URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/1126.html


What is it?

Berberine is a chemical found in several plants including European barberry, goldenseal, goldthread, Oregon grape, phellodendron, and tree tumeric.

People take berberine for heart failure.

Some people apply berberine directly to the skin to treat burns and to the eye to treat trachoma, a bacterial infection that frequently causes blindness.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for BERBERINE are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Diabetes. Berberine seems to slightly reduce blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Also, some early research suggests that taking 500 mg of berberine 2-3 times daily for up to 3 months might control blood sugar as effectively as metformin or rosiglitazone.
  • High cholesterol. There is early evidence that berberine can help lower cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol. Taking 500 mg of berberine twice daily for 3 months seems to reduce total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad”) cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in people with high cholesterol.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Burns. Early research suggests that applying an ointment that contains berberine and beta-sitosterol can treat second-degree burns as effectively as conventional treatment with silver sulfadiazine.
  • Congestive heart failure (CHF). Early research suggests that berberine can reduce some of the symptoms and lower the death rate in some people with congestive heart failure.
  • Diarrhea. Some early research suggests that berberine sulfate can decrease diarrhea in people with certain bacterial infections. Also, berberine hydrochloride seems to speed up recovery time for people with diarrhea when added to some standard treatments. However, berberine does not seem to enhance the effects of tetracycline in treating diarrhea related to cholera infection.
  • Glaucoma. Early research suggests that using eye drops containing berberine and tetrahydrozoline for 3 days does not reduce eye pressure in people with glaucoma better than eye drops containing tetrahydrozoline alone.
  • Stomach ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection. Early research suggests that taking berberine three times daily for 6 weeks is more effective than the drug ranitidine at eliminating H. pylori infection, but less effective at healing ulcers in people with stomach ulcers due to H. pylori.
  • Hepatitis. Early research suggests that taking berberine daily for 2 months decreases blood sugar, triglycerides, and markers of liver damage in people with diabetes and hepatitis B or C.
  • Liver disease. Early research suggests that taking berberine for 12 weeks reduces fat in the blood and markers of liver damage in people with liver disease and diabetes.
  • Menopausal symptoms. Early research suggests that taking berberine and soy isoflavones can reduce menopausal symptoms.
  • Metabolic syndrome. Taking a combination product (Armolipid Plus) containing berberine, policosanol, and red yeast rice might improve blood pressure and blood flow in people with metabolic syndrome.
  • Obesity. Early research suggests that taking berberine for 12 weeks can reduce weight in obese people by about 5 pounds.
  • Osteoporosis. Early research suggests that taking berberine together with vitamin D3, vitamin K, and a chemical found in hops for 14 weeks can decrease bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
  • An ovary disorder known as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Early research suggests that berberine can reduce blood sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides, testosterone, and waist-to-hip ratio in women with PCOS.
  • Injuries caused by radiation. Some early research suggests that taking berberine during radiation therapy can reduce the occurrence and severity of some injuries caused by radiation in patients being treated for cancer.
  • Low blood platelet counts (thrombocytopenia). Blood platelets are important for blood clotting. Early research suggests that taking berberine for 15 days, either alone or with prednisolone, can increase the number of blood platelets in people with low blood platelet counts.
  • Trachoma. There is some evidence that eye drops containing berberine might be useful for treating trachoma, a common cause of blindness in developing countries.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of berberine for these uses.

How does it work?

Berberine might cause stronger heartbeats. It also might also be able to kill bacteria.

Are there safety concerns?

Berberine is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults for short-term use when taken by mouth or applied to the skin.

Special precautions & warnings:

Children: It’s UNSAFE to give berberine to newborns. It can cause kernicterus, a rare type of brain damage that can occur in newborns who have severe jaundice. Jaundice is yellowing of the skin caused by too much bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a chemical that is produced when the old red cells break down. It is normally removed by the liver. Berberine may keep the liver from removing bilirubin fast enough.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It’s UNSAFE to take berberine by mouth if you are pregnant. Researchers believe berberine can cross the placenta and might cause harm to the fetus. Kernicterus, a type of brain damage, has developed in newborn infants exposed to berberine.

It’s also UNSAFE to take berberine if you are breast-feeding. Berberine can be transferred to the infant through breast milk, and it might cause harm.

Diabetes: Berberine can lower blood sugar. Theoretically, berberine may cause blood sugar to become too low if taken by diabetics who are controlling their blood sugar with insulin or medications. Use with caution in people with diabetes.

High bilirubin levels in the blood in infants: Bilirubin is a chemical that is produced when the old red blood cells break down. It is normally removed by the liver. Berberine may keep the liver from removing bilirubin fast enough. This can cause brain problems, especially in infants with high levels of bilirubin in the blood. Avoid using.

Low blood pressure: Berberine might lower blood pressure. Use with caution in people with low blood pressure.

Are there interactions with medications?

Do not take this combination.
Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune)
The body breaks down cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) to get rid of it. Berberine might decrease how fast the body breaks down cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune). Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) might build up in the body and could possible cause side effects.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
Berberine might lower blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking berberine along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (Diabeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), and others.
Be cautious with this combination.
Dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, and others)
The body breaks down dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) to get rid of it. Berberine might decrease how quickly the body breaks down dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others). Taking berberine while taking dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others) might increase the effects and side effects of dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM, others).
Losartan (Cozaar)
The liver activates losartan (Cozaar) to make it work. Berberine might decrease how quickly the body breaks down losartan (Cozaar). Taking berberine while taking losartan (Cozaar) might decrease the effects of losartan.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 [CYP2C9] substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Berberine might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking berberine along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking berberine, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Voltaren), fluvastatin (Lescol), glipizide (Glucotrol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), phenytoin (Dilantin), piroxicam (Feldene), tamoxifen (Nolvadex), tolbutamide (Tolinase), torsemide (Demadex), and S-warfarin (Coumadin).
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2D6 [CYP2D6] substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Berberine might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking berberine along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking berberine, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), codeine, desipramine (Norpramin), flecainide (Tambocor), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL), ondansetron (Zofran), paroxetine (Paxil), risperidone (Risperdal), tramadol (Ultram), venlafaxine (Effexor), and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 [CYP3A4] substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Berberine might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking berberine along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking berberine, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include cyclosporin (Neoral, Sandimmune), lovastatin (Mevacor), clarithromycin (Biaxin), indinavir (Crixivan), sildenafil (Viagra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.
Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)
Berberine might decrease blood pressure in some people. Taking berberine along with medications used for lowering high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low. However, it's not known if this is a big concern. Do not take too much berberine if you are taking medications for high blood pressure.

Some medications for high blood pressure include include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Berberine might slow blood clotting. Taking berberine along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, cilostazol (Pletal), clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, ticlopidine (Ticlid), and others.
Midazolam (Versed)
The body breaks down midazolam (Versed) to get rid of it. Berberine can decrease how quickly the body breaks down midazolam (Versed). Taking berberine along with midazolam (Versed) might increase the effects and side effects of midazolam (Versed).
Sedative medications (CNS depressants)
Berberine might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking berberine along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.

Some sedative medications include benzodiazepines, pentobarbital (Nembutal), phenobarbital (Luminal), secobarbital (Seconal), thiopental (Pentothal), fentanyl (Duragesic, Sublimaze), morphine, propofol (Diprivan), and others.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Herbs and supplements that might lower blood pressure
Berberine might lower blood pressure. Using it along with other herbs and supplements that have this same effect might increase the risk of blood pressure dropping too low in some people. Some of these products include andrographis, casein peptides, cat's claw, coenzyme Q-10, fish oil, L-arginine, lycium, stinging nettle, theanine, and others.
Herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugar
Berberine might lower blood sugar. Using it along with other herbs and supplements that have the same effect might cause blood sugar to drop too low in some people. Some of these products include alpha-lipoic acid, bitter melon, chromium, devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, horse chestnut seed, Panax ginseng, psyllium, Siberian ginseng, and others.
Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
Berberine might slow blood clotting. Taking berberine along with other herbs that might slow blood clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. These herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, and others.
Herbs and supplements with sedative properties
Berberine can cause sleepiness or drowsiness. Using it along with other herbs and supplements that have the same effect might make you overly drowsy. Some of these herbs and supplements include calamus, California poppy, catnip, hops, Jamaican dogwood, kava, L-tryptophan, melatonin, sage, SAMe, St. John's wort, sassafras, skullcap, and others.

Are there interactions with foods?

