URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/1126.html

Berberine

What is it?

Berberine is a chemical found in several plants including European barberry, goldenseal, goldthread, Oregon grape, phellodendron, and tree turmeric.

Berberine is most commonly taken by mouth for diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure.

Some people apply berberine directly to the skin to treat burns and canker sores.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for BERBERINE are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Canker sores. Research shows that applying a gel containing berberine can reduce pain, redness, oozing, and the size of ulcers in people with canker sores.
  • Diabetes. Berberine seems to slightly reduce blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Also, some early research suggests that taking 500 mg of berberine 2-3 times daily for up to 3 months might control blood sugar as effectively as metformin or rosiglitazone.
  • High cholesterol. There is early evidence that berberine can help lower cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol. Taking 500 mg of berberine twice daily for 3 months seems to reduce total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad”) cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in people with high cholesterol.
  • High blood pressure. Taking 0.9 grams of berberine per day along with the blood pressure-lowering drug amlodipine reduces systolic blood pressure (the top number) and diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) better than taking amlodipine alone in people with high blood pressure.
  • An ovary disorder known as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Research suggests that berberine can lower blood sugar, improve cholesterol and triglyceride levels, reduce testosterone levels, and lower waist-to-hip ratio in women with PCOS. In some women with PCOS, the drug metformin is prescribed to prevent diabetes from developing. Some research shows that berberine can lower blood sugar levels similar to metformin, but berberine seems to improve cholesterol levels better than metformin.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Burns. Early research suggests that applying an ointment that contains berberine and beta-sitosterol can treat second-degree burns as effectively as conventional treatment with silver sulfadiazine.
  • Congestive heart failure (CHF). Early research suggests that berberine can reduce some of the symptoms and lower the death rate in some people with congestive heart failure.
  • Diarrhea. Some early research suggests that taking 400 mg of berberine sulfate can decrease diarrhea in people with certain bacterial infectionsE. coli infection or cholera. Also, taking 150 mg of berberine hydrochloride three times per day seems to speed up recovery time for people with diarrhea when added to some standard treatments. Berberine seems to help treat diarrhea in infants and children similar to some antibiotics or probiotics. However, berberine does not seem to enhance the effects of the antibiotic tetracycline in treating diarrhea related to cholera infection.
  • Glaucoma. Early research suggests that using eye drops containing berberine and tetrahydrozoline for does not reduce eye pressure in people with glaucoma better than eye drops containing tetrahydrozoline alone.
  • Stomach ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection. Early research suggests that taking berberine is more effective than the drug ranitidine at eliminating H. pylori infection. However, berberine seems less effective at healing ulcers in people with stomach ulcers due to H. pylori.
  • Hepatitis. Early research suggests that berberine decreases blood sugar, blood fats called triglycerides, and markers of liver damage in people with diabetes and hepatitis B or C.
  • Menopausal symptoms. Early research suggests that taking a combination of berberine and soy isoflavones can reduce menopausal symptoms. However, it’s not clear if berberine reduces menopausal symptoms if used alone.
  • Metabolic syndrome. Early research suggests that berberine reduces body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (the top number), blood fats called triglycerides, and blood sugar levels in people with metabolic syndrome. It also seems to improve insulin sensitivity. Other early research suggests that taking a combination product containing berberine, policosanol, red yeast rice, folic acid, coenzyme Q10, and astaxanthin improves blood pressure and blood flow in people with metabolic syndrome.
  • Liver disease not caused by alcohol. Early research suggests that berberine reduces fat in the blood and markers of liver damage in people with diabetes and liver disease not caused by alcohol.
  • Obesity. Early research suggests that taking berberine can reduce weight in obese people by about 5 pounds.
  • Osteoporosis. Early research suggests that taking berberine together with vitamin D3, vitamin K, and a chemical found in hops can decrease bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Its not known if berberine is beneficial if taken by itself.
  • Injuries caused by radiation. Some early research suggests that taking berberine during radiation therapy can reduce the occurrence and severity of some injuries caused by radiation in patients being treated for cancer.
  • Low blood platelet counts (thrombocytopenia). Blood platelets are important for blood clotting. Early research suggests that taking berberine either alone or with prednisolone, can increase the number of blood platelets in people with low blood platelet counts.
  • Trachoma. There is some evidence that eye drops containing berberine might be useful for treating trachoma, a common cause of blindness in developing countries.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of berberine for these uses.

How does it work?

Berberine might cause stronger heartbeats. This might help people with certain heart conditions. Berberine might also help regulate how the body uses sugar in the blood. This might help people with diabetes. It also might also be able to kill bacteria and reduce swelling.

Are there safety concerns?

Berberine is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults for short-term use when taken by mouth or applied to the skin.

Special precautions & warnings:

Children: It’s LIKELY UNSAFE to give berberine to newborns. It can cause kernicterus, a rare type of brain damage that can occur in newborns who have severe jaundice. Jaundice is yellowing of the skin caused by too much bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a chemical that is produced when the old red cells break down. It is normally removed by the liver. Berberine may keep the liver from removing bilirubin fast enough.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It’s LIKELY UNSAFE to take berberine by mouth if you are pregnant. Researchers believe berberine can cross the placenta and might cause harm to the fetus. Kernicterus, a type of brain damage, has developed in newborn infants exposed to berberine.

It’s also LIKELY UNSAFE to take berberine if you are breast-feeding. Berberine can be transferred to the infant through breast milk, and it might cause harm.

Diabetes: Berberine can lower blood sugar. Theoretically, berberine may cause blood sugar to become too low if taken by diabetics who are controlling their blood sugar with insulin or medications. Use with caution in people with diabetes.

High bilirubin levels in the blood in infants: Bilirubin is a chemical that is produced when the old red blood cells break down. It is normally removed by the liver. Berberine may keep the liver from removing bilirubin fast enough. This can cause brain problems, especially in infants with high levels of bilirubin in the blood. Avoid using.

Low blood pressure: Berberine can lower blood pressure. Theoretically, berberine might increase the risk of blood pressure becoming too low in people who already have low blood pressure. Use with caution.

Are there interactions with medications?

