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Berberina

¿Qué es?

La berberina es una sustancia química que se encuentra en varias plantas incluyendo el bérbero Europeo, la vara de oro, el sello de oro, la uva de Oregon, el phellodendron y el árbol de cúrcuma.

La gente toma berberina para la insuficiencia cardiaca.

Algunas personas se aplican berberina directamente sobre la piel para tratar las quemaduras y a los ojos para tratar el tracoma, una infección bacteriana que frecuentemente causa ceguera.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • Diabetes. La berberina parece reducir levemente los niveles de azúcar en la sangre en personas con diabetes. Además, cierta investigación preliminar sugiere que la ingesta de 500 mg de berberina 2 a 3 veces por día durante hasta 3 meses podría controlar los niveles de azúcar en la sangre como la metmorfina o la rosiglitazona.
  • Colesterol alto. Existe cierta evidencia de que la berberina puede ayudar a disminuir los niveles de colesterol en personas con colesterol alto. La ingesta de 500 mg de berberina dos veces por día durante 3 meses parece reducir el colesterol de lipoproteína de baja densidad (LDL o malo) y los niveles de triglicéridos en personas con colesterol alto.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • Quemaduras. La investigación preliminar sugiere que la aplicación a las quemaduras de segundo grado de un ungüento que contiene berberina y beta-sitosterol parece funcionar tan bien como el tratamiento convencional con sulfadiazina de plata.
  • Insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva (ICC). La investigación preliminar sugiere que la berberina puede reducir algunos de los síntomas y reducir la tasa de mortalidad en algunas personas con insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva.
  • Diarrea. Cierta investigación sugiere que el sulfato de berberina puede disminuir la diarrea en personas con ciertas infecciones bacterianas. Además, el clorhidrato de berberina parece acelerar el tiempo de recuperación en personas con diarrea cuando se la agrega a ciertos tratamientos estándar. Sin embargo, la berberina no parece mejorar los efectos de la tetraciclina en el tratamiento de la diarrea relacionada con la infección de cólera.
  • Glaucoma. Cierta investigación preliminar sugiere que el uso de gotas para los ojos que contienen berberina tetrahidrozolina durante 3 días no produce una reducción de la presión ocular mayor que las gotas que contienen solo tetrahidrozolina personas con glaucoma.
  • Úlceras estomacales causada por la infección por Helicobacter pylori. La investigación sugiere que la ingesta de berberina 3 veces por día durante 6 semanas es más efectivo que el medicamento ranitidina para combatir la infección por Helicobacter pylori.
  • Hepatitis. Cierta evidencia sugiere que la ingesta diaria de berberina durante 2 meses disminuye los niveles de azúcar en la sangre, los triglicéridos y los marcadores de daño hepático en personas con diabetes y hepatitis B y C.
  • Enfermedad hepática. Cierta evidencia sugiere que la ingesta de berberina durante 12 meses disminuye los niveles de grasa en la sangre y los marcadores de daño hepático en personas con la enfermedad hepática y diabetes.
  • Síntomas menopáusicos. La investigación preliminar sugiere que la ingesta de berberina y las isoflavonas de soja puede reducir los síntomas menopáusicos.
  • Síndrome metabólico. La ingesta de un producto combinado (Armolipid Plus) que contiene berberina, policosanol y l arroz de levadura roja podría mejorar la presion arterial y el flujo sanguíneo en personas con síndrome metabólico.
  • Obesidad. La investigación preliminar sugiere que la ingesta de berberina durante 12 semanas puede reducir el peso en personas obesas hasta aproximadamente 5 libras.
  • Osteoporosis. La investigación preliminar sugiere que la ingesta de berberina junto con vitamina D3, vitamina K y un químico encontrado en el lúpulo durante 14 semanas puede disminuir la pérdida ósea en mujeres menopáusicas con osteoporosis.
  • Trastorno ovárico conocido como síndrome de ovario poliquístico (SOP). La investigación preliminar sugiere que la berberina puede reducir los niveles de azúcar en la sangre, colesterol, triglicéridos, testosterona y la proporción cintura-cadera en mujeres con SOP.
  • Lesiones causadas por la radiación. Cierta evidencia sugiere que la ingesta de berberina durante la radioterapia puede reducir la aparición y gravedad de ciertas lesiones causadas por la radiación en pacientes tratados por cáncer.
  • Bajo recuento de plaquetas (trombocitopenia). Bajo recuento de plaquetas (trombocitopenia). Cierta evidencia sugiere que la ingesta de berberina durante 15 días, ya sea sola o con prednisolona, puede aumentar el número de plaquetas n la sangre en personas con bajo recuento de plaquetas.
  • Tracoma. Hay cierta evidencia que indica que un colirio que contiene berberina podría ser útil para el tratamiento del tracoma, una causa común de ceguera en los países en desarrollo.
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesitan más pruebas para evaluar la eficacia de la berberina para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

