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RNASEH2C gene

ribonuclease H2 subunit C
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Normal Function

The RNASEH2C gene provides instructions for making one part (subunit) of a group of proteins called the RNase H2 complex. This complex is a ribonuclease, which means it is an enzyme that helps break down molecules containing RNA, a chemical cousin of DNA. In particular, the RNase H2 complex normally helps break down molecules in which one strand of RNA is combined with one strand of DNA (RNA-DNA hybrids) when these molecules are no longer needed. RNA-DNA hybrids are formed during DNA copying (replication) and are found in all cells.

The RNase H2 complex is also thought to be involved in DNA replication, error repair, and other cellular processes, including helping to prevent inappropriate immune system activation.

Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

Aicardi-Goutières syndrome

At least 26 mutations in the RNASEH2C gene have been identified in people with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, a disorder that involves severe brain dysfunction (encephalopathy), skin lesions, and other health problems associated with abnormal immune system activation. The RNASEH2C gene mutations that cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome likely result in a dysfunctional RNase H2 complex. Abnormal functioning of this complex may disrupt transcription, DNA replication, DNA repair, cell death (apoptosis), or other processes. Such disruptions are thought to lead to the accumulation of unneeded DNA and RNA in cells. These DNA and RNA fragments may be mistaken for the genetic material of viral invaders, triggering immune system reactions in multiple body systems that cause severe brain dysfunction (encephalopathy), skin lesions, and other signs and symptoms of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome.

More About This Health Condition

Other Names for This Gene

  • AGS3
  • aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 3 protein
  • AYP1
  • FLJ20974
  • MGC22934
  • ribonuclease H2, subunit C
  • ribonuclease HI subunit C
  • RNase H1 small subunit
  • RNase H2 subunit C
  • RNH2C_HUMAN