Major
Do not take this combination.
Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune)
The body breaks down cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) to get rid of it. Berberine might decrease how fast the body breaks down cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune). Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) might build up in the body and could possible cause side effects.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
Berberine might lower blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking berberine along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (Diabeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), and others.
Moderate
Be cautious with this combination.
Amlodopine (Norvasc)
Amlodipine (Norvasc) lowers blood pressure. Berberine might also lower blood pressure. Taking berberine with amlodipine (Norvasc) might lower blood pressure too much. People taking berberine along with amlodipine (Norvasc) should monitor their blood pressure.
Dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, and others)
The body breaks down dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) to get rid of it. Berberine might decrease how quickly the body breaks down dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others). Taking berberine while taking dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) might increase the effects and side effects of dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others).
Losartan (Cozaar)
The liver activates losartan (Cozaar) to make it work. Berberine might decrease how quickly the body breaks down losartan (Cozaar). Taking berberine while taking losartan (Cozaar) might decrease the effects of losartan.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 [CYP2C9] substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Berberine might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking berberine along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking berberine, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Voltaren), fluvastatin (Lescol), glipizide (Glucotrol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), phenytoin (Dilantin), piroxicam (Feldene), tamoxifen (Nolvadex), tolbutamide (Tolinase), torsemide (Demadex), and S-warfarin (Coumadin).
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2D6 [CYP2D6] substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Berberine might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking berberine along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking berberine, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), codeine, desipramine (Norpramin), flecainide (Tambocor), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL), ondansetron (Zofran), paroxetine (Paxil), risperidone (Risperdal), tramadol (Ultram), venlafaxine (Effexor), and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 [CYP3A4] substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Berberine might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking berberine along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking berberine, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include cyclosporin (Neoral, Sandimmune), lovastatin (Mevacor), clarithromycin (Biaxin), indinavir (Crixivan), sildenafil (Viagra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.
Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)
Berberine might decrease blood pressure in some people. Taking berberine along with medications used to lower high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Berberine might slow blood clotting. Taking berberine along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, cilostazol (Pletal), clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, ticlopidine (Ticlid), and others.
Midazolam (Versed)
The body breaks down midazolam (Versed) to get rid of it. Berberine can decrease how quickly the body breaks down midazolam (Versed). Taking berberine along with midazolam (Versed) might increase the effects and side effects of midazolam (Versed).
Pentobarbital
Pentobarbital is a medication that can cause sleepiness. Berberine might also cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Taking berberine with pentobarbital might cause too much sleepiness.
Sedative medications (CNS depressants)
Berberine might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking berberine along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.

Some sedative medications include benzodiazepines, pentobarbital (Nembutal), phenobarbital (Luminal), secobarbital (Seconal), thiopental (Pentothal), fentanyl (Duragesic, Sublimaze), morphine, propofol (Diprivan), and others.
Tacrolimus
Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressant drug. It is removed from the body by the liver. Berberine might decrease how quickly the body removes tacrolimus. This might increase the effects and side effects of tacrolimus.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Herbs and supplements that might lower blood pressure
Berberine might lower blood pressure. Using it along with other herbs and supplements that have this same effect might increase the risk of blood pressure dropping too low in some people. Some of these products include andrographis, casein peptides, cat's claw, coenzyme Q-10, fish oil, L-arginine, lycium, stinging nettle, theanine, and others.
Herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugar
Berberine might lower blood sugar. Using it along with other herbs and supplements that have the same effect might cause blood sugar to drop too low in some people. Some of these products include alpha-lipoic acid, bitter melon, chromium, devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, horse chestnut seed, Panax ginseng, psyllium, Siberian ginseng, and others.
Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
Berberine might slow blood clotting. Taking berberine along with other herbs that might slow blood clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. These herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, and others.
Herbs and supplements with sedative properties
Berberine can cause sleepiness or drowsiness. Using it along with other herbs and supplements that have the same effect might make you overly drowsy. Some of these herbs and supplements include calamus, California poppy, catnip, hops, Jamaican dogwood, kava, L-tryptophan, melatonin, sage, SAMe, St. John's wort, sassafras, skullcap, and others.
Probiotics
Probiotic supplements contain bacteria that are thought to be beneficial to health. Berberine might kill certain probiotic strains. If taken together, berberine might reduce how well probiotic supplements work.

Are there interactions with foods?

Probiotics
Probiotics are a type of bacteria that provide beneficial effects to health. Some foods such as yogurt, miso, kimchi, and many others contain probiotic bacteria. Berberine might kill certain probiotic bacteria. If taken together, berberine might reduce how well probiotic-containing foods work.

What dose is used?

ADULTS

BY MOUTH:
  • For diabetes: 0.9 to 1.5 grams of berberine has been taken in divided doses daily for 2-4 months.
  • For high cholesterol: 0.6 to 1.5 grams of berberine has been taken in divided doses daily for 2-12 months. Combination products containing 500 mg of berberine, 10 mg of policosanol, and 200 mg of red yeast rice, along with other ingredients, have been taken daily for 2 to 12 months.
  • For high blood pressure: 0.9 grams of berberine has been taken daily for 2 months.
  • For an ovarian disorder called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): 500 mg of berberine has been taken three times per day for 3 months.
APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
  • Canker Sores: Gel containing 5 mg of berberine per gram has been applied four times per day for 5 days.
CHILDREN

The appropriate dose of berberine depends on several factors such as the user’s age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for berberine in children. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

Other names

Alcaloïde de Berbérine, Berberina, Berbérine, Berberine Alkaloid, Berberine Complex, Berberine Sulfate, Sulfate de Berbérine.

Methodology

To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.