There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

The appropriate dose of berberine depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for berberine. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

Other names

Alcaloïde de Berbérine, Berberina, Berbérine, Berberine Alkaloid, Berberine Complex, Berberine Sulfate, Sulfate de Berbérine.


To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.


  1. Rabbani G. Mechanism and treatment of diarrhoea due to Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli: roles of drugs and prostaglandins. Danish Medical Bulletin 1996;43:173-185.
  2. Hung OL, Shih RD, Chiang WK, and et al. Herbal preparation use among urban emergency department patients. Academic Emergency Medicine 1997;4:209-213.
  3. Kaneda Y, Torii M, Tanaka T, and et al. In vitro effects of berberine sulphate on the growth and structure of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1991;85:417-425.
  4. Hamon, NW. Goldenseal. CPJ-RPC 1990;508-510.
  5. Tice R. Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L) and two of its constituent alkaloids: berberine [2086-83-1] and Hydrastine [118-08-1]. Review of toxicological literature. 1997;1-52.
  6. Varma RL. Berberine sulphate in chronic trachoma. Indian Med Gaz 1933;68:122.
  7. Saksena HC, Tomar VN, and Soangra MR. Efficacy of a new salt of Berberine Uni-Berberine in oriental sore. Current Medical Practice 1970;14:247-252.
  8. Purohit SK, Kochar DK, Lal BB, and et al. Cultivation of Leishmania tropica from untreated and treated cases of oriental sore. Indian Journal of Public Health 1982;26:34-37.
  9. Sharma R, Joshi CK, and Goyal RK. Berberine tannate in acute diarrhoea. Indian Pediatrics 1970;7:496-501.
  10. Li XB. [Controlled clinical trial in infants and children comparing Lacteol Fort sachets with two antidiarrhoeal reference drugs]. Ann Pediatr 1995;42:396-401.
  11. Lahiri S and Dutta NK. Berberine and chloramphenicol in the treatment of cholera and severe diarrhoea. Journal of the Indian Medical Association 1967;48:1-11.
  12. Kamat SA. Clinical trials with berberine hydrochloride for the control of diarrhea in acute gastroenteritis. J Assoc Physicians India 1967;15:525-529.
  13. Dutta NK and Panse MV. Usefulness of berberine (an alkaloid from Berberis aristata) in the treatment of cholera (experimental). Indian J Med Res 1962;50:732-736.
  14. Wu, S. N., Yu, H. S., Jan, C. R., Li, H. F., and Yu, C. L. Inhibitory effects of berberine on voltage- and calcium-activated potassium currents in human myeloma cells. Life Sci 1998;62:2283-2294. View abstract.
  15. Ho, N. K. Traditional Chinese medicine and treatment of neonatal jaundice. Singapore Med J 1996;37:645-651. View abstract.
  16. Taylor, C. T. and Baird, A. W. Berberine inhibition of electrogenic ion transport in rat colon. Br J Pharmacol 1995;116:2667-2672. View abstract.
  17. Ozaki, Y., Suzuki, H., and Satake, M. [Comparative studies on concentration of berberine in plasma after oral administration of coptidis rhizoma extract, its cultured cells extract, and combined use of these extracts and glycyrrhizae radix extract in rats]. Yakugaku Zasshi 1993;113:63-69. View abstract.
  18. Hu, F. L. [Comparison of acid and Helicobacter pylori in ulcerogenesis of duodenal ulcer disease]. Zhonghua Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 1993;73:217-9, 253. View abstract.
  19. Arana, B. A., Navin, T. R., Arana, F. E., Berman, J. D., and Rosenkaimer, F. Efficacy of a short course (10 days) of high-dose meglumine antimonate with or without interferon-gamma in treating cutaneous leishmaniasis in Guatemala. Clin Infect Dis 1994;18:381-384. View abstract.
  20. Chekalina, S. I., Umurzakova, R. Z., Saliev, K. K., and Abdurakhmanov, T. R. [Effect of berberine bisulfate on platelet hemostasis in thrombocytopenia patients]. Gematologiia i Transfuziologiia 1994;39:33-35. View abstract.
  21. Ni, Y. X., Yang, J., and Fan, S. [Clinical study on jiang tang san in treating non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1994;14:650-652. View abstract.
  22. Kuo, C. L., Chou, C. C., and Yung, B. Y. Berberine complexes with DNA in the berberine-induced apoptosis in human leukemic HL-60 cells. Cancer Lett 7-13-1995;93:193-200. View abstract.
  23. Miyazaki, H., Shirai, E., Ishibashi, M., Hosoi, K., Shibata, S., and Iwanaga, M. Quantitation of berberine chloride in human urine by use of selected ion monitoring in the field desorption mode. Biomed.Mass Spectrom. 1978;5:559-565. View abstract.
  24. Babbar, O. P., Chhatwal, V. K., Ray, I. B., and Mehra, M. K. Effect of berberine chloride eye drops on clinically positive trachoma patients. Indian J Med Res. 1982;76 Suppl:83-88. View abstract.
  25. Mahajan, V. M., Sharma, A., and Rattan, A. Antimycotic activity of berberine sulphate: an alkaloid from an Indian medicinal herb. Sabouraudia. 1982;20:79-81. View abstract.
  26. Sabir, M., Akhter, M. H., and Bhide, N. K. Further studies on pharmacology of berberine. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1978;22:9-23. View abstract.
  27. Mohan, M., Pant, C. R., Angra, S. K., and Mahajan, V. M. Berberine in trachoma. (A clinical trial). Indian J Ophthalmol. 1982;30:69-75. View abstract.
  28. Tai, Y. H., Feser, J. F., Marnane, W. G., and Desjeux, J. F. Antisecretory effects of berberine in rat ileum. Am J Physiol 1981;241:G253-G258. View abstract.
  29. Chun YT, Yip TT, Lau KL, and et al. A biochemical study on the hypotensive effect of berberine in rats. Gen Pharmac 1979;10:177-182. View abstract.
  30. Desai, A. B., Shah, K. M., and Shah, D. M. Berberine in treatment of diarrhoea. Indian Pediatr. 1971;8:462-465. View abstract.
  31. Khin, Maung U., Myo, Khin, Nyunt, Nyunt Wai, Aye, Kyaw, and Tin, U. Clinical trial of berberine in acute watery diarrhoea. Br.Med.J.(Clin.Res.Ed) 12-7-1985;291:1601-1605. View abstract.
  32. Khin, Maung U., Myo, Khin, Nyunt, Nyunt Wai, and Tin, U. Clinical trial of high-dose berberine and tetracycline in cholera. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 1987;5:184-187. View abstract.
  33. Thumm, H. W. and Tritschler, J. [The action of Berberin-drops on the intraocular pressure (IOP) (author's transl)]. Klin.Monbl.Augenheilkd. 1977;170:119-123. View abstract.
  34. Albal, M. V., Jadhav, S., and Chandorkar, A. G. Clinical evaluation of berberine in mycotic infections. Indian J Ophthalmol. 1986;34:91-92. View abstract.
  35. Wang, N., Feng, Y., Cheung, F., Chow, O. Y., Wang, X., Su, W., and Tong, Y. A comparative study on the hepatoprotective action of bear bile and Coptidis Rhizoma aqueous extract on experimental liver fibrosis in rats. BMC.Complement Altern.Med 2012;12:239. View abstract.
  36. Pisciotta, L., Bellocchio, A., and Bertolini, S. Nutraceutical pill containing berberine versus ezetimibe on plasma lipid pattern in hypercholesterolemic subjects and its additive effect in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia on stable cholesterol-lowering treatment. Lipids Health Dis 2012;11:123. View abstract.
  37. Zhao, Q., Wan, Y., Wang, C., Wei, Q., Chen, H., Meng, X., and Yao, J. [Regulatory mechanism of p38MAPK signaling pathway on renal tissue inflammation in chronic kidney disease and interventional effect of traditional Chinese medicine]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2012;37:1700-1704. View abstract.
  38. Trimarco, V., Cimmino, C. S., Santoro, M., Pagnano, G., Manzi, M. V., Piglia, A., Giudice, C. A., De, Luca N., and Izzo, R. Nutraceuticals for blood pressure control in patients with high-normal or grade 1 hypertension. High Blood Press Cardiovasc.Prev. 9-1-2012;19:117-122. View abstract.
  39. Hayasaka, S., Kodama, T., and Ohira, A. Traditional Japanese herbal (kampo) medicines and treatment of ocular diseases: a review. Am J Chin Med 2012;40:887-904. View abstract.