Additional Information & Resources

Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Research Resources

References

  • Chon H, Vassilev A, DePamphilis ML, Zhao Y, Zhang J, Burgers PM, Crouch RJ, Cerritelli SM. Contributions of the two accessory subunits, RNASEH2B and RNASEH2C, to the activity and properties of the human RNase H2 complex. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Jan;37(1):96-110. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn913. Epub 2008 Nov 16. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Crow YJ, Chase DS, Lowenstein Schmidt J, Szynkiewicz M, Forte GM, Gornall HL, Oojageer A, Anderson B, Pizzino A, Helman G, Abdel-Hamid MS, Abdel-Salam GM, Ackroyd S, Aeby A, Agosta G, Albin C, Allon-Shalev S, Arellano M, Ariaudo G, Aswani V, Babul-Hirji R, Baildam EM, Bahi-Buisson N, Bailey KM, Barnerias C, Barth M, Battini R, Beresford MW, Bernard G, Bianchi M, Billette de Villemeur T, Blair EM, Bloom M, Burlina AB, Carpanelli ML, Carvalho DR, Castro-Gago M, Cavallini A, Cereda C, Chandler KE, Chitayat DA, Collins AE, Sierra Corcoles C, Cordeiro NJ, Crichiutti G, Dabydeen L, Dale RC, D'Arrigo S, De Goede CG, De Laet C, De Waele LM, Denzler I, Desguerre I, Devriendt K, Di Rocco M, Fahey MC, Fazzi E, Ferrie CD, Figueiredo A, Gener B, Goizet C, Gowrinathan NR, Gowrishankar K, Hanrahan D, Isidor B, Kara B, Khan N, King MD, Kirk EP, Kumar R, Lagae L, Landrieu P, Lauffer H, Laugel V, La Piana R, Lim MJ, Lin JP, Linnankivi T, Mackay MT, Marom DR, Marques Lourenço C, McKee SA, Moroni I, Morton JE, Moutard ML, Murray K, Nabbout R, Nampoothiri S, Nunez-Enamorado N, Oades PJ, Olivieri I, Ostergaard JR, Pérez-Dueñas B, Prendiville JS, Ramesh V, Rasmussen M, Régal L, Ricci F, Rio M, Rodriguez D, Roubertie A, Salvatici E, Segers KA, Sinha GP, Soler D, Spiegel R, Stödberg TI, Straussberg R, Swoboda KJ, Suri M, Tacke U, Tan TY, te Water Naude J, Wee Teik K, Thomas MM, Till M, Tonduti D, Valente EM, Van Coster RN, van der Knaap MS, Vassallo G, Vijzelaar R, Vogt J, Wallace GB, Wassmer E, Webb HJ, Whitehouse WP, Whitney RN, Zaki MS, Zuberi SM, Livingston JH, Rozenberg F, Lebon P, Vanderver A, Orcesi S, Rice GI. Characterization of human disease phenotypes associated with mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR, and IFIH1. Am J Med Genet A. 2015 Feb;167A(2):296-312. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36887. Epub 2015 Jan 16. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Crow YJ. Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome. 2005 Jun 29 [updated 2016 Nov 22]. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, Wallace SE, Bean LJH, Stephens K, Amemiya A, editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2020. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1475/ Citation on PubMed
  • Cuadrado E, Michailidou I, van Bodegraven EJ, Jansen MH, Sluijs JA, Geerts D, Couraud PO, De Filippis L, Vescovi AL, Kuijpers TW, Hol EM. Phenotypic variation in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome explained by cell-specific IFN-stimulated gene response and cytokine release. J Immunol. 2015 Apr 15;194(8):3623-33. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1401334. Epub 2015 Mar 13. Citation on PubMed
  • Feng S, Cao Z. Is the role of human RNase H2 restricted to its enzyme activity? Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2016 May;121(1):66-73. doi: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2015.11.001. Epub 2015 Nov 19. Review. Citation on PubMed
  • Livingston JH, Crow YJ. Neurologic Phenotypes Associated with Mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR1, and IFIH1: Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome and Beyond. Neuropediatrics. 2016 Dec;47(6):355-360. Epub 2016 Sep 19. Review. Citation on PubMed
  • Perrino FW, Harvey S, Shaban NM, Hollis T. RNaseH2 mutants that cause Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome are active nucleases. J Mol Med (Berl). 2009 Jan;87(1):25-30. doi: 10.1007/s00109-008-0422-3. Epub 2008 Nov 26. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Rice G, Patrick T, Parmar R, Taylor CF, Aeby A, Aicardi J, Artuch R, Montalto SA, Bacino CA, Barroso B, Baxter P, Benko WS, Bergmann C, Bertini E, Biancheri R, Blair EM, Blau N, Bonthron DT, Briggs T, Brueton LA, Brunner HG, Burke CJ, Carr IM, Carvalho DR, Chandler KE, Christen HJ, Corry PC, Cowan FM, Cox H, D'Arrigo S, Dean J, De Laet C, De Praeter C, Dery C, Ferrie CD, Flintoff K, Frints SG, Garcia-Cazorla A, Gener B, Goizet C, Goutieres F, Green AJ, Guet A, Hamel BC, Hayward BE, Heiberg A, Hennekam RC, Husson M, Jackson AP, Jayatunga R, Jiang YH, Kant SG, Kao A, King MD, Kingston HM, Klepper J, van der Knaap MS, Kornberg AJ, Kotzot D, Kratzer W, Lacombe D, Lagae L, Landrieu PG, Lanzi G, Leitch A, Lim MJ, Livingston JH, Lourenco CM, Lyall EG, Lynch SA, Lyons MJ, Marom D, McClure JP, McWilliam R, Melancon SB, Mewasingh LD, Moutard ML, Nischal KK, Ostergaard JR, Prendiville J, Rasmussen M, Rogers RC, Roland D, Rosser EM, Rostasy K, Roubertie A, Sanchis A, Schiffmann R, Scholl-Burgi S, Seal S, Shalev SA, Corcoles CS, Sinha GP, Soler D, Spiegel R, Stephenson JB, Tacke U, Tan TY, Till M, Tolmie JL, Tomlin P, Vagnarelli F, Valente EM, Van Coster RN, Van der Aa N, Vanderver A, Vles JS, Voit T, Wassmer E, Weschke B, Whiteford ML, Willemsen MA, Zankl A, Zuberi SM, Orcesi S, Fazzi E, Lebon P, Crow YJ. Clinical and molecular phenotype of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2007 Oct;81(4):713-25. Epub 2007 Sep 4. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Rice GI, Forte GM, Szynkiewicz M, Chase DS, Aeby A, Abdel-Hamid MS, Ackroyd S, Allcock R, Bailey KM, Balottin U, Barnerias C, Bernard G, Bodemer C, Botella MP, Cereda C, Chandler KE, Dabydeen L, Dale RC, De Laet C, De Goede CG, Del Toro M, Effat L, Enamorado NN, Fazzi E, Gener B, Haldre M, Lin JP, Livingston JH, Lourenco CM, Marques W Jr, Oades P, Peterson P, Rasmussen M, Roubertie A, Schmidt JL, Shalev SA