References

  1. Pérez-Rubio KG, González-Ortiz M, Martínez-Abundis E, Robles-Cervantes JA, Espinel-Bermúdez MC. Effect of berberine administration on metabolic syndrome, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2013;11:366-9. View abstract.
  2. Lan J, Zhao Y, Dong F, et al. Meta-analysis of the effect and safety of berberine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipemia and hypertension. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;161:69-81. View abstract.
  3. Jiang XW, Zhang Y, Zhu YL, et al. Effects of berberine gelatin on recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in a Chinese cohort. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2013;115:212-7. View abstract.
  4. Hou Q, Han W, Fu X. Pharmacokinetic interaction between tacrolimus and berberine in a child with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2013;69:1861-2. View abstract.
  5. Dong H, Zhao Y, Zhao L, Lu F. The effects of berberine on blood lipids: a systemic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Planta Med 2013;79:437-46. View abstract.
  6. An Y, Sun Z, Zhang Y, Liu B, Guan Y, Lu M. The use of berberine for women with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing IVF treatment. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2014;80:425-31. View abstract.
  7. Abascal K, Yarnell E. Recent clinical advances with berberine. Altern Complement Ther 2010;16:281-7.
  8. Huang CG, Chu ZL, Wei SJ, Jiang H, Jiao BH. Effect of berberine on arachidonic acid metabolism in rabbit platelets and endothelial cells. Thromb Res 2002;106(4-5):223-7. View abstract.
  9. Garber AJ. Long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists: a review of their efficacy and tolerability. Diabetes Care 2011;34 Suppl 2:S279-84. View abstract.
  10. Coughlan KA, Valentine RJ, Ruderman NB, Saha AK. AMPK activation: a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes? Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2014;7:241-53. View abstract.
  11. Butcher NJ, Minchin RF. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1: a novel drug target in cancer development. Pharmacol Rev 2012;64:147-65. View abstract.
  12. Ruscica M, Gomaraschi M, Mombelli G, Macchi C, Bosisio R, Pazzucconi F, Pavanello C, Calabresi L, Arnoldi A, Sirtori CR, Magni P. Nutraceutical approach to moderate cardiometabolic risk: results of a randomized, double-blind and crossover study with Armolipid Plus. J Clin Lipidol. 2014;8:61-8. View abstract.
  13. Rabbani G. Mechanism and treatment of diarrhoea due to Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli: roles of drugs and prostaglandins. Danish Medical Bulletin 1996;43:173-185.
  14. Kaneda Y, Torii M, Tanaka T, and et al. In vitro effects of berberine sulphate on the growth and structure of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1991;85:417-425.
  15. Tice R. Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L) and two of its constituent alkaloids: berberine [2086-83-1] and Hydrastine [118-08-1]. Review of toxicological literature. 1997;1-52.
  16. Saksena HC, Tomar VN, and Soangra MR. Efficacy of a new salt of Berberine Uni-Berberine in oriental sore. Current Medical Practice 1970;14:247-252.
  17. Purohit SK, Kochar DK, Lal BB, and et al. Cultivation of Leishmania tropica from untreated and treated cases of oriental sore. Indian Journal of Public Health 1982;26:34-37.
  18. Sharma R, Joshi CK, and Goyal RK. Berberine tannate in acute diarrhoea. Indian Pediatrics 1970;7:496-501.
  19. Li XB. [Controlled clinical trial in infants and children comparing Lacteol Fort sachets with two antidiarrhoeal reference drugs]. Ann Pediatr 1995;42:396-401.
  20. Lahiri S and Dutta NK. Berberine and chloramphenicol in the treatment of cholera and severe diarrhoea. Journal of the Indian Medical Association 1967;48:1-11.
  21. Kamat SA. Clinical trials with berberine hydrochloride for the control of diarrhea in acute gastroenteritis. J Assoc Physicians India 1967;15:525-529.
  22. Dutta NK and Panse MV. Usefulness of berberine (an alkaloid from Berberis aristata) in the treatment of cholera (experimental). Indian J Med Res 1962;50:732-736.
  23. Wu, S. N., Yu, H. S., Jan, C. R., Li, H. F., and Yu, C. L. Inhibitory effects of berberine on voltage- and calcium-activated potassium currents in human myeloma cells. Life Sci 1998;62:2283-2294. View abstract.
  24. Ozaki, Y., Suzuki, H., and Satake, M. [Comparative studies on concentration of berberine in plasma after oral administration of coptidis rhizoma extract, its cultured cells extract, and combined use of these extracts and glycyrrhizae radix extract in rats]. Yakugaku Zasshi 1993;113:63-69. View abstract.
  25. Hu, F. L. [Comparison of acid and Helicobacter pylori in ulcerogenesis of duodenal ulcer disease]. Zhonghua Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 1993;73:217-9, 253. View abstract.
  26. Arana, B. A., Navin, T. R., Arana, F. E., Berman, J. D., and Rosenkaimer, F. Efficacy of a short course (10 days) of high-dose meglumine antimonate with or without interferon-gamma in treating cutaneous leishmaniasis in Guatemala. Clin Infect Dis 1994;18:381-384. View abstract.
  27. Chekalina, S. I., Umurzakova, R. Z., Saliev, K. K., and Abdurakhmanov, T. R. [Effect of berberine bisulfate on platelet hemostasis in thrombocytopenia patients]. Gematologiia i Transfuziologiia 1994;39:33-35. View abstract.
  28. Ni, Y. X., Yang, J., and Fan, S. [Clinical study on jiang tang san in treating non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1994;14:650-652. View abstract.
  29. Kuo, C. L., Chou, C. C., and Yung, B. Y. Berberine complexes with DNA in the berberine-induced apoptosis in human leukemic HL-60 cells. Cancer Lett 7-13-1995;93:193-200. View abstract.
  30. Miyazaki, H., Shirai, E., Ishibashi, M., Hosoi, K., Shibata, S., and Iwanaga, M. Quantitation of berberine chloride in human urine by use of selected ion monitoring in the field desorption mode. Biomed.Mass Spectrom. 1978;5:559-565. View abstract.