  40. Hermann, R. and von, Richter O. Clinical evidence of herbal drugs as perpetrators of pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Planta Med 2012;78:1458-1477. View abstract.
  41. Srivastava, R. A., Pinkosky, S. L., Filippov, S., Hanselman, J. C., Cramer, C. T., and Newton, R. S. AMP-activated protein kinase: an emerging drug target to regulate imbalances in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism to treat cardio-metabolic diseases. J Lipid Res 2012;53:2490-2514. View abstract.
  42. Derosa, G., Maffioli, P., and Cicero, A. F. Berberine on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors: an analysis from preclinical evidences to clinical trials. Expert.Opin.Biol Ther 2012;12:1113-1124. View abstract.
  43. Kumar, G. S. RNA targeting by small molecules: Binding of protoberberine, benzophenanthridine and aristolochia alkaloids to various RNA structures. J Biosci. 2012;37:539-552. View abstract.
  44. Hu, Y., Ehli, E. A., Kittelsrud, J., Ronan, P. J., Munger, K., Downey, T., Bohlen, K., Callahan, L., Munson, V., Jahnke, M., Marshall, L. L., Nelson, K., Huizenga, P., Hansen, R., Soundy, T. J., and Davies, G. E. Lipid-lowering effect of berberine in human subjects and rats. Phytomedicine. 7-15-2012;19:861-867. View abstract.
  45. Salt, I. P. and Palmer, T. M. Exploiting the anti-inflammatory effects of AMP-activated protein kinase activation. Expert.Opin.Investig.Drugs 2012;21:1155-1167. View abstract.
  46. Cicero, A. F. and Tartagni, E. Antidiabetic properties of berberine: from cellular pharmacology to clinical effects. Hosp.Pract. 2012;40:56-63. View abstract.
  47. Zhang, J., Zhou, F., Lu, M., Ji, W., Niu, F., Zha, W., Wu, X., Hao, H., and Wang, G. Pharmacokinetics-pharmacology disconnection of herbal medicines and its potential solutions with cellular pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic strategy. Curr Drug Metab 6-1-2012;13:558-576. View abstract.
  48. Carlomagno, G., Pirozzi, C., Mercurio, V., Ruvolo, A., and Fazio, S. Effects of a nutraceutical combination on left ventricular remodeling and vasoreactivity in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc.Dis 2012;22:e13-e14. View abstract.
  49. Vy Thi, Le T., Han, S., Chae, J., and Park, H. J. G-quadruplex binding ligands: from naturally occurring to rationally designed molecules. Curr Pharm Des 2012;18:1948-1972. View abstract.
  50. Cianci, A., Cicero, A. F., Colacurci, N., Matarazzo, M. G., and De, Leo, V. Activity of isoflavones and berberine on vasomotor symptoms and lipid profile in menopausal women. Gynecol.Endocrinol. 2012;28:699-702. View abstract.
  51. Xie, X., Meng, X., Zhou, X., Shu, X., and Kong, H. [Research on therapeutic effect and hemorrheology change of berberine in new diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes combining nonalcoholic fatty liver disease]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2011;36:3032-3035. View abstract.
  52. Meng, S., Wang, L. S., Huang, Z. Q., Zhou, Q., Sun, Y. G., Cao, J. T., Li, Y. G., and Wang, C. Q. Berberine ameliorates inflammation in patients with acute coronary syndrome following percutaneous coronary intervention. Clin Exp.Pharmacol Physiol 2012;39:406-411. View abstract.
  53. Kim, H. S., Kim, M. J., Kim, E. J., Yang, Y., Lee, M. S., and Lim, J. S. Berberine-induced AMPK activation inhibits the metastatic potential of melanoma cells via reduction of ERK activity and COX-2 protein expression. Biochem.Pharmacol 2-1-2012;83:385-394. View abstract.
  54. Marazzi, G., Cacciotti, L., Pelliccia, F., Iaia, L., Volterrani, M., Caminiti, G., Sposato, B., Massaro, R., Grieco, F., and Rosano, G. Long-term effects of nutraceuticals (berberine, red yeast rice, policosanol) in elderly hypercholesterolemic patients. Adv.Ther 2011;28:1105-1113. View abstract.
  55. Wei, W., Zhao, H., Wang, A., Sui, M., Liang, K., Deng, H., Ma, Y., Zhang, Y., Zhang, H., and Guan, Y. A clinical study on the short-term effect of berberine in comparison to metformin on the metabolic characteristics of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012;166:99-105. View abstract.
  56. Wang, Q., Zhang, M., Liang, B., Shirwany, N., Zhu, Y., and Zou, M. H. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase is required for berberine-induced reduction of atherosclerosis in mice: the role of uncoupling protein 2. PLoS.One. 2011;6:e25436. View abstract.
  57. Tan, W., Li, Y., Chen, M., and Wang, Y. Berberine hydrochloride: anticancer activity and nanoparticulate delivery system. Int J Nanomedicine. 2011;6:1773-1777. View abstract.
  58. Guo, Y., Chen, Y., Tan, Z. R., Klaassen, C. D., and Zhou, H. H. Repeated administration of berberine inhibits cytochromes P450 in humans. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2012;68:213-217. View abstract.
  59. Wang, T., Wang, N., Song, H., Xi, X., Wang, J., Hao, A., and Li, T. Preparation of an anhydrous reverse micelle delivery system to enhance oral bioavailability and anti-diabetic efficacy of berberine. Eur J Pharm Sci 9-18-2011;44(1-2):127-135. View abstract.
  60. Lamb, J. J., Holick, M. F., Lerman, R. H., Konda, V. R., Minich, D. M., Desai, A., Chen, T. C., Austin, M., Kornberg, J., Chang, J. L., Hsi, A., Bland, J. S., and Tripp, M. L. Nutritional supplementation of hop rho iso-alpha acids, berberine, vitamin D, and vitamin K produces a favorable bone biomarker profile supporting healthy bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Nutr Res 2011;31:347-355. View abstract.
  61. Xia, X., Yan, J., Shen, Y., Tang, K., Yin, J., Zhang, Y., Yang, D., Liang, H., Ye, J., and Weng, J. Berberine improves glucose metabolism in diabetic rats by inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. PLoS.One. 2011;6:e16556. View abstract.
  62. Guan, S., Wang, B., Li, W., Guan, J., and Fang, X. Effects of berberine on expression of LOX-1 and SR-BI in human macrophage-derived foam cells induced by ox-LDL. Am J Chin Med 2010;38:1161-1169. View abstract.
  63. Zhao, L., Li, W., Han, F., Hou, L., Baillargeon, J. P., Kuang, H., Wang, Y., and Wu, X. Berberine reduces insulin resistance induced by dexamethasone in theca cells in vitro. Fertil.Steril. 2011;95:461-463. View abstract.
  64. Li-Weber, M. Targeting apoptosis pathways in cancer by Chinese medicine. Cancer Lett. 5-28-2013;332:304-312. View abstract.
  65. Hu, Y., Kutscher, E., and Davies, G. E. Berberine inhibits SREBP-1-related clozapine and risperidone induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Phytother.Res 2010;24:1831-1838. View abstract.
  66. Wang, Y., Campbell, T., Perry, B., Beaurepaire, C., and Qin, L. Hypoglycemic and insulin-sensitizing effects of berberine in high-fat diet- and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Metabolism 2011;60:298-305. View abstract.
  67. Gu, Y., Zhang, Y., Shi, X., Li, X., Hong, J., Chen, J., Gu, W., Lu, X., Xu, G., and Ning, G. Effect of traditional Chinese medicine berberine on type 2 diabetes based on comprehensive metabonomics. Talanta 5-15-2010;81:766-772. View abstract.
  68. Liu, L., Yu, Y. L., Yang, J. S., Li, Y., Liu, Y. W., Liang, Y., Liu, X. D., Xie, L., and Wang, G. J. Berberine suppresses intestinal disaccharidases with beneficial metabolic effects in diabetic states, evidences from in vivo and in vitro study. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2010;381:371-381. View abstract.
  69. Liu, L. Z., Cheung, S. C., Lan, L. L., Ho, S. K., Xu, H. X., Chan, J. C., and Tong, P. C. Berberine modulates insulin signaling transduction in insulin-resistant cells. Mol.Cell Endocrinol. 4-12-2010;317(1-2):148-153. View abstract.