La berberina podría producir latidos del corazón más fuertes. También podría ser capaz de matar las bacterias.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

La berberina ES POSIBLEMENTE SEGURA en la mayoría de los adultos cuando se usa a corto plazo ya sea por vía oral o se aplica sobre la piel.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Niños: NO ES SEGURO dar berberina a los recién nacidos. Puede causar kernicterus, un tipo raro de daño cerebral que puede ocurrir en los recién nacidos que tienen ictericia severa. La ictericia es la coloración amarillenta de la piel producida por un exceso de bilirrubina en la sangre. La bilirrubina es una sustancia química que se produce cuando los glóbulos rojos viejos se descomponen. Normalmente es eliminada por el hígado. La berberina puede impedir que el hígado elimine la bilirrubina lo suficientemente rápido.

Embarazo y lactancia: Si está embarazada NO ES SEGURO tomar berberina por vía oral. Los investigadores creen que la berberina puede atravesar la placenta y puede causar daño al feto. Kernicterus, un tipo de daño cerebral, se ha desarrollado en los recién nacidos expuestos a la berberina.

NO ES SEGURO tampoco tomar berberina si está amamantando. La berberina se puede transferir al lactante por la leche materna y podría causar daño.

Diabetes: La berberina puede disminuir los niveles de azúcar en la sangre. En teoría, la berberina podría disminuir demasiado los niveles de azúcar en la sangre en los diabéticos que controlan sus niveles de azúcar en la sangre con insulina u otros medicamentos. Usar con precaución en personas con diabetes.

Niveles altos de bilirrubina en sangre en ninos. La bilirrubina es un químico que se produce por la ruptura de los glóbulos rojos viejos, que normalmente es eliminada por el hígado. La berberina podría evitar que el hígado elimine la bilirrubina rápidamente. Esto podría causar problemas cerebrales especialmente en bebés con altos niveles de bilirrubina en sangre; por lo tanto evitar su uso.

Presión arterial baja. La berberina podría disminuir la presión arterial, por lo tanto usar con precaución en personas con presión arterial baja.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

Serias
No tome esta combinación
Ciclosporina (Neoral, Sandimmune)
El cuerpo descompone la ciclosporina (Neoral, Sandimmune) para deshacerse de ella. La berberina podría disminuir la rapidez con que el cuerpo descompone la ciclosporina (Neoral, Sandimmune). La ciclosporina (Neoral, Sandimmune) podría acumularse en el cuerpo y podría causar posibles efectos secundarios.

Medicamentos para la diabetes (Antidepresivos)
La berberina podría disminuir los niveles de azúcar en la sangre. Los medicamentos para la diabetes también se usan para disminuir los niveles de azúcar en la sangre. La ingesta de berberina junto con medicamentos para la diabetes podría causar una marcada disminución de los niveles de azúcar en la sangre. Controle minuciosamente sus niveles de azúcar en sangre. Podría necesitar modificar la dosis de su medicamento para la diabetes.