  31. Babbar, O. P., Chhatwal, V. K., Ray, I. B., and Mehra, M. K. Effect of berberine chloride eye drops on clinically positive trachoma patients. Indian J Med Res. 1982;76 Suppl:83-88. View abstract.
  32. Mahajan, V. M., Sharma, A., and Rattan, A. Antimycotic activity of berberine sulphate: an alkaloid from an Indian medicinal herb. Sabouraudia. 1982;20:79-81. View abstract.
  33. Mohan, M., Pant, C. R., Angra, S. K., and Mahajan, V. M. Berberine in trachoma. (A clinical trial). Indian J Ophthalmol. 1982;30:69-75. View abstract.
  34. Tai, Y. H., Feser, J. F., Marnane, W. G., and Desjeux, J. F. Antisecretory effects of berberine in rat ileum. Am J Physiol 1981;241:G253-G258. View abstract.
  35. Chun YT, Yip TT, Lau KL, and et al. A biochemical study on the hypotensive effect of berberine in rats. Gen Pharmac 1979;10:177-182. View abstract.
  36. Desai, A. B., Shah, K. M., and Shah, D. M. Berberine in treatment of diarrhoea. Indian Pediatr. 1971;8:462-465. View abstract.
  37. Khin, Maung U., Myo, Khin, Nyunt, Nyunt Wai, Aye, Kyaw, and Tin, U. Clinical trial of berberine in acute watery diarrhoea. Br.Med.J.(Clin.Res.Ed) 12-7-1985;291:1601-1605. View abstract.
  38. Khin, Maung U., Myo, Khin, Nyunt, Nyunt Wai, and Tin, U. Clinical trial of high-dose berberine and tetracycline in cholera. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 1987;5:184-187. View abstract.
  39. Thumm, H. W. and Tritschler, J. [The action of Berberin-drops on the intraocular pressure (IOP) (author's transl)]. Klin.Monbl.Augenheilkd. 1977;170:119-123. View abstract.
  40. Albal, M. V., Jadhav, S., and Chandorkar, A. G. Clinical evaluation of berberine in mycotic infections. Indian J Ophthalmol. 1986;34:91-92. View abstract.
  41. Wang, N., Feng, Y., Cheung, F., Chow, O. Y., Wang, X., Su, W., and Tong, Y. A comparative study on the hepatoprotective action of bear bile and Coptidis Rhizoma aqueous extract on experimental liver fibrosis in rats. BMC.Complement Altern.Med 2012;12:239. View abstract.
  42. Pisciotta, L., Bellocchio, A., and Bertolini, S. Nutraceutical pill containing berberine versus ezetimibe on plasma lipid pattern in hypercholesterolemic subjects and its additive effect in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia on stable cholesterol-lowering treatment. Lipids Health Dis 2012;11:123. View abstract.
  43. Trimarco, V., Cimmino, C. S., Santoro, M., Pagnano, G., Manzi, M. V., Piglia, A., Giudice, C. A., De, Luca N., and Izzo, R. Nutraceuticals for blood pressure control in patients with high-normal or grade 1 hypertension. High Blood Press Cardiovasc.Prev. 9-1-2012;19:117-122. View abstract.
  44. Hayasaka, S., Kodama, T., and Ohira, A. Traditional Japanese herbal (kampo) medicines and treatment of ocular diseases: a review. Am J Chin Med 2012;40:887-904. View abstract.
  45. Hermann, R. and von, Richter O. Clinical evidence of herbal drugs as perpetrators of pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Planta Med 2012;78:1458-1477. View abstract.
  46. Hu, Y., Ehli, E. A., Kittelsrud, J., Ronan, P. J., Munger, K., Downey, T., Bohlen, K., Callahan, L., Munson, V., Jahnke, M., Marshall, L. L., Nelson, K., Huizenga, P., Hansen, R., Soundy, T. J., and Davies, G. E. Lipid-lowering effect of berberine in human subjects and rats. Phytomedicine. 7-15-2012;19:861-867. View abstract.
  47. Carlomagno, G., Pirozzi, C., Mercurio, V., Ruvolo, A., and Fazio, S. Effects of a nutraceutical combination on left ventricular remodeling and vasoreactivity in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc.Dis 2012;22:e13-e14. View abstract.
  48. Cianci, A., Cicero, A. F., Colacurci, N., Matarazzo, M. G., and De, Leo, V. Activity of isoflavones and berberine on vasomotor symptoms and lipid profile in menopausal women. Gynecol.Endocrinol. 2012;28:699-702. View abstract.
  49. Xie, X., Meng, X., Zhou, X., Shu, X., and Kong, H. [Research on therapeutic effect and hemorrheology change of berberine in new diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes combining nonalcoholic fatty liver disease]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2011;36:3032-3035. View abstract.
  50. Meng, S., Wang, L. S., Huang, Z. Q., Zhou, Q., Sun, Y. G., Cao, J. T., Li, Y. G., and Wang, C. Q. Berberine ameliorates inflammation in patients with acute coronary syndrome following percutaneous coronary intervention. Clin Exp.Pharmacol Physiol 2012;39:406-411. View abstract.
  51. Kim, H. S., Kim, M. J., Kim, E. J., Yang, Y., Lee, M. S., and Lim, J. S. Berberine-induced AMPK activation inhibits the metastatic potential of melanoma cells via reduction of ERK activity and COX-2 protein expression. Biochem.Pharmacol 2-1-2012;83:385-394. View abstract.
  52. Marazzi, G., Cacciotti, L., Pelliccia, F., Iaia, L., Volterrani, M., Caminiti, G., Sposato, B., Massaro, R., Grieco, F., and Rosano, G. Long-term effects of nutraceuticals (berberine, red yeast rice, policosanol) in elderly hypercholesterolemic patients. Adv.Ther 2011;28:1105-1113. View abstract.
  53. Wei, W., Zhao, H., Wang, A., Sui, M., Liang, K., Deng, H., Ma, Y., Zhang, Y., Zhang, H., and Guan, Y. A clinical study on the short-term effect of berberine in comparison to metformin on the metabolic characteristics of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012;166:99-105. View abstract.
  54. Wang, Q., Zhang, M., Liang, B., Shirwany, N., Zhu, Y., and Zou, M. H. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase is required for berberine-induced reduction of atherosclerosis in mice: the role of uncoupling protein 2. PLoS.One. 2011;6:e25436. View abstract.
  55. Guo, Y., Chen, Y., Tan, Z. R., Klaassen, C. D., and Zhou, H. H. Repeated administration of berberine inhibits cytochromes P450 in humans. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2012;68:213-217. View abstract.
  56. Lamb, J. J., Holick, M. F., Lerman, R. H., Konda, V. R., Minich, D. M., Desai, A., Chen, T. C., Austin, M., Kornberg, J., Chang, J. L., Hsi, A., Bland, J. S., and Tripp, M. L. Nutritional supplementation of hop rho iso-alpha acids, berberine, vitamin D, and vitamin K produces a favorable bone biomarker profile supporting healthy bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Nutr Res 2011;31:347-355. View abstract.