  70. Holick, M. F., Lamb, J. J., Lerman, R. H., Konda, V. R., Darland, G., Minich, D. M., Desai, A., Chen, T. C., Austin, M., Kornberg, J., Chang, J. L., Hsi, A., Bland, J. S., and Tripp, M. L. Hop rho iso-alpha acids, berberine, vitamin D3 and vitamin K1 favorably impact biomarkers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women in a 14-week trial. J Bone Miner.Metab 2010;28:342-350. View abstract.
  71. Hwang, J. T., Kwon, D. Y., and Yoon, S. H. AMP-activated protein kinase: a potential target for the diseases prevention by natural occurring polyphenols. N.Biotechnol. 10-1-2009;26(1-2):17-22. View abstract.
  72. Zhang, H., Wei, J., Xue, R., Wu, J. D., Zhao, W., Wang, Z. Z., Wang, S. K., Zhou, Z. X., Song, D. Q., Wang, Y. M., Pan, H. N., Kong, W. J., and Jiang, J. D. Berberine lowers blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients through increasing insulin receptor expression. Metabolism 2010;59:285-292. View abstract.
  73. Wang, Y., Jia, X., Ghanam, K., Beaurepaire, C., Zidichouski, J., and Miller, L. Berberine and plant stanols synergistically inhibit cholesterol absorption in hamsters. Atherosclerosis 2010;209:111-117. View abstract.
  74. Li, G. H., Wang, D. L., Hu, Y. D., Pu, P., Li, D. Z., Wang, W. D., Zhu, B., Hao, P., Wang, J., Xu, X. Q., Wan, J. Q., Zhou, Y. B., and Chen, Z. T. Berberine inhibits acute radiation intestinal syndrome in human with abdomen radiotherapy. Med Oncol. 2010;27:919-925. View abstract.
  75. Affuso, F., Ruvolo, A., Micillo, F., Sacca, L., and Fazio, S. Effects of a nutraceutical combination (berberine, red yeast rice and policosanols) on lipid levels and endothelial function randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc.Dis 2010;20:656-661. View abstract.
  76. Wang, C., Li, J., Lv, X., Zhang, M., Song, Y., Chen, L., and Liu, Y. Ameliorative effect of berberine on endothelial dysfunction in diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin. Eur J Pharmacol 10-12-2009;620(1-3):131-137. View abstract.
  77. Al-masri, I. M., Mohammad, M. K., and Tahaa, M. O. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) is one of the mechanisms explaining the hypoglycemic effect of berberine. J Enzyme Inhib.Med Chem 2009;24:1061-1066. View abstract.
  78. Wang, J. M., Yang, Z., Xu, M. G., Chen, L., Wang, Y., Su, C., and Tao, J. Berberine-induced decline in circulating CD31+/. Eur J Pharmacol 7-1-2009;614(1-3):77-83. View abstract.
  79. Jeong, H. W., Hsu, K. C., Lee, J. W., Ham, M., Huh, J. Y., Shin, H. J., Kim, W. S., and Kim, J. B. Berberine suppresses proinflammatory responses through AMPK activation in macrophages. Am J Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2009;296:E955-E964. View abstract.
  80. Kim, W. S., Lee, Y. S., Cha, S. H., Jeong, H. W., Choe, S. S., Lee, M. R., Oh, G. T., Park, H. S., Lee, K. U., Lane, M. D., and Kim, J. B. Berberine improves lipid dysregulation in obesity by controlling central and peripheral AMPK activity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2009;296:E812-E819. View abstract.
  81. Kong, W. J., Zhang, H., Song, D. Q., Xue, R., Zhao, W., Wei, J., Wang, Y. M., Shan, N., Zhou, Z. X., Yang, P., You, X. F., Li, Z. R., Si, S. Y., Zhao, L. X., Pan, H. N., and Jiang, J. D. Berberine reduces insulin resistance through protein kinase C-dependent up-regulation of insulin receptor expression. Metabolism 2009;58:109-119. View abstract.
  82. Jung, H. A., Yoon, N. Y., Bae, H. J., Min, B. S., and Choi, J. S. Inhibitory activities of the alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma against aldose reductase. Arch Pharm Res 2008;31:1405-1412. View abstract.
  83. Lu, S. S., Yu, Y. L., Zhu, H. J., Liu, X. D., Liu, L., Liu, Y. W., Wang, P., Xie, L., and Wang, G. J. Berberine promotes glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide secretion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Endocrinol. 2009;200:159-165. View abstract.
  84. Liu, Y., Yu, H., Zhang, C., Cheng, Y., Hu, L., Meng, X., and Zhao, Y. Protective effects of berberine on radiation-induced lung injury via intercellular adhesion molecular-1 and transforming growth factor-beta-1 in patients with lung cancer. Eur J Cancer 2008;44:2425-2432. View abstract.
  85. Liu, W. H., Hei, Z. Q., Nie, H., Tang, F. T., Huang, H. Q., Li, X. J., Deng, Y. H., Chen, S. R., Guo, F. F., Huang, W. G., Chen, F. Y., and Liu, P. Q. Berberine ameliorates renal injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by suppression of both oxidative stress and aldose reductase. Chin Med J (Engl.) 4-20-2008;121:706-712. View abstract.
  86. Kong, W. J., Wei, J., Zuo, Z. Y., Wang, Y. M., Song, D. Q., You, X. F., Zhao, L. X., Pan, H. N., and Jiang, J. D. Combination of simvastatin with berberine improves the lipid-lowering efficacy. Metabolism 2008;57:1029-1037. View abstract.
  87. Yang, Z., Shao, Y. C., Li, S. J., Qi, J. L., Zhang, M. J., Hao, W., and Jin, G. Z. Medication of l-tetrahydropalmatine significantly ameliorates opiate craving and increases the abstinence rate in heroin users: a pilot study. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2008;29:781-788. View abstract.
  88. Zhou, J. Y., Zhou, S. W., Zhang, K. B., Tang, J. L., Guang, L. X., Ying, Y., Xu, Y., Zhang, L., and Li, D. D. Chronic effects of berberine on blood, liver glucolipid metabolism and liver PPARs expression in diabetic hyperlipidemic rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31:1169-1176. View abstract.
  89. Liu, W., Liu, P., Tao, S., Deng, Y., Li, X., Lan, T., Zhang, X., Guo, F., Huang, W., Chen, F., Huang, H., and Zhou, S. F. Berberine inhibits aldose reductase and oxidative stress in rat mesangial cells cultured under high glucose. Arch Biochem.Biophys. 7-15-2008;475:128-134. View abstract.
  90. Yin, J., Xing, H., and Ye, J. Efficacy of berberine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 2008;57:712-717. View abstract.
  91. Kalman, D. S., Feldman, S., Feldman, R., Schwartz, H. I., Krieger, D. R., and Garrison, R. Effect of a proprietary Magnolia and Phellodendron extract on stress levels in healthy women: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Nutr J 2008;7:11. View abstract.
  92. Zhang, Y., Li, X., Zou, D., Liu, W., Yang, J., Zhu, N., Huo, L., Wang, M., Hong, J., Wu, P., Ren, G., and Ning, G. Treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia with the natural plant alkaloid berberine. J Clin Endocrinol.Metab 2008;93:2559-2565. View abstract.
  93. Xu, M. G., Wang, J. M., Chen, L., Wang, Y., Yang, Z., and Tao, J. Berberine-induced mobilization of circulating endothelial progenitor cells improves human small artery elasticity. J Hum.Hypertens 2008;22:389-393. View abstract.
  94. Yin, J., Gao, Z., Liu, D., Liu, Z., and Ye, J. Berberine improves glucose metabolism through induction of glycolysis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2008;294:E148-E156. View abstract.
  95. Cheng, Z., Pang, T., Gu, M., Gao, A. H., Xie, C. M., Li, J. Y., Nan, F. J., and Li, J. Berberine-stimulated glucose uptake in L6 myotubes involves both AMPK and p38 MAPK. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2006;1760:1682-1689. View abstract.
  96. Zuo, F., Nakamura, N., Akao, T., and Hattori, M. Pharmacokinetics of berberine and its main metabolites in conventional and pseudo germ-free rats determined by liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006;34:2064-2072. View abstract.
  97. Lee, Y. S., Kim, W. S., Kim, K. H., Yoon, M. J., Cho, H. J., Shen, Y., Ye, J. M., Lee, C. H., Oh, W. K., Kim, C. T., Hohnen-Behrens, C., Gosby, A., Kraegen, E. W., James, D. E., and Kim, J. B. Berberine, a natural plant product, activates AMP-activated protein kinase with beneficial metabolic effects in diabetic and insulin-resistant states. Diabetes 2006;55:2256-2264. View abstract.
  98. Xin, H. W., Wu, X. C., Li, Q., Yu, A. R., Zhong, M. Y., and Liu, Y. Y. The effects of berberine on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporin A in healthy volunteers. Methods Find.Exp.Clin Pharmacol 2006;28:25-29. View abstract.