Algunos medicamentos usados para la diabetes incluyen glimepirida (Amaryl), gliburida (Diabeta, Glynase, PresTab, Micronase), insulina, pioglitazona (Actos), rosiglitazona (Avandia) y otros.
Moderadas
Tenga cuidado con esta combinación
Dextrometorfano (Robitussin DM y otros)
El cuerpo descompone el dextrometorfano (Robitussin DM y otros) a fin de eliminarlo. La berberina podría disminuir la velocidad con la que hígado descompone el dextrometorfano (Robitussin DM y otros). La ingesta de berberina junto con dextrometorfano (Robitussin DM y otros) podría aumentar los efectos y los efectos secundarios del dextrometorfano (Robitussin DM y otros).
Losartan (Cozaar)
El hígado active el losartán (Cozaar) para hacerlo funcionar. La berberina podría disminuir la velocidad con la que hígado descompone el losartán (Cozaar). La ingesta de berberina junto con losartán (Cozaar) podría disminuir los efectos del losartán.
Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Citocromo P450 3A4 [CYP3A4] sustratos)
Algunos medicamentos son modificados y descompuestos por el hígado. La berberina podría disminuir la rapidez con que el hígado descompone algunos medicamentos. El tomar berberina, junto con otros medicamentos que son metabolizados por el hígado puede aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios de algunos medicamentos. Antes de tomar berberina, hable con su médico si está tomando medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado.

Algunos medicamentos modificados por el hígado incluyen ciclosporina (Neoral, Sandimmune), lovastatina (Mevacor), claritromicina (Biaxin), indinavir (Crixivan), sildenafilo (Viagra), triazolam (Halcion) y muchos otros.
Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del Citocromo P450 2C9 [CYP2C9])
Algunos medicamentos son alterados y descompuestos por el hígado. La berberina podría disminuir la velocidad con la que hígado descompone ciertos medicamentos. La ingesta de berberina junto con algunos medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado podría aumentar los efectos y los efectos secundarios de algunos medicamentos. Antes de ingerir berberina, consulte con su proveedor de salud si toma medicamentos que son alterados por el hígado.

Algunos medicamentos modificados por el hígado incluyen celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Voltaren), fluvastatina (Lescol), glipizida (Glucotrol), ibuprofeno (Advil, Motrin), irbesartano (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), fenitoína (Dilantin), piroxicam (Feldene), tamoxifeno (Nolvadex), tolbutamida (Tolinase), torsemida (Demadex), y S-warfarina (Coumadin).
Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del Citocromo P450 2D6 [CYP2D6])
Algunos medicamentos son alterados y descompuestos por el hígado. La berberina podría disminuir la velocidad con la que hígado descompone ciertos medicamentos. La ingesta de berberina junto con algunos medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado podría aumentar los efectos y los efectos secundarios de algunos medicamentos. Antes de ingerir berberina, consulte con su proveedor de salud si toma medicamentos que son alterados por el hígado.

Algunos medicamentos modificados por el hígado incluyen amitriptilina (Elavil), codeína, desipramina (Norpramin), flecainida (Tambocor), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramina (Tofranil), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL), ondansetron (Zofran), paroxetina (Paxil), risperidona (Risperdal), tramadol (Ultram), venlafaxina (Effexor), entre otros.
Medicamentos para la presión arterial alta (medicamentos antihipertensivos)
La berberina podría disminuir la presión arterial en ciertas personas. La ingesta de berberina junto con medicamentos para la diabetes podría causar una marcada disminución de los niveles de azúcar en la sangre. Sin embargo, no es claro si esto representa un problema grave. No ingerir demasiado berberina si toma medicamentos para la presión arterial alta.