  57. Holick, M. F., Lamb, J. J., Lerman, R. H., Konda, V. R., Darland, G., Minich, D. M., Desai, A., Chen, T. C., Austin, M., Kornberg, J., Chang, J. L., Hsi, A., Bland, J. S., and Tripp, M. L. Hop rho iso-alpha acids, berberine, vitamin D3 and vitamin K1 favorably impact biomarkers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women in a 14-week trial. J Bone Miner.Metab 2010;28:342-350. View abstract.
  58. Zhang, H., Wei, J., Xue, R., Wu, J. D., Zhao, W., Wang, Z. Z., Wang, S. K., Zhou, Z. X., Song, D. Q., Wang, Y. M., Pan, H. N., Kong, W. J., and Jiang, J. D. Berberine lowers blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients through increasing insulin receptor expression. Metabolism 2010;59:285-292. View abstract.
  59. Wang, Y., Jia, X., Ghanam, K., Beaurepaire, C., Zidichouski, J., and Miller, L. Berberine and plant stanols synergistically inhibit cholesterol absorption in hamsters. Atherosclerosis 2010;209:111-117. View abstract.
  60. Li, G. H., Wang, D. L., Hu, Y. D., Pu, P., Li, D. Z., Wang, W. D., Zhu, B., Hao, P., Wang, J., Xu, X. Q., Wan, J. Q., Zhou, Y. B., and Chen, Z. T. Berberine inhibits acute radiation intestinal syndrome in human with abdomen radiotherapy. Med Oncol. 2010;27:919-925. View abstract.
  61. Affuso, F., Ruvolo, A., Micillo, F., Sacca, L., and Fazio, S. Effects of a nutraceutical combination (berberine, red yeast rice and policosanols) on lipid levels and endothelial function randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc.Dis 2010;20:656-661. View abstract.
  62. Jeong, H. W., Hsu, K. C., Lee, J. W., Ham, M., Huh, J. Y., Shin, H. J., Kim, W. S., and Kim, J. B. Berberine suppresses proinflammatory responses through AMPK activation in macrophages. Am J Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2009;296:E955-E964. View abstract.
  63. Kim, W. S., Lee, Y. S., Cha, S. H., Jeong, H. W., Choe, S. S., Lee, M. R., Oh, G. T., Park, H. S., Lee, K. U., Lane, M. D., and Kim, J. B. Berberine improves lipid dysregulation in obesity by controlling central and peripheral AMPK activity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2009;296:E812-E819. View abstract.
  64. Lu, S. S., Yu, Y. L., Zhu, H. J., Liu, X. D., Liu, L., Liu, Y. W., Wang, P., Xie, L., and Wang, G. J. Berberine promotes glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide secretion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Endocrinol. 2009;200:159-165. View abstract.
  65. Liu, Y., Yu, H., Zhang, C., Cheng, Y., Hu, L., Meng, X., and Zhao, Y. Protective effects of berberine on radiation-induced lung injury via intercellular adhesion molecular-1 and transforming growth factor-beta-1 in patients with lung cancer. Eur J Cancer 2008;44:2425-2432. View abstract.
  66. Yang, Z., Shao, Y. C., Li, S. J., Qi, J. L., Zhang, M. J., Hao, W., and Jin, G. Z. Medication of l-tetrahydropalmatine significantly ameliorates opiate craving and increases the abstinence rate in heroin users: a pilot study. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2008;29:781-788. View abstract.
  67. Zhou, J. Y., Zhou, S. W., Zhang, K. B., Tang, J. L., Guang, L. X., Ying, Y., Xu, Y., Zhang, L., and Li, D. D. Chronic effects of berberine on blood, liver glucolipid metabolism and liver PPARs expression in diabetic hyperlipidemic rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31:1169-1176. View abstract.
  68. Yin, J., Xing, H., and Ye, J. Efficacy of berberine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 2008;57:712-717. View abstract.
  69. Zhang, Y., Li, X., Zou, D., Liu, W., Yang, J., Zhu, N., Huo, L., Wang, M., Hong, J., Wu, P., Ren, G., and Ning, G. Treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia with the natural plant alkaloid berberine. J Clin Endocrinol.Metab 2008;93:2559-2565. View abstract.
  70. Xu, M. G., Wang, J. M., Chen, L., Wang, Y., Yang, Z., and Tao, J. Berberine-induced mobilization of circulating endothelial progenitor cells improves human small artery elasticity. J Hum.Hypertens 2008;22:389-393. View abstract.
  71. Xin, H. W., Wu, X. C., Li, Q., Yu, A. R., Zhong, M. Y., and Liu, Y. Y. The effects of berberine on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporin A in healthy volunteers. Methods Find.Exp.Clin Pharmacol 2006;28:25-29. View abstract.
  72. Mantena, S. K., Sharma, S. D., and Katiyar, S. K. Berberine, a natural product, induces G1-phase cell cycle arrest and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma cells. Mol Cancer Ther 2006;5:296-308. View abstract.
  73. Lin, C. C., Kao, S. T., Chen, G. W., Ho, H. C., and Chung, J. G. Apoptosis of human leukemia HL-60 cells and murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells induced by berberine through the activation of caspase-3. Anticancer Res 2006;26(1A):227-242. View abstract.
  74. Lin, J. P., Yang, J. S., Lee, J. H., Hsieh, W. T., and Chung, J. G. Berberine induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma SNU-5 cell line. World J Gastroenterol. 1-7-2006;12:21-28. View abstract.
  75. Inoue, K., Kulsum, U., Chowdhury, S. A., Fujisawa, S., Ishihara, M., Yokoe, I., and Sakagami, H. Tumor-specific cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity of berberines. Anticancer Res 2005;25(6B):4053-4059. View abstract.
  76. Lee, S., Lim, H. J., Park, H. Y., Lee, K. S., Park, J. H., and Jang, Y. Berberine inhibits rat vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration in vitro and improves neointima formation after balloon injury in vivo. Berberine improves neointima formation in a rat model. Atherosclerosis 2006;186:29-37. View abstract.
  77. Kuo, C. L., Chi, C. W., and Liu, T. Y. Modulation of apoptosis by berberine through inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and Mcl-1 expression in oral cancer cells. In Vivo 2005;19:247-252. View abstract.
