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Berberina

¿Qué es?

La berberina es una sustancia química que se encuentra en algunas plantas como el agracejo europeo, el sello de oro, el hilo de oro, la uva de Oregón, el filodendro y la cúrcuma de árbol.

La berberina es una sustancia química amarga y de color amarillo. Podría ayudar a fortalecer los latidos del corazón, lo que podría beneficiar a las personas con ciertas condiciones cardíacas. También podría matar las bacterias, ayudar a regular la forma en que el cuerpo usa el azúcar en la sangre y ayudar a reducir la hinchazón.

Las personas usan con mayor frecuencia la berberina para la diabetes, los niveles altos de colesterol u otras grasas en la sangre y la presión arterial alta. También se usa para quemaduras, úlceras bucales, enfermedades hepáticas y muchas otras condiciones, pero no existe una buena evidencia científica que respalde muchos de estos usos.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • Aftas. La aplicación de un gel que contiene berberina puede reducir el dolor, el enrojecimiento, la secreción y el tamaño de las aftas.
  • Diabetes. Tomar berberina por vía oral parece reducir levemente los niveles de azúcar en la sangre en personas con diabetes.
  • Una infección del tracto digestivo que puede provocar úlceras (Helicobacter pylori o H. pylori). Agregar berberina por vía oral a varios medicamentos que se usan normalmente para tratar esta condición podría funcionar tan bien como otros tratamientos aceptados para esta condición. Estos otros tratamientos también usan múltiples medicamentos.
  • Niveles altos de colesterol u otras grasas (lípidos) en la sangre (hiperlipidemia). Tomar berberina por vía oral, sola o con otros ingredientes, podría ayudar a reducir el colesterol total, el colesterol de lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL o "malo") y los niveles de triglicéridos en personas con colesterol alto.
  • Alta presión sanguínea. Tomar 0.9 gramos de berberina por vía oral todos los días junto con el medicamento para bajar la presión arterial amlodipino reduce la presión arterial mejor que tomar amlodipina sola en personas con presión arterial alta.
  • Un trastorno hormonal que causa ovarios agrandados con quistes (síndrome de ovario poliquístico o SOP). Tomar berberina por vía oral podría reducir el azúcar en la sangre, mejorar los niveles de colesterol y triglicéridos, reducir los niveles de testosterona y disminuir la relación cintura-cadera en personas con SOP.
Hay interés en usar la berberina para otros propósitos, pero no hay suficiente información confiable para decir si podría ser útil.

¿Es seguro?

Cuando se toma por vía oral: La berberina es posiblemente segura para la mayoría de los adultos. Se ha utilizado de forma segura en dosis de hasta 1.5 gramos al día durante 6 meses. Los efectos secundarios comunes incluyen diarrea, estreñimiento, gases y malestar estomacal.

Cuando se aplica sobre la piel: La berberina es posiblemente segura para la mayoría de los adultos cuando se usa a corto plazo.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo: Es probable que no sea seguro tomar berberina por vía oral si está embarazada. La berberina puede atravesar la placenta y causar daño al feto. Kernicterus, un tipo de daño cerebral, se ha desarrollado en recién nacidos expuestos a berberina.

Lactancia: Es probable que no sea seguro tomar berberina si está amamantando. La berberina se puede transferir al bebé a través de la leche materna y podría causar daño.

Niños: Es probable que no sea seguro administrar berberina a los recién nacidos. Puede causar kernicterus, un tipo raro de daño cerebral que puede ocurrir en recién nacidos que tienen ictericia severa. No hay suficiente información confiable para saber si la berberina es segura en niños mayores.

Niveles altos de bilirrubina en la sangre de los bebés: La bilirrubina es una sustancia química que se produce cuando los glóbulos rojos viejos se descomponen. Normalmente es eliminado por el hígado. La berberina puede evitar que el hígado elimine la bilirrubina lo suficientemente rápido. Esto puede causar problemas cerebrales, especialmente en bebés con niveles altos de bilirrubina en sangre. Evitar el uso de.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