Algunos medicamentos para la presión arterial incluyen captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipina (Norvasc), hidroclorotiazida (HydroDIURIL), furosemida (Lasix) entre otros.
Medicamentos que disminuyen la coagulación de la sangre (Anticoagulantes / Antiplaquetarios)
La berberina podría disminuir la coagulación de la sangre. La ingesta de berberina junto con otros medicamentos que también disminuyen la coagulación podría reducir la probabilidad de sufrir hematomas y hemorragia.

Algunos medicamentos que disminuyen la coagulación de la sangre incluyen aspirina, cilostazol (Pletal), clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparina (Fragmin), enoxaparina (Lovenox), heparina, ticlopidina (Ticlid), entre otros.
Medicamentos sedantes (depresores del SNC)
La berberina podría causar adormecimiento y somnolencia. Los medicamentos que causan adormecimiento se denominan sedantes. La ingesta de berberina junto con sedantes podría causar demasiado adormecimiento.

Algunos sedantes incluidas las benzodiacepinas, pentobarbital (Nembutal), fenobarbital (Luminal), secobarbital (Seconal), tiopental (Pentotal), fentanil (Duragesic, Sublimaze), morfina,propofol (Diprivan) y otros.
Midazolam (Versed)
El cuerpo descompone el midazolam (Versed) a fin de eliminarlo. La berberina puede disminuir la velocidad con la que hígado descompone el midazolam (Versed). La ingesta de berberina junto con midazolam (Versed) podría aumentar los efectos y los efectos secundarios del midazolam (Versed).

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

Hierbas y suplementos con propiedades sedantes
La berberina puede causar adormecimiento y somnolencia. Si se lo ingiere junto con otras hierbas y suplementos que tienen el mismo efecto podría causar demasiado sueño. Algunas de estas hierbas y suplementos incluyen cálamo, amapola de California, hierba gatera, lúpulo, guamá, kava, L-triptofano, melatonina, salvia, SAMe, hierba de San Juan, sassafras, escutelaria, entre otros.
Hierbas y suplementos que podrían disminuir la coagulación de la sangre
La berberina podría disminuir la coagulación de la sangre. La ingesta de berberina junto con otras hierbas que podrían disminuir la coagulación podría aumentar la probabilidad de hematomas y hemorragia. Estas hierbas incluyen angélica, clavo de olor, danshen, ajo, jengibre, ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), Panax ginseng, entre otros.
Hierbas y suplementos que podrían disminuir la presión arterial
La berberina podría disminuir la presión arterial. Si se lo ingiere junto con otras hierbas y suplementos que tienen el mismo efecto podría causar una marcada disminución de la presión arterial en ciertas personas. Algunos de estos productos incluyen andrographis, péptidos de caseína, uña de gato, coenzima Q10, aceite de pescado, L-arginina, licio, ortiga brava, teanina y otros.
Hierbas y suplementos que podrían disminuir los niveles de azúcar en sangre
La berberina podría disminuir los niveles de azúcar en la sangre. Si se lo ingiere junto con otras hierbas y suplementos que tienen el mismo efecto podría causar una marcada disminución de los niveles de azúcar en la sangre en ciertas personas. Algunos de estos productos incluyen ácido alfa lipoico, melón amargo, cromo, garra del diablo, alholva, ajo, goma guar, castaño de Indias, Panax ginseng, psilio, ginseng siberiano y entre otros.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

La dosis apropiada de berberina depende de muchos factores tales como la edad de la persona, el estado de salud y varias otras condiciones. En este momento no hay suficiente información científica para determinar un rango de dosis apropiado para el uso de la berberina Tenga en cuenta que los productos naturales no son siempre necesariamente seguros y las dosis pueden ser importantes. Asegúrese de seguir las instrucciones en las etiquetas de los productos y consulte con su farmacéutico, doctor u otro proveedor de salud médica antes de usarlos.

Otros nombres

Alcaloïde de Berbérine, Berbérine, Berberine Alkaloid, Berberine Complex, Berberine Sulfate, Sulfate de Berbérine.

Metodología

Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

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