  78. Kong, W., Wei, J., Abidi, P., Lin, M., Inaba, S., Li, C., Wang, Y., Wang, Z., Si, S., Pan, H., Wang, S., Wu, J., Wang, Y., Li, Z., Liu, J., and Jiang, J. D. Berberine is a novel cholesterol-lowering drug working through a unique mechanism distinct from statins. Nat Med 2004;10:1344-1351. View abstract.
  79. Yount, G., Qian, Y., Moore, D., Basila, D., West, J., Aldape, K., Arvold, N., Shalev, N., and Haas-Kogan, D. Berberine sensitizes human glioma cells, but not normal glial cells, to ionizing radiation in vitro. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2004;4:137-143. View abstract.
  80. Lin, S., Tsai, S. C., Lee, C. C., Wang, B. W., Liou, J. Y., and Shyu, K. G. Berberine inhibits HIF-1alpha expression via enhanced proteolysis. Mol Pharmacol 2004;66:612-619. View abstract.
  81. Nishida, S., Kikuichi, S., Yoshioka, S., Tsubaki, M., Fujii, Y., Matsuda, H., Kubo, M., and Irimajiri, K. Induction of apoptosis in HL-60 cells treated with medicinal herbs. Am J Chin Med 2003;31:551-562. View abstract.
  82. Jantova, S., Cipak, L., Cernakova, M., and Kost'alova, D. Effect of berberine on proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in HeLa and L1210 cells. J Pharm Pharmacol 2003;55:1143-1149. View abstract.
  83. Hong, Y., Hui, S. S., Chan, B. T., and Hou, J. Effect of berberine on catecholamine levels in rats with experimental cardiac hypertrophy. Life Sci. 4-18-2003;72:2499-2507. View abstract.
  84. Wang, D. Y., Yeh, C. C., Lee, J. H., Hung, C. F., and Chung, J. G. Berberine inhibited arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity and gene expression and DNA adduct formation in human malignant astrocytoma (G9T/VGH) and brain glioblastoma multiforms (GBM 8401) cells. Neurochem.Res 2002;27:883-889. View abstract.
  85. Sriwilaijareon, N., Petmitr, S., Mutirangura, A., Ponglikitmongkol, M., and Wilairat, P. Stage specificity of Plasmodium falciparum telomerase and its inhibition by berberine. Parasitol.Int 2002;51:99-103. View abstract.
  86. Pan, J. F., Yu, C., Zhu, D. Y., Zhang, H., Zeng, J. F., Jiang, S. H., and Ren, J. Y. Identification of three sulfate-conjugated metabolites of berberine chloride in healthy volunteers' urine after oral administration. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2002;23:77-82. View abstract.
  87. Kowalewski, Z., Mrozikiewicz, A., Bobkiewicz, T., Drost, K., and Hladon, B. [Toxicity of berberine sulfate]. Acta Pol.Pharm 1975;32:113-120. View abstract.
  88. Wright, C. W., Marshall, S. J., Russell, P. F., Anderson, M. M., Phillipson, J. D., Kirby, G. C., Warhurst, D. C., and Schiff, P. L. In vitro antiplasmodial, antiamoebic, and cytotoxic activities of some monomeric isoquinoline alkaloids. J Nat Prod 2000;63:1638-1640. View abstract.
  89. Chung, J. G., Chen, G. W., Hung, C. F., Lee, J. H., Ho, C. C., Ho, H. C., Chang, H. L., Lin, W. C., and Lin, J. G. Effects of berberine on arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity and 2-aminofluorene-DNA adduct formation in human leukemia cells. Am J Chin Med 2000;28:227-238. View abstract.
  90. Berberine. Altern Med Rev 2000;5:175-177. View abstract.
  91. Iizuka, N., Miyamoto, K., Okita, K., Tangoku, A., Hayashi, H., Yosino, S., Abe, T., Morioka, T., Hazama, S., and Oka, M. Inhibitory effect of Coptidis Rhizoma and berberine on the proliferation of human esophageal cancer cell lines. Cancer Lett 1-1-2000;148:19-25. View abstract.
  92. Chae, S. H., Jeong, I. H., Choi, D. H., Oh, J. W., and Ahn, Y. J. Growth-inhibiting effects of Coptis japonica root-derived isoquinoline alkaloids on human intestinal bacteria. J Agric.Food Chem 1999;47:934-938. View abstract.
  93. Zeng, X. and Zeng, X. Relationship between the clinical effects of berberine on severe congestive heart failure and its concentration in plasma studied by HPLC. Biomed Chromatogr 1999;13:442-444. View abstract.
  94. Lin, J. G., Chung, J. G., Wu, L. T., Chen, G. W., Chang, H. L., and Wang, T. F. Effects of berberine on arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in human colon tumor cells. Am J Chin Med 1999;27:265-275. View abstract.
  95. Chung, J. G., Wu, L. T., Chu, C. B., Jan, J. Y., Ho, C. C., Tsou, M. F., Lu, H. F., Chen, G. W., Lin, J. G., and Wang, T. F. Effects of berberine on arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in human bladder tumour cells. Food Chem Toxicol 1999;37:319-326. View abstract.
  96. Wu, H. L., Hsu, C. Y., Liu, W. H., and Yung, B. Y. Berberine-induced apoptosis of human leukemia HL-60 cells is associated with down-regulation of nucleophosmin/B23 and telomerase activity. Int J Cancer 6-11-1999;81:923-929. View abstract.
  97. Sun D, Courtney HS, and Beachey EH. Berberine sulfate blocks adherence of Streptococcus pyogenes to epithelial cells, fibronectin, and hexadecane. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1988;32:1370-1374.
  98. Palasuntheram C, Iyer KS, de Silva LB, and et al. Antibacterial activity of Coscinium fenestratum Colebr against Clostridium tetani. Ind J Med Res 1982;76(Suppl):71-76.
  99. Zhu B and Ahrens FA. Effect of berberine on intestinal secretion mediated by Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin in jejunum of pigs. Am J Vet Res 1982;43:1594-1598.
  100. Zalewski A, Krol R, and Maroko PR. Berberine, a new inotropic agent - distinction between its cardiac and peripheral responses. Clin Res 1983;31:227A.
  101. Krol R, Zalewski A, and Maroko PR. Beneficial effects of berberine, a new positive inotropic agent, on digitalis-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Circulation 1982;66(suppl 2):56.
  102. Subbaiah TV and Amin AH. Effect of berberine sulphate on Entamoeba histolytica. Nature 1967;215:527-528.
  103. Kaneda Y, Tanaka T, and Saw T. Effects of berberine, a plant alkaloid, on the growth of anaerobic protozoa in axenic culture. Tokai J Exp Clin Med 1990;15:417-423.
  104. Ghosh AK, Bhattacharyya FK, and Ghosh DK. Leishmania donovani: amastigote inhibition and mode of action of berberine. Experimental Parasitology 1985;60:404-413.
  105. Sabir M, Mahajan VM, Mohapatra LN, and et al. Experimental study of the antitrachoma action of berberine. Indian J Med Res 1976;64:1160-1167.