  99. Mantena, S. K., Sharma, S. D., and Katiyar, S. K. Berberine, a natural product, induces G1-phase cell cycle arrest and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma cells. Mol Cancer Ther 2006;5:296-308. View abstract.
  100. Lin, C. C., Kao, S. T., Chen, G. W., Ho, H. C., and Chung, J. G. Apoptosis of human leukemia HL-60 cells and murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells induced by berberine through the activation of caspase-3. Anticancer Res 2006;26(1A):227-242. View abstract.
  101. Lin, J. P., Yang, J. S., Lee, J. H., Hsieh, W. T., and Chung, J. G. Berberine induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma SNU-5 cell line. World J Gastroenterol. 1-7-2006;12:21-28. View abstract.
  102. Kim, H. R., Min, H. Y., Jeong, Y. H., Lee, S. K., Lee, N. S., and Seo, E. K. Cytotoxic constituents from the whole plant of Corydalis pallida. Arch Pharm Res 2005;28:1224-1227. View abstract.
  103. Lin, C. C., Kao, S. T., Chen, G. W., and Chung, J. G. Berberine decreased N-acetylation of 2-aminofluorene through inhibition of N-acetyltransferase gene expression in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Anticancer Res 2005;25(6B):4149-4155. View abstract.
  104. Inoue, K., Kulsum, U., Chowdhury, S. A., Fujisawa, S., Ishihara, M., Yokoe, I., and Sakagami, H. Tumor-specific cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity of berberines. Anticancer Res 2005;25(6B):4053-4059. View abstract.
  105. Abidi, P., Zhou, Y., Jiang, J. D., and Liu, J. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent stabilization of hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor mRNA by herbal medicine berberine. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol 2005;25:2170-2176. View abstract.
  106. Lee, S., Lim, H. J., Park, H. Y., Lee, K. S., Park, J. H., and Jang, Y. Berberine inhibits rat vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration in vitro and improves neointima formation after balloon injury in vivo. Berberine improves neointima formation in a rat model. Atherosclerosis 2006;186:29-37. View abstract.
  107. Doggrell, S. A. Berberine--a novel approach to cholesterol lowering. Expert.Opin.Investig.Drugs 2005;14:683-685. View abstract.
  108. Kuo, C. L., Chi, C. W., and Liu, T. Y. Modulation of apoptosis by berberine through inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and Mcl-1 expression in oral cancer cells. In Vivo 2005;19:247-252. View abstract.
  109. Kong, W., Wei, J., Abidi, P., Lin, M., Inaba, S., Li, C., Wang, Y., Wang, Z., Si, S., Pan, H., Wang, S., Wu, J., Wang, Y., Li, Z., Liu, J., and Jiang, J. D. Berberine is a novel cholesterol-lowering drug working through a unique mechanism distinct from statins. Nat Med 2004;10:1344-1351. View abstract.
  110. Yount, G., Qian, Y., Moore, D., Basila, D., West, J., Aldape, K., Arvold, N., Shalev, N., and Haas-Kogan, D. Berberine sensitizes human glioma cells, but not normal glial cells, to ionizing radiation in vitro. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2004;4:137-143. View abstract.
  111. Lin, S., Tsai, S. C., Lee, C. C., Wang, B. W., Liou, J. Y., and Shyu, K. G. Berberine inhibits HIF-1alpha expression via enhanced proteolysis. Mol Pharmacol 2004;66:612-619. View abstract.
  112. Kettmann, V., Kosfalova, D., Jantova, S., Cernakova, M., and Drimal, J. In vitro cytotoxicity of berberine against HeLa and L1210 cancer cell lines. Pharmazie 2004;59:548-551. View abstract.
  113. Pan, G. Y., Wang, G. J., Sun, J. G., Huang, Z. J., Zhao, X. C., Gu, Y., and Liu, X. D. [Inhibitory action of berberine on glucose absorption]. Yao Xue.Xue.Bao. 2003;38:911-914. View abstract.
  114. Kuo, C. L., Chi, C. W., and Liu, T. Y. The anti-inflammatory potential of berberine in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Lett 1-20-2004;203:127-137. View abstract.
  115. Nishida, S., Kikuichi, S., Yoshioka, S., Tsubaki, M., Fujii, Y., Matsuda, H., Kubo, M., and Irimajiri, K. Induction of apoptosis in HL-60 cells treated with medicinal herbs. Am J Chin Med 2003;31:551-562. View abstract.
  116. Iizuka, N., Oka, M., Yamamoto, K., Tangoku, A., Miyamoto, K., Miyamoto, T., Uchimura, S., Hamamoto, Y., and Okita, K. Identification of common or distinct genes related to antitumor activities of a medicinal herb and its major component by oligonucleotide microarray. Int J Cancer 11-20-2003;107:666-672. View abstract.
  117. Tai, W. P. and Luo, H. S. [The inhibit effect of berberine on human colon cell line cyclooxygenase-2]. Zhonghua Nei Ke.Za Zhi. 2003;42:558-560. View abstract.
  118. Jantova, S., Cipak, L., Cernakova, M., and Kost'alova, D. Effect of berberine on proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in HeLa and L1210 cells. J Pharm Pharmacol 2003;55:1143-1149. View abstract.
  119. Mahady, G. B., Pendland, S. L., Stoia, A., and Chadwick, L. R. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to isoquinoline alkaloids from Sanguinaria canadensis and Hydrastis canadensis. Phytother Res 2003;17:217-221. View abstract.
  120. Hong, Y., Hui, S. S., Chan, B. T., and Hou, J. Effect of berberine on catecholamine levels in rats with experimental cardiac hypertrophy. Life Sci. 4-18-2003;72:2499-2507. View abstract.
  121. Lee, H. S. Rat lens aldose reductase inhibitory activities of Coptis japonica root-derived isoquinoline alkaloids. J Agric.Food Chem 11-20-2002;50:7013-7016. View abstract.
  122. Yin, J., Hu, R., Chen, M., Tang, J., Li, F., Yang, Y., and Chen, J. Effects of berberine on glucose metabolism in vitro. Metabolism 2002;51:1439-1443. View abstract.
  123. Wang, D. Y., Yeh, C. C., Lee, J. H., Hung, C. F., and Chung, J. G. Berberine inhibited arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity and gene expression and DNA adduct formation in human malignant astrocytoma (G9T/VGH) and brain glioblastoma multiforms (GBM 8401) cells. Neurochem.Res 2002;27:883-889. View abstract.
  124. Sriwilaijareon, N., Petmitr, S., Mutirangura, A., Ponglikitmongkol, M., and Wilairat, P. Stage specificity of Plasmodium falciparum telomerase and its inhibition by berberine. Parasitol.Int 2002;51:99-103. View abstract.
  125. Pan, J. F., Yu, C., Zhu, D. Y., Zhang, H., Zeng, J. F., Jiang, S. H., and Ren, J. Y. Identification of three sulfate-conjugated metabolites of berberine chloride in healthy volunteers' urine after oral administration. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2002;23:77-82. View abstract.
  126. Soffar, S. A., Metwali, D. M., Abdel-Aziz, S. S., el Wakil, H. S., and Saad, G. A. Evaluation of the effect of a plant alkaloid (berberine derived from Berberis aristata) on Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro. J Egypt.Soc Parasitol. 2001;31:893-904. View abstract.
  127. Inbaraj, J. J., Kukielczak, B. M., Bilski, P., Sandvik, S. L., and Chignell, C. F. Photochemistry and photocytotoxicity of alkaloids from Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) 1. Berberine. Chem Res Toxicol 2001;14:1529-1534. View abstract.
  128. Kowalewski, Z., Mrozikiewicz, A., Bobkiewicz, T., Drost, K., and Hladon, B. [Toxicity of berberine sulfate]. Acta Pol.Pharm 1975;32:113-120. View abstract.
  129. Wright, C. W., Marshall, S. J., Russell, P. F., Anderson, M. M., Phillipson, J. D., Kirby, G. C., Warhurst, D. C., and Schiff, P. L. In vitro antiplasmodial, antiamoebic, and cytotoxic activities of some monomeric isoquinoline alkaloids. J Nat Prod 2000;63:1638-1640. View abstract.
  130. Hu, J. P., Takahashi, N., and Yamada, T. Coptidis rhizoma inhibits growth and proteases of oral bacteria. Oral Dis. 2000;6:297-302. View abstract.
