
  417. Barona J, Aristizabal JC, Blesso CN, et al. Grape polyphenols reduce blood pressure and increase flow-mediated vasodilation in men with metabolic syndrome. J Nutr 2012;142:1626-32. View abstract.
  418. Meng X, Maliakal P, Lu H, et al. Urinary and plasma levels of resveratrol and quercetin in humans, mice, and rats after ingestion of pure compounds and grape juice. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:935-42. View abstract.
  419. Ward NC, Hodgson JM, Croft KD, et al. The combination of vitamin C and grape-seed polyphenols increases blood pressure: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Hypertens 2005;23:427-34.. View abstract.
  420. Snow LA, Hovanec L, Brandt J. A controlled trial of aromatherapy for agitation in nursing home patients with dementia. J Altern Complement Med 2004;10:431-7. View abstract.
  421. Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Perloff ES, et al. Interaction of flurbiprofen with cranberry juice, grape juice, tea, and fluconazole: in vitro and clinical studies. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006;79:125-33. View abstract.
  422. Agarwal C, Sharma Y, Agarwal R. Anticarcinogenic effect of a polyphenolic fraction isolated from grape seeds in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells: modulation of mitogenic signaling and cell-cycle regulators and induction of G1 arrest and apoptosis. Mol Carcinog 2000;28:129-38.. View abstract.
  423. Pataki T, Bak I, Kovacs P, et al. Grape seed proanthocyanidins improved cardiac recovery during reperfusion after ischemia in isolated rat hearts. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:894-9.
  424. Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Stohs SJ, et al. Cellular protection with proanthocyanidins derived from grape seeds. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002;957:260-70.
  425. Nuttall SL, Kendall MJ, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P. An evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a standardized grape seed extract, Leucoselect. J Clin Pharm Ther 1998;23:385-89. View abstract.
  426. Bernstein DI, Bernstein CK, Deng C, et al. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy and safety of grapeseed extract in the treatment of fall seasonal allergic rhinitis: a pilot study. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2002;88:272-8.. View abstract.
  427. Stein JH, Keevil JG, Wiebe DA, et al. Purple grape juice improves endothelial function and reduces the susceptibility of LDL cholesterol to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 1999;100:1050-5.. View abstract.
  428. Freedman JE, Parker C, Li L, et al. Select flavonoids and whole juice from purple grapes inhibit platelet function and enhance nitric oxide release. Circulation 2001;103:2792-8.. View abstract.
  429. Chisholm A, Mann J, Skeaff M, et al. A diet rich in walnuts favourably influences plasma fatty acid profile in moderately hyperlipidaemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:12-6. View abstract.
  430. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid= 786bafc6f6343634fbf79fcdca7061e1&rgn=div5&view= text&node=21:
  431. Chevallier A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. London, UK: Dorling Kindersley, Ltd., 1996.
  432. BIBRA working group. Anthocyanins. Toxicity profile. BIBRA Toxicol Int 1991;6.
  433. Vaswani SK, Hamilton RG, Carey RN, et al. Anaphylaxis recurrent urticaria and angioedema from grape hypersensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101:S31.
  434. Peirce A. The American Pharmaceutical Association Practical Guide to Natural Medicines. New York, NY: William Morrow and Co., 1999.
  435. Anon. OPCs (Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins). The Natural Pharmacist 2000. http://www.tnp.com/substance.asp?ID=181. (Accessed 3 June 2000).
  436. Meyer AS, Yi OS, Pearson DA, et al. Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation in relation to composition of phenolic antioxidants in grapes (Vitis vinifera). J Agric Food Chem 1997;45:1638-43.
  437. Putter M, Grotemeyer KH, Wurthwein G, et al. Inhibition of smoking-induced platelet aggregation by aspirin and pycnogenol. Thromb Res 1999;95:155-61. View abstract.
  438. Pace-Asciak CR, Rounova O, Hahn SE, et al. Wines and grape juices as modulators of platelet aggregation in healthy human subjects. Clin Chim Acta 1996;246:163-82. View abstract.
  439. Fitzpatrick DF, Bing, Rohdewald P. Endothelium-dependent vascular effects of Pycnogenol. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998;32:509-15. View abstract.
  440. Tixier JM, et al. Evidence by in vivo and in vitro studies that binding of pycnogenols to elastin affects its rate of degradation by elastases. Biochem Pharmacol 1984;33:3933-9. View abstract.
  441. Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P. Vitis vinifera L. Fitoterapia 1995;LXVI:291-317.
  442. Xiao Dong S, Zhi Ping Z, Zhong Xiao W, et al. Possible enhancement of the first-pass metabolism of phenacetin by ingestion of grape juice in Chinese subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999;48:638-40. View abstract.
  443. Kiesewetter H, Koscielny J, Kalus U, et al. Efficacy of orally administered extract of red vine leaf AS 195 (folia vitis viniferae) in chronic venous insufficiency (stages I-II). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arzneimittelforschung 2000;50:109-17. View abstract.
  444. Satietrol press releases. PacificHealth Labs, Inc., Woodbridge, NJ. www.satietrol.com/press.htm and www.satietrol.com/press1.htm (Accessed 10 January 2000).
  445. Covington TR, et al. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs. 11th ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmaceutical Association, 1996.
  446. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
  447. Foster S, Tyler VE. Tyler's Honest Herbal: A Sensible Guide to the Use of Herbs and Related Remedies. 3rd ed., Binghamton, NY: Haworth Herbal Press, 1993.
  448. Tyler VE. Herbs of Choice. Binghamton, NY: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1994.
  449. Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Trans. S. Klein. Boston, MA: American Botanical Council, 1998.
  450. Monographs on the medicinal uses of plant drugs. Exeter, UK: European Scientific Co-op Phytother, 1997.
Last reviewed - 03/03/2016