  106. Seery TM and Bieter RN. A contribution to the pharmacology of berberine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1940;69:64-67.
  107. Haginawa J and Harada M. Pharmacologic studies on crude drugs. V. Comparison of berberine type-alkaloid-containing plants on their components and several pharmacological actions. Yakugaku Zasshi 1962;82:726.
  108. Tripathi YB and Shukla SD. Berberis artistata inhibits PAF induced aggregation of rabbit platelets. Phytotherapy Research 1996;10:628-630.
  109. Sabir M and Bhide NK. Study of some pharmacological actions of berberine. Ind J Physiol & Pharmac 1971;15:111-132.
  110. Chung JG, Wu LT, Chang SH, and et al. Inhibitory actions of berberine on growth and arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in strains of Helicobacter Pylori from peptic ulcer patients. International Journal of Toxicology 1999;18:35.
  111. Sharda DC. Berberine in the treatment of diarrhoea of infancy and childhood. J Indian M A 1970;54:22-24.
  112. Vik-Mo H, Faria DB, Cheung WM, and et al. Beneficial effects of berberine on left ventricular function in dogs with heart failure. Clinical Research 1983;31:224a.
  113. Ksiezycka E, Cheung W, and Maroko PR. Antiarrhythmic effects of berberine on aconitine-induced ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. Clinical Research 1983;31:197A.
  114. Seow WK, Ferrante A, Summors A, and et al. Comparative effects of tetrandrine and berbamine on production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor. Life Sciences 1992;50:pl-53-pl-58.
  115. Peng, W. H., Hsieh, M. T., and Wu, C. R. Effect of long-term administration of berberine on scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats. Jpn J Pharmacol 1997;74:261-266. View abstract.
  116. Wu, J. F. and Liu, T. P. [Effects of berberine on platelet aggregation and plasma levels of TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in rats with reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion]. Yao Xue.Xue.Bao. 1995;30:98-102. View abstract.
  117. Yuan, J., Shen, X. Z., and Zhu, X. S. [Effect of berberine on transit time of human small intestine]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1994;14:718-720. View abstract.
  118. Swabb, E. A., Tai, Y. H., and Jordan, L. Reversal of cholera toxin-induced secretion in rat ileum by luminal berberine. Am J Physiol 1981;241:G248-G252. View abstract.
  119. Sack, R. B. and Froehlich, J. L. Berberine inhibits intestinal secretory response of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli enterotoxins. Infect Immun. 1982;35:471-475. View abstract.
  120. Zhu, B. and Ahrens, F. Antisecretory effects of berberine with morphine, clonidine, L- phenylephrine, yohimbine or neostigmine in pig jejunum. Eur J Pharmacol 12-9-1983;96(1-2):11-19. View abstract.
  121. Shanbhag, S. M., Kulkarni, H. J., and Gaitonde, B. B. Pharmacological actions of berberine on the central nervous system. Jpn.J Pharmacol 1970;20:482-487. View abstract.
  122. Choudhry, V. P., Sabir, M., and Bhide, V. N. Berberine in giardiasis. Indian Pediatr. 1972;9:143-146. View abstract.
  123. Kulkarni, S. K., Dandiya, P. C., and Varandani, N. L. Pharmacological investigations of berberine sulphate. Jpn.J Pharmacol. 1972;22:11-16. View abstract.
  124. Marin-Neto, J. A., Maciel, B. C., Secches, A. L., and Gallo, Junior L. Cardiovascular effects of berberine in patients with severe congestive heart failure. Clin.Cardiol. 1988;11:253-260. View abstract.
  125. Ni, Y. X. [Therapeutic effect of berberine on 60 patients with type II diabetes mellitus and experimental research]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi.- Chinese Journal of Modern Developments in Traditional Medicine 1988;8:711-3, 707. View abstract.
  126. Zhang, M. F. and Shen, Y. Q. [Antidiarrheal and anti-inflammatory effects of berberine]. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue.Bao. 1989;10:174-176. View abstract.
  127. Shaffer, J. E. Inotropic and chronotropic activity of berberine on isolated guinea pig atria. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1985;7:307-315. View abstract.
  128. Huang, W. M., Wu, Z. D., and Gan, Y. Q. [Effects of berberine on ischemic ventricular arrhythmia]. Zhonghua Xin.Xue.Guan.Bing.Za Zhi. 1989;17:300-1, 319. View abstract.
  129. Huang, W. [Ventricular tachyarrhythmias treated with berberine]. Zhonghua Xin.Xue.Guan.Bing.Za Zhi. 1990;18:155-6, 190. View abstract.
  130. Hui, K. K., Yu, J. L., Chan, W. F., and Tse, E. Interaction of berberine with human platelet alpha 2 adrenoceptors. Life Sci. 1991;49:315-324. View abstract.
  131. Khin, Maung U. and Nwe, Nwe Wai. Effect of berberine on enterotoxin-induced intestinal fluid accumulation in rats. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 1992;10:201-204. View abstract.
  132. Hajnicka, V., Kost'alova, D., Svecova, D., Sochorova, R., Fuchsberger, N., and Toth, J. Effect of Mahonia aquifolium active compounds on interleukin-8 production in the human monocytic cell line THP-1. Planta Med 2002;68:266-268. View abstract.
  133. Lau, C. W., Yao, X. Q., Chen, Z. Y., Ko, W. H., and Huang, Y. Cardiovascular actions of berberine. Cardiovasc Drug Rev 2001;19:234-244. View abstract.
  134. Mitani, N., Murakami, K., Yamaura, T., Ikeda, T., and Saiki, I. Inhibitory effect of berberine on the mediastinal lymph node metastasis produced by orthotopic implantation of Lewis lung carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 4-10-2001;165:35-42. View abstract.
  135. Fukuda, K., Hibiya, Y., Mutoh, M., Koshiji, M., Akao, S., and Fujiwara, H. Inhibition by berberine of cyclooxygenase-2 transcriptional activity in human colon cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;66:227-233. View abstract.
  136. Li, H., Miyahara, T., Tezuka, Y., Namba, T., Suzuki, T., Dowaki, R., Watanabe, M., Nemoto, N., Tonami, S., Seto, H., and Kadota, S. The effect of kampo formulae on bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. II. Detailed study of berberine. Biol Pharm Bull 1999;22:391-396. View abstract.