  131. Chung, J. G., Chen, G. W., Hung, C. F., Lee, J. H., Ho, C. C., Ho, H. C., Chang, H. L., Lin, W. C., and Lin, J. G. Effects of berberine on arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity and 2-aminofluorene-DNA adduct formation in human leukemia cells. Am J Chin Med 2000;28:227-238. View abstract.
  132. Orfila, L., Rodriguez, M., Colman, T., Hasegawa, M., Merentes, E., and Arvelo, F. Structural modification of berberine alkaloids in relation to cytotoxic activity in vitro. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;71:449-456. View abstract.
  133. Ko, W. H., Yao, X. Q., Lau, C. W., Law, W. I., Chen, Z. Y., Kwok, W., Ho, K., and Huang, Y. Vasorelaxant and antiproliferative effects of berberine. Eur J Pharmacol 7-7-2000;399(2-3):187-196. View abstract.
  134. Berberine. Altern Med Rev 2000;5:175-177. View abstract.
  135. Iizuka, N., Miyamoto, K., Okita, K., Tangoku, A., Hayashi, H., Yosino, S., Abe, T., Morioka, T., Hazama, S., and Oka, M. Inhibitory effect of Coptidis Rhizoma and berberine on the proliferation of human esophageal cancer cell lines. Cancer Lett 1-1-2000;148:19-25. View abstract.
  136. Stermitz, F. R., Lorenz, P., Tawara, J. N., Zenewicz, L. A., and Lewis, K. Synergy in a medicinal plant: antimicrobial action of berberine potentiated by 5'-methoxyhydnocarpin, a multidrug pump inhibitor. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 2-15-2000;97:1433-1437. View abstract.
  137. Chae, S. H., Jeong, I. H., Choi, D. H., Oh, J. W., and Ahn, Y. J. Growth-inhibiting effects of Coptis japonica root-derived isoquinoline alkaloids on human intestinal bacteria. J Agric.Food Chem 1999;47:934-938. View abstract.
  138. Zeng, X. and Zeng, X. Relationship between the clinical effects of berberine on severe congestive heart failure and its concentration in plasma studied by HPLC. Biomed Chromatogr 1999;13:442-444. View abstract.
  139. Lin, J. G., Chung, J. G., Wu, L. T., Chen, G. W., Chang, H. L., and Wang, T. F. Effects of berberine on arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in human colon tumor cells. Am J Chin Med 1999;27:265-275. View abstract.
  140. Chung, J. G., Wu, L. T., Chu, C. B., Jan, J. Y., Ho, C. C., Tsou, M. F., Lu, H. F., Chen, G. W., Lin, J. G., and Wang, T. F. Effects of berberine on arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in human bladder tumour cells. Food Chem Toxicol 1999;37:319-326. View abstract.
  141. Wu, H. L., Hsu, C. Y., Liu, W. H., and Yung, B. Y. Berberine-induced apoptosis of human leukemia HL-60 cells is associated with down-regulation of nucleophosmin/B23 and telomerase activity. Int J Cancer 6-11-1999;81:923-929. View abstract.
  142. Sun D, Courtney HS, and Beachey EH. Berberine sulfate blocks adherence of Streptococcus pyogenes to epithelial cells, fibronectin, and hexadecane. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1988;32:1370-1374.
  143. Palasuntheram C, Iyer KS, de Silva LB, and et al. Antibacterial activity of Coscinium fenestratum Colebr against Clostridium tetani. Ind J Med Res 1982;76(Suppl):71-76.
  144. Zhu B and Ahrens FA. Effect of berberine on intestinal secretion mediated by Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin in jejunum of pigs. Am J Vet Res 1982;43:1594-1598.
  145. Supek Z and Tomic D. Farmakološko-kemijsko istrazivanje zutike (
  146. Ribeiro LG, Bowker BL, Maroko PR, and et al. Beneficial effects of berberine on early mortality after experimental coronary artery occlusion in rats. Circulation 1982;66:II-56.
  147. Zalewski A, Krol R, and Maroko PR. Berberine, a new inotropic agent - distinction between its cardiac and peripheral responses. Clin Res 1983;31:227A.
  148. Krol R, Zalewski A, and Maroko PR. Beneficial effects of berberine, a new positive inotropic agent, on digitalis-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Circulation 1982;66(suppl 2):56.
  149. Palmery M, Leone MG, Pimpinella G, and et al. Effects of Hydrastis canadensis L. and the two major alkaloids berberine and hydrastine on rabbit aorta. Pharmacological Research 1993;27(suppl 1):73-74.
  150. Subbaiah TV and Amin AH. Effect of berberine sulphate on Entamoeba histolytica. Nature 1967;215:527-528.
  151. Dutta NK and Iyer SN. Anti-amoebic value of berberine and kurchi alkaloids. Journal of the Indian Medical Association 1968;50:349-354.
  152. Kaneda Y, Tanaka T, and Saw T. Effects of berberine, a plant alkaloid, on the growth of anaerobic protozoa in axenic culture. Tokai J Exp Clin Med 1990;15:417-423.
  153. Ghosh AK, Bhattacharyya FK, and Ghosh DK. Leishmania donovani: amastigote inhibition and mode of action of berberine. Experimental Parasitology 1985;60:404-413.
  154. Huang W, Zhang Z, and Xu Y. Study of the effects and mechanisms of berberine on slow-response action potentials. Journal of Electrocardiology 1990;23:231-234.
  155. Sabir M, Mahajan VM, Mohapatra LN, and et al. Experimental study of the antitrachoma action of berberine. Indian J Med Res 1976;64:1160-1167.
  156. Seery TM and Bieter RN. A contribution to the pharmacology of berberine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1940;69:64-67.
  157. Lewin NA, Howland MA, and Goldfrank LR. Herbal Preparations. Goldfrank's Toxicological Emergencies. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange;1996.
  158. Haginawa J and Harada M. Pharmacologic studies on crude drugs. V. Comparison of berberine type-alkaloid-containing plants on their components and several pharmacological actions. Yakugaku Zasshi 1962;82:726.
  159. Tripathi YB and Shukla SD. Berberis artistata inhibits PAF induced aggregation of rabbit platelets. Phytotherapy Research 1996;10:628-630.
  160. Sabir M and Bhide NK. Study of some pharmacological actions of berberine. Ind J Physiol & Pharmac 1971;15:111-132.
  161. Chung JG, Wu LT, Chang SH, and et al. Inhibitory actions of berberine on growth and arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in strains of Helicobacter Pylori from peptic ulcer patients. International Journal of Toxicology 1999;18:35.
  162. Sharda DC. Berberine in the treatment of diarrhoea of infancy and childhood. J Indian M A 1970;54:22-24.
  163. Vik-Mo H, Faria DB, Cheung WM, and et al. Beneficial effects of berberine on left ventricular function in dogs with heart failure. Clinical Research 1983;31:224a.
  164. Ksiezycka E, Cheung W, and Maroko PR. Antiarrhythmic effects of berberine on aconitine-induced ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. Clinical Research 1983;31:197A.
  165. Haisong J, Xiaojie L, Baolu Z, and et al. Scavenging effect of berbamine on active oxygen radicals in phorbol ester-stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Biochemical Pharmacology 1990;39:1673.
  166. Nishino H, Kitagawa K, Fujiki H, and et al. Berberine sulfate inhibits tumor-promoting activity of teleocidin in two-stage carcinogenesis on mouse skin. Oncology 1986;43:131-134.
  167. Kumazawa Y, Itagaki A, Fukumoto M, and et al. Activation of peritoneal macrophages by berberine-type alkaloids in terms of induction of cytostatic activity. Int J Immunopharmac 1984;6:587-592.
  168. Liu CX, Xiao PG, and Liu GS. Studies on plant resources, pharmacology and clinical treatment with berbamine. Phytotherapy Research 1991;5:228-230.
  169. Miura N, Yamamoto M, Ueki T, and et al. Inhibition of thymocyte apoptosis by berberine. Biochemical Pharmacology 1997;53:1315-1322.
  170. Teh BS, Seow WK, Li SY, and et al. Inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene generation by the plant alkaloids tetrandrine and berbamine. Int J Immnopharmac 1990;12:321-326.
  171. Seow WK, Ferrante A, Summors A, and et al. Comparative effects of tetrandrine and berbamine on production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor. Life Sciences 1992;50:pl-53-pl-58.
  172. Gao, C. R., Zhang, J. Q., and Huang, Q. L. [Experimental study on berberin raised insulin sensitivity in insulin resistance rat models]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1997;17:162-164. View abstract.
