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Olivo

¿Qué es?

El olivo (Olea europaea) es un árbol con frutos, hojas y semillas comestibles. El aceite de oliva proviene de la aceituna y contiene ácidos grasos monoinsaturados.

Los ácidos grasos del aceite de oliva parecen disminuir los niveles de colesterol y tienen efectos antiinflamatorios. La hoja de olivo y el aceite de oliva pueden reducir la presión arterial. La aceituna también podría matar microbios, como bacterias y hongos.

El aceite de oliva se usa comúnmente en los alimentos. Como medicamento, la gente usa con mayor frecuencia el aceite de oliva para las enfermedades cardíacas, la diabetes y la presión arterial alta. También se usa para el colesterol alto, el cáncer, la memoria y las habilidades de pensamiento, la migraña, la obesidad y muchas otras condiciones, pero no existe una buena evidencia científica que respalde muchos de estos otros usos.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • Cáncer de seno. El consumo de más aceite de oliva en la dieta parece estar relacionado con un menor riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de seno.
  • Enfermedad del corazón. Las personas que cocinan con aceite de oliva parecen tener un riesgo menor de enfermedad cardíaca y un riesgo menor de sufrir un primer ataque cardíaco en comparación con quienes cocinan con otros aceites. Pero no está claro si una mayor ingesta dietética de aceite de oliva ayuda a las personas que ya padecen enfermedades cardíacas.
  • Estreñimiento. La ingesta de aceite de oliva puede ayudar a suavizar las heces en personas con estreñimiento.
  • Diabetes. Las personas que consumen mayores cantidades de aceite de oliva en la dieta parecen tener un menor riesgo de desarrollar diabetes. El consumo de aceite de oliva también parece mejorar el control del azúcar en sangre en personas con diabetes.
  • Alta presión sanguínea. Agregar grandes cantidades de aceite de oliva virgen extra a la dieta mientras toma medicamentos recetados para la presión arterial alta puede mejorar la presión arterial durante 6 meses en personas con presión arterial alta.

Posiblemente ineficaz para...

  • Infección del oído (otitis media). La aplicación de gotas de aceite de oliva en el oído no parece reducir el dolor en los niños con infecciones de oído.
Existe interés en usar la aceituna para otros propósitos, pero no hay suficiente información confiable para decir si podría ser útil.

¿Es seguro?

Cuando se toma por vía oral: El aceite de oliva se consume comúnmente en los alimentos. Se ha utilizado de forma segura hasta 1 litro de aceite de oliva virgen extra por semana como parte de una dieta de estilo mediterráneo hasta por 5.8 años. El aceite de oliva suele tolerarse bien. Puede causar náuseas en un número reducido de personas. El extracto de hoja de olivo es posiblemente seguro cuando se usa apropiadamente.

Cuando se aplica sobre la piel: El aceite de oliva probablemente sea seguro. Se han notificado reacciones alérgicas retardadas. Cuando se usa en la boca después de un tratamiento dental, la boca puede sentirse más sensible.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: El aceite de oliva se consume comúnmente en los alimentos. No hay suficiente información confiable para saber si la aceituna es segura para usar como medicamento durante el embarazo o la lactancia. Manténgase en el lado seguro y limítese a las cantidades de alimentos.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

Moderadas
Tenga cuidado con esta combinación
Medicamentos para la presión arterial alta (medicamentos antihipertensivos)
Oliva podría reducir la presión arterial. La ingesta de aceitunas junto con medicamentos que reducen la presión arterial puede hacer que la presión arterial baje demasiado. Controle su presión arterial de cerca.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

Hierbas y suplementos que pueden reducir la presión arterial
Olivo podría reducir la presión arterial. Tomarlo con otros suplementos que tienen el mismo efecto puede hacer que la presión arterial baje demasiado. Ejemplos de suplementos con este efecto incluyen andrographis, péptidos de caseína, L-arginina, niacina y ortiga.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Como se usa normalmente?

La fruta de olivo y el aceite de olivo se consumen comúnmente en los alimentos. El aceite de olivo se clasifica según el contenido de ácido oleico libre. El aceite de oliva virgen extra contiene un máximo de 1% de ácido oleico libre, el aceite de oliva virgen contiene un 2% y el aceite de oliva ordinario contiene un 3.3%. Los aceites de oliva sin refinar con más del 3.3% de ácido oleico libre se consideran "no aptos para el consumo humano".

Como medicina, se han utilizado muchos productos de oliva diferentes, incluido el aceite de oliva, los extractos de hojas de olivo y los extractos de frutos de aceituna. Hable con un proveedor de atención médica para averiguar qué tipo de producto y dosis podrían ser los mejores para una condición específica.

Otros nombres

Acide Gras Insaturé, Acide Gras Mono-Insaturé, Acide Gras n-9, Acide Gras Oméga 9, Common Olive, Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Feuille d’Olivier

Metodología

Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Documento revisado - 10/27/2021