  137. Chatterjee P, Franklin MR. Human cytochrome p450 inhibition and metabolic-intermediate complex formation by goldenseal extract and its methylenedioxyphenyl components. Drug Metab Dispos 2003;31:1391-7. View abstract.
  138. Budzinski JW, Foster BC, Vandenhoek S, Arnason JT. An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures. Phytomedicine 2000;7:273-82. View abstract.
  139. Huang XS, Yang GF, Pan YC. Effect of berberin hydrochloride on blood concentration of cyclosporine A in cardiac transplanted patients. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2008;28:702-4. View abstract.
  140. Zhang Y, Li X, Zou D, et al. Treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia with the natural plant alkaloid berberine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:2559-65. View abstract.
  141. Cicero, AF, Rovati LC, and Setnikar I. Eulipidemic effects of berberine administered alone or in combination with other natural cholesterol-lowering agents. A single-blind clinical investigation. Arzneimittelforschung. 2007;57:26-30. View abstract.
  142. Kim SH, Shin DS, Oh MN, et al. Inhibition of the bacterial surface protein anchoring transpeptidase sortase by isoquinoline alkaloids. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2004;68:421-4.. View abstract.
  143. Li B, Shang JC, Zhou QX. [Study of total alkaloids from rhizoma coptis chinensis on experimental gastric ulcers]. Chin J Integr Med 2005;11:217-21. View abstract.
  144. Ivanovska N, Philipov S. Study on the anti-inflammatory action of Berberis vulgaris root extract, alkaloid fractions and pure alkaloids. Int J Immunopharmacol 1996;18:553-61. View abstract.
  145. Ang ES, Lee ST, Gan CS, et al. Evaluating the role of alternative therapy in burn wound management: randomized trial comparing moist exposed burn ointment with conventional methods in the management of patients with second-degree burns. MedGenMed 2001;3:3. View abstract.
  146. Tsai PL, Tsai TH. Hepatobiliary excretion of berberine. Drug Metab Dispos 2004;32:405-12. . View abstract.
  147. Wu X, Li Q, Xin H, Yu A, Zhong M. Effects of berberine on the blood concentration of cyclosporin A in renal transplanted recipients: clinical and pharmacokinetic study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005;61:567-72. View abstract.
  148. Khosla PG, Neeraj VI, Gupta SK, et al. Berberine, a potential drug for trachoma. Rev Int Trach Pathol Ocul Trop Subtrop Sante Publique 1992;69:147-65. View abstract.
  149. Hsiang CY, Wu SL, Cheng SE, Ho TY. Acetaldehyde-induced interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production is inhibited by berberine through nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway in HepG2 cells. J Biomed Sci 2005;12:791-801. View abstract.
  150. Anis KV, Rajeshkumar NV, Kuttan R. Inhibition of chemical carcinogenesis by berberine in rats and mice. J Pharm Pharmacol 2001;53:763-8. . View abstract.
  151. Zeng XH, Zeng XJ, Li YY. Efficacy and safety of berberine for congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 2003;92:173-6. View abstract.
  152. Janbaz KH, Gilani AH. Studies on preventive and curative effects of berberine on chemical-induced hepatotoxicity in rodents. Fitoterapia 2000;71:25-33.. View abstract.
  153. Fukuda K, Hibiya Y, Mutoh M, et al. Inhibition by berberine of cyclooxygenase-2 transcriptional activity in human colon cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;66:227-33. View abstract.
  154. Park KS, Kang KC, Kim JH, et al. Differential inhibitory effects of protoberberines on sterol and chitin biosyntheses in Candida albicans. J Antimicrob Chemother 1999;43:667-74. View abstract.
  155. Scazzocchio F, Corneta MF, Tomassini L, Palmery M. Antibacterial activity of Hydrastis canadensis extract and its major isolated alkaloids. Planta Med 2001;67:561-4. View abstract.
  156. Sun D, Courtney HS, Beachey EH. Berberine sulfate blocks adherence of Streptococcus pyogenes to epithelial cells, fibronectin, and hexadecane. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1988;32:1370-4. View abstract.
  157. Amin AH, Subbaiah TV, Abbasi KM. Berberine sulfate: antimicrobial activity, bioassay, and mode of action. Can J Microbiol 1969;15:1067-76. View abstract.
  158. Bhide MB, Chavan SR, Dutta NK. Absorption, distribution and excretion of berberine. Indian J Med Res 1969;57:2128-31. View abstract.
  159. Chan E. Displacement of bilirubin from albumin by berberine. Biol Neonate 1993;63:201-8. View abstract.
  160. Gupte S. Use of berberine in treatment of giardiasis. Am J Dis Child 1975;129:866. View abstract.
  161. Kaneda Y, Torii M, Tanaka T, Aikawa M. In vitro effects of berberine sulphate on the growth and structure of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1991;85:417-25. View abstract.
  162. Sun D, Abraham SN, Beachey EH. Influence of berberine sulfate on synthesis and expression of Pap fimbrial adhesin in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1988;32:1274-7. View abstract.
  163. Rehman J, Dillow JM, Carter SM, et al. Increased production of antigen-specific immunoglobulins G and M following in vivo treatment with the medicinal plants Echinacea angustifolia and Hydrastis canadensis. Immunol Lett 1999;68:391-5. View abstract.
  164. Sheng WD, Jiddawi MS, Hong XQ, Abdulla SM. Treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria using pyrimethamine in combination with berberine, tetracycline, or cotrimoxazole. East Afr Med J 1997;74:283-4. View abstract.
  165. Rabbani GH, Butler T, Knight J, et al. Randomized controlled trial of berberine sulfate therapy for diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. J Infect Dis 1987;155:979-84. View abstract.
  166. Tyler VE. Herbs of Choice. Binghamton, NY: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1994.
  167. Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Trans. S. Klein. Boston, MA: American Botanical Council, 1998.
  168. Monographs on the medicinal uses of plant drugs. Exeter, UK: European Scientific Co-op Phytother, 1997.
Last reviewed - 05/30/2018