  173. Peng, W. H., Hsieh, M. T., and Wu, C. R. Effect of long-term administration of berberine on scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats. Jpn J Pharmacol 1997;74:261-266. View abstract.
  174. Ckless, K., Schlottfeldt, J. L., Pasqual, M., Moyna, P., Henriques, J. A., and Wajner, M. Inhibition of in-vitro lymphocyte transformation by the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1995;47(12A):1029-1031. View abstract.
  175. Wu, J. F. and Liu, T. P. [Effects of berberine on platelet aggregation and plasma levels of TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in rats with reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion]. Yao Xue.Xue.Bao. 1995;30:98-102. View abstract.
  176. Yuan, J., Shen, X. Z., and Zhu, X. S. [Effect of berberine on transit time of human small intestine]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1994;14:718-720. View abstract.
  177. Muller, K., Ziereis, K., and Gawlik, I. The antipsoriatic Mahonia aquifolium and its active constituents; II. Antiproliferative activity against cell growth of human keratinocytes. Planta Med 1995;61:74-75. View abstract.
  178. Chi, C. W., Chang, Y. F., Chao, T. W., Chiang, S. H., P'eng, F. K., Lui, W. Y., and Liu, T. Y. Flowcytometric analysis of the effect of berberine on the expression of glucocorticoid receptors in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Life Sci. 1994;54:2099-2107. View abstract.
  179. Misik, V., Bezakova, L., Malekova, L., and Kostalova, D. Lipoxygenase inhibition and antioxidant properties of protoberberine and aporphine alkaloids isolated from Mahonia aquifolium. Planta Med 1995;61:372-373. View abstract.
  180. Swabb, E. A., Tai, Y. H., and Jordan, L. Reversal of cholera toxin-induced secretion in rat ileum by luminal berberine. Am J Physiol 1981;241:G248-G252. View abstract.
  181. Sack, R. B. and Froehlich, J. L. Berberine inhibits intestinal secretory response of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli enterotoxins. Infect Immun. 1982;35:471-475. View abstract.
  182. Mohan, M., Sekhar, G. C., and Mahajan, V. M. Berberine: an indigenous drug in experimental herpetic uveitis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 1983;31:65-68. View abstract.
  183. Zhu, B. and Ahrens, F. Antisecretory effects of berberine with morphine, clonidine, L- phenylephrine, yohimbine or neostigmine in pig jejunum. Eur J Pharmacol 12-9-1983;96(1-2):11-19. View abstract.
  184. Shanbhag, S. M., Kulkarni, H. J., and Gaitonde, B. B. Pharmacological actions of berberine on the central nervous system. Jpn.J Pharmacol 1970;20:482-487. View abstract.
  185. Akhter, M. H., Sabir, M., and Bhide, N. K. Possible mechanism of antidiarrhoeal effect of berberine. Indian J Med Res 1979;70:233-241. View abstract.
  186. Choudhry, V. P., Sabir, M., and Bhide, V. N. Berberine in giardiasis. Indian Pediatr. 1972;9:143-146. View abstract.
  187. Creasey, W. A. Biochemical effects of berberine. Biochem.Pharmacol. 4-1-1979;28:1081-1084. View abstract.
  188. Kulkarni, S. K., Dandiya, P. C., and Varandani, N. L. Pharmacological investigations of berberine sulphate. Jpn.J Pharmacol. 1972;22:11-16. View abstract.
  189. Chan, M. Y. The effect of berberine on bilirubin excretion in the rat. Comp Med East West 1977;5:161-168. View abstract.
  190. Saxe, T. G. Toxicity of medicinal herbal preparations. Am.Fam.Physician 1987;35:135-142. View abstract.
  191. Marin-Neto, J. A., Maciel, B. C., Secches, A. L., and Gallo, Junior L. Cardiovascular effects of berberine in patients with severe congestive heart failure. Clin.Cardiol. 1988;11:253-260. View abstract.
  192. Ni, Y. X. [Therapeutic effect of berberine on 60 patients with type II diabetes mellitus and experimental research]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi.- Chinese Journal of Modern Developments in Traditional Medicine 1988;8:711-3, 707. View abstract.
  193. Hashmi, K. and Hafiz, A. In vivo antibacterial activity of Berberis asiatica. J Pak Med Assoc 1986;36:5-7. View abstract.
  194. Zhang, M. F. and Shen, Y. Q. [Antidiarrheal and anti-inflammatory effects of berberine]. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue.Bao. 1989;10:174-176. View abstract.
  195. Shaffer, J. E. Inotropic and chronotropic activity of berberine on isolated guinea pig atria. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1985;7:307-315. View abstract.
  196. Huang, W. M., Wu, Z. D., and Gan, Y. Q. [Effects of berberine on ischemic ventricular arrhythmia]. Zhonghua Xin.Xue.Guan.Bing.Za Zhi. 1989;17:300-1, 319. View abstract.
  197. Chang, K. S., Gao, C., and Wang, L. C. Berberine-induced morphologic differentiation and down-regulation of c- Ki-ras2 protooncogene expression in human teratocarcinoma cells. Cancer Lett. 12-3-1990;55:103-108. View abstract.
  198. Zhang, R. X., Dougherty, D. V., and Rosenblum, M. L. Laboratory studies of berberine used alone and in combination with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea to treat malignant brain tumors. Chin Med.J (Engl.) 1990;103:658-665. View abstract.
  199. Huang, W. [Ventricular tachyarrhythmias treated with berberine]. Zhonghua Xin.Xue.Guan.Bing.Za Zhi. 1990;18:155-6, 190. View abstract.
  200. Hui, K. K., Yu, J. L., Chan, W. F., and Tse, E. Interaction of berberine with human platelet alpha 2 adrenoceptors. Life Sci. 1991;49:315-324. View abstract.
  201. Freile, M. L., Giannini, F., Pucci, G., Sturniolo, A., Rodero, L., Pucci, O., Balzareti, V., and Enriz, R. D. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts and of berberine isolated from Berberis heterophylla. Fitoterapia 2003;74(7-8):702-705. View abstract.
  202. Khin, Maung U. and Nwe, Nwe Wai. Effect of berberine on enterotoxin-induced intestinal fluid accumulation in rats. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 1992;10:201-204. View abstract.
  203. Cernakova, M., Kost'alova, D., Kettmann, V., Plodova, M., Toth, J., and Drimal, J. Potential antimutagenic activity of berberine, a constituent of Mahonia aquifolium. BMC.Complement Altern.Med 2-19-2002;2:2. View abstract.
  204. Hajnicka, V., Kost'alova, D., Svecova, D., Sochorova, R., Fuchsberger, N., and Toth, J. Effect of Mahonia aquifolium active compounds on interleukin-8 production in the human monocytic cell line THP-1. Planta Med 2002;68:266-268. View abstract.
  205. Lau, C. W., Yao, X. Q., Chen, Z. Y., Ko, W. H., and Huang, Y. Cardiovascular actions of berberine. Cardiovasc Drug Rev 2001;19:234-244. View abstract.
  206. Vollekova, A., Kostalova, D., and Sochorova, R. Isoquinoline alkaloids from Mahonia aquifolium stem bark are active against Malassezia spp. Folia Microbiol.(Praha) 2001;46:107-111. View abstract.
  207. Mitani, N., Murakami, K., Yamaura, T., Ikeda, T., and Saiki, I. Inhibitory effect of berberine on the mediastinal lymph node metastasis produced by orthotopic implantation of Lewis lung carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 4-10-2001;165:35-42. View abstract.
  208. Krishnan, P. and Bastow, K. F. The 9-position in berberine analogs is an important determinant of DNA topoisomerase II inhibition. Anticancer Drug Des 2000;15:255-264. View abstract.
  209. Li, T. K., Bathory, E., LaVoie, E. J., Srinivasan, A. R., Olson, W. K., Sauers, R. R., Liu, L. F., and Pilch, D. S. Human topoisomerase I poisoning by protoberberines: potential roles for both drug-DNA and drug-enzyme interactions. Biochemistry 6-20-2000;39:7107-7116. View abstract.
  210. Fukuda, K., Hibiya, Y., Mutoh, M., Koshiji, M., Akao, S., and Fujiwara, H. Inhibition by berberine of cyclooxygenase-2 transcriptional activity in human colon cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;66:227-233. View abstract.