Serias
No tome esta combinación
Ciclosporina (Neoral, Sandimmune)
La berberina podría disminuir la rapidez con que el cuerpo descompone la ciclosporina. Esto podría aumentar los efectos y los efectos secundarios de la ciclosporina.
Moderadas
Tenga cuidado con esta combinación
Dextrometorfano (Robitussin DM, otros)
La berberina podría disminuir la rapidez con que el cuerpo descompone el dextrometorfano. Esto podría aumentar los efectos y los efectos secundarios del dextrometorfano.
Losartan (Cozaar)
El hígado activa losartán para que funcione. La berberina podría disminuir la rapidez con la que el cuerpo la activa, lo que podría disminuir los efectos del losartán.
Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (sustratos del citocromo P450 2C9 (CYP2C9))
Algunos medicamentos son modificados y degradados por el hígado. La berberina podría cambiar la rapidez con que el hígado descompone estos medicamentos. Esto podría cambiar los efectos y los efectos secundarios de estos medicamentos.
Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (sustratos del citocromo P450 2D6 (CYP2D6))
Algunos medicamentos son modificados y degradados por el hígado. La berberina podría cambiar la rapidez con que el hígado descompone estos medicamentos. Esto podría cambiar los efectos y los efectos secundarios de estos medicamentos.
Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (sustratos del citocromo P450 3A4 (CYP3A4))
Algunos medicamentos son modificados y degradados por el hígado. La berberina podría cambiar la rapidez con que el hígado descompone estos medicamentos. Esto podría cambiar los efectos y los efectos secundarios de estos medicamentos.
Medicamentos para la diabetes (medicamentos antidiabéticos)
La berberina podría reducir los niveles de azúcar en sangre. La ingesta de berberina junto con medicamentos para la diabetes puede hacer que el azúcar en sangre baje demasiado. Controle de cerca su nivel de azúcar en sangre.
Medicamentos para la presión arterial alta (medicamentos antihipertensivos)
La berberina podría reducir la presión arterial. La ingesta de berberina junto con medicamentos que reducen la presión arterial puede hacer que la presión arterial baje demasiado. Controle su presión arterial de cerca.
Medicamentos que retardan la coagulación de la sangre (medicamentos anticoagulantes / antiplaquetarios)
La berberina podría retardar la coagulación de la sangre. La ingesta de berberina junto con medicamentos que también retardan la coagulación de la sangre puede aumentar el riesgo de hematomas y sangrado.
Medicamentos sedantes (depresores del SNC)
La berberina puede causar somnolencia y respiración lenta. Algunos medicamentos, llamados sedantes, también pueden causar somnolencia y respiración lenta. Tomar berberina con medicamentos sedantes puede causar problemas respiratorios y / o demasiada somnolencia.
Metformina (glucófago)
La berberina podría aumentar la cantidad de metformina en el cuerpo. Esto puede aumentar sus efectos y efectos secundarios. Esta interacción parece ocurrir cuando la berberina se toma alrededor de 2 horas antes de la metformina. Tomar berberina y metformina al mismo tiempo no parece aumentar la cantidad de metformina en el cuerpo.
Midazolam (Versed)
El cuerpo descompone el midazolam para eliminarlo. La berberina puede disminuir la rapidez con que el cuerpo la descompone. Esto podría aumentar los efectos y los efectos secundarios del midazolam.
Pentobarbital (Nembutal)
El pentobarbital es un medicamento que puede provocar somnolencia. La berberina también puede causar somnolencia y adormecimiento. Tomar berberina con pentobarbital puede causar demasiada somnolencia.
Tacrolimus (Prograf)
El tacrolimus es eliminado del cuerpo por el hígado. La berberina podría ralentizar la capacidad del cuerpo para eliminar el tacrolimus. Esto podría aumentar los efectos y los efectos secundarios del tacrolimus.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

Cannabidiol (CBD)
Tomar berberina y CBD juntos puede causar problemas de ritmo cardíaco en dosis altas. El CBD también podría ralentizar la capacidad del cuerpo para eliminar la berberina. Esto podría aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios de la berberina.
Hierbas y suplementos con propiedades sedantes
La berberina puede causar somnolencia y respiración lenta. Tomarlo junto con otros suplementos con efectos similares puede causar demasiada somnolencia y / o respiración lenta en algunas personas. Ejemplos de suplementos con este efecto incluyen lúpulo, kava, L-triptófano, melatonina y valeriana.
Hierbas y suplementos que pueden reducir el azúcar en sangre
La berberina podría reducir el azúcar en la sangre. Tomarlo con otros suplementos con efectos similares podría reducir demasiado el azúcar en la sangre. Ejemplos de suplementos con este efecto incluyen aloe, melón amargo, canela casia, cromo y nopal.
Hierbas y suplementos que pueden reducir la presión arterial
La berberina podría reducir la presión arterial. Tomarlo con otros suplementos que tienen el mismo efecto puede hacer que la presión arterial baje demasiado. Ejemplos de suplementos con este efecto incluyen andrographis, péptidos de caseína, L-arginina, niacina y ortiga.
Hierbas y suplementos que pueden retardar la coagulación sanguínea
La berberina podría retardar la coagulación sanguínea y aumentar el riesgo de hemorragia. Tomarlo con otros suplementos con efectos similares podría aumentar el riesgo de sangrado en algunas personas. Ejemplos de suplementos con este efecto incluyen ajo, jengibre, ginkgo, nattokinasa y Panax ginseng.
Probióticos
Los probióticos son organismos vivos. La berberina podría matar ciertos probióticos. Si se toman juntos, la berberina podría reducir la eficacia de los suplementos probióticos.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Como se usa normalmente?

La berberina ha sido utilizada con mayor frecuencia por adultos en dosis de 0.4 a 1.5 gramos por vía oral al día durante un máximo de 2 años. La berberina también se ha utilizado en gotas para los ojos y geles. Hable con un proveedor de atención médica para averiguar qué tipo de producto y dosis podrían ser los mejores para una condición específica.

Otros nombres

Alcaloïde de Berbérine, Berbérine, Berberine Alkaloid, Berberine Complex, Berberine Sulfate, Sulfate de Berbérine, Umbellatine.

Metodología

Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Documento revisado - 08/25/2023