  211. Ryzhikova, M. A., Farkhutdinov, R. R., Sibiriak, S. V., and Zagidullin, ShZ. [The effect of aqueous extracts of hepatotropic medicinal plants on free-radical oxidation processes]. Eksp.Klin.Farmakol. 1999;62:36-38. View abstract.
  212. Li, H., Miyahara, T., Tezuka, Y., Namba, T., Suzuki, T., Dowaki, R., Watanabe, M., Nemoto, N., Tonami, S., Seto, H., and Kadota, S. The effect of kampo formulae on bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. II. Detailed study of berberine. Biol Pharm Bull 1999;22:391-396. View abstract.
  213. Abe, F., Nagafuji, S., Yamauchi, T., Okabe, H., Maki, J., Higo, H., Akahane, H., Aguilar, A., Jimenez-Estrada, M., and Reyes-Chilpa, R. Trypanocidal constituents in plants 1. Evaluation of some Mexican plants for their trypanocidal activity and active constituents in Guaco, roots of Aristolochia taliscana. Biol Pharm Bull 2002;25:1188-1191. View abstract.
  214. Chatterjee P, Franklin MR. Human cytochrome p450 inhibition and metabolic-intermediate complex formation by goldenseal extract and its methylenedioxyphenyl components. Drug Metab Dispos 2003;31:1391-7. View abstract.
  215. Budzinski JW, Foster BC, Vandenhoek S, Arnason JT. An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures. Phytomedicine 2000;7:273-82. View abstract.
  216. Huang XS, Yang GF, Pan YC. Effect of berberin hydrochloride on blood concentration of cyclosporine A in cardiac transplanted patients. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2008;28:702-4. View abstract.
  217. Zhang Y, Li X, Zou D, et al. Treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia with the natural plant alkaloid berberine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:2559-65. View abstract.
  218. Cicero, AF, Rovati LC, and Setnikar I. Eulipidemic effects of berberine administered alone or in combination with other natural cholesterol-lowering agents. A single-blind clinical investigation. Arzneimittelforschung. 2007;57:26-30. View abstract.
  219. Vollekova A, Kost'alova D, Kettmann V, Toth J. Antifungal activity of Mahonia aquifolium extract and its major protoberberine alkaloids. Phytother Res 2003;17:834-7. View abstract.
  220. Lin CC, Ng LT, Hsu FF, et al. Cytotoxic effects of Coptis chinensis and Epimedium sagittatum extracts and their major constituents (berberine, coptisine and icariin) on hepatoma and leukaemia cell growth. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2004;31:65-9. View abstract.
  221. Kim SH, Shin DS, Oh MN, et al. Inhibition of the bacterial surface protein anchoring transpeptidase sortase by isoquinoline alkaloids. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2004;68:421-4.. View abstract.
  222. Li B, Shang JC, Zhou QX. [Study of total alkaloids from rhizoma coptis chinensis on experimental gastric ulcers]. Chin J Integr Med 2005;11:217-21. View abstract.
  223. Ivanovska N, Philipov S. Study on the anti-inflammatory action of Berberis vulgaris root extract, alkaloid fractions and pure alkaloids. Int J Immunopharmacol 1996;18:553-61. View abstract.
  224. Ang ES, Lee ST, Gan CS, et al. Evaluating the role of alternative therapy in burn wound management: randomized trial comparing moist exposed burn ointment with conventional methods in the management of patients with second-degree burns. MedGenMed 2001;3:3. View abstract.
  225. Tsai PL, Tsai TH. Hepatobiliary excretion of berberine. Drug Metab Dispos 2004;32:405-12. . View abstract.
  226. Wu X, Li Q, Xin H, Yu A, Zhong M. Effects of berberine on the blood concentration of cyclosporin A in renal transplanted recipients: clinical and pharmacokinetic study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005;61:567-72. View abstract.
  227. Khosla PG, Neeraj VI, Gupta SK, et al. Berberine, a potential drug for trachoma. Rev Int Trach Pathol Ocul Trop Subtrop Sante Publique 1992;69:147-65. View abstract.
  228. Hsiang CY, Wu SL, Cheng SE, Ho TY. Acetaldehyde-induced interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production is inhibited by berberine through nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway in HepG2 cells. J Biomed Sci 2005;12:791-801. View abstract.
  229. Anis KV, Rajeshkumar NV, Kuttan R. Inhibition of chemical carcinogenesis by berberine in rats and mice. J Pharm Pharmacol 2001;53:763-8. . View abstract.
  230. Zeng XH, Zeng XJ, Li YY. Efficacy and safety of berberine for congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 2003;92:173-6. View abstract.
  231. Janbaz KH, Gilani AH. Studies on preventive and curative effects of berberine on chemical-induced hepatotoxicity in rodents. Fitoterapia 2000;71:25-33.. View abstract.
  232. Fukuda K, Hibiya Y, Mutoh M, et al. Inhibition by berberine of cyclooxygenase-2 transcriptional activity in human colon cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;66:227-33. View abstract.
  233. Park KS, Kang KC, Kim JH, et al. Differential inhibitory effects of protoberberines on sterol and chitin biosyntheses in Candida albicans. J Antimicrob Chemother 1999;43:667-74. View abstract.
  234. Kim JS, Tanaka H, Shoyama Y. Immunoquantitative analysis for berberine and its related compounds using monoclonal antibodies in herbal medicines. Analyst 2004;129:87-91. View abstract.
  235. Scazzocchio F, Corneta MF, Tomassini L, Palmery M. Antibacterial activity of Hydrastis canadensis extract and its major isolated alkaloids. Planta Med 2001;67:561-4. View abstract.
  236. Sun D, Courtney HS, Beachey EH. Berberine sulfate blocks adherence of Streptococcus pyogenes to epithelial cells, fibronectin, and hexadecane. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1988;32:1370-4. View abstract.
  237. Amin AH, Subbaiah TV, Abbasi KM. Berberine sulfate: antimicrobial activity, bioassay, and mode of action. Can J Microbiol 1969;15:1067-76. View abstract.
  238. Bhide MB, Chavan SR, Dutta NK. Absorption, distribution and excretion of berberine. Indian J Med Res 1969;57:2128-31. View abstract.
  239. Chan E. Displacement of bilirubin from albumin by berberine. Biol Neonate 1993;63:201-8. View abstract.
  240. Gupte S. Use of berberine in treatment of giardiasis. Am J Dis Child 1975;129:866. View abstract.
  241. Kaneda Y, Torii M, Tanaka T, Aikawa M. In vitro effects of berberine sulphate on the growth and structure of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1991;85:417-25. View abstract.
  242. Sun D, Abraham SN, Beachey EH. Influence of berberine sulfate on synthesis and expression of Pap fimbrial adhesin in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1988;32:1274-7. View abstract.
  243. Rehman J, Dillow JM, Carter SM, et al. Increased production of antigen-specific immunoglobulins G and M following in vivo treatment with the medicinal plants Echinacea angustifolia and Hydrastis canadensis. Immunol Lett 1999;68:391-5. View abstract.
  244. Sheng WD, Jiddawi MS, Hong XQ, Abdulla SM. Treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria using pyrimethamine in combination with berberine, tetracycline, or cotrimoxazole. East Afr Med J 1997;74:283-4. View abstract.
  245. Rabbani GH, Butler T, Knight J, et al. Randomized controlled trial of berberine sulfate therapy for diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. J Infect Dis 1987;155:979-84. View abstract.
  246. Murch SJ, Simmons CB, Saxena PK. Melatonin in feverfew and other medicinal plants. Lancet 1997;350:1598-9. View abstract.
  247. Tyler VE. Herbs of Choice. Binghamton, NY: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1994.
  248. Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Trans. S. Klein. Boston, MA: American Botanical Council, 1998.
  249. Monographs on the medicinal uses of plant drugs. Exeter, UK: European Scientific Co-op Phytother, 1997.
Last reviewed - 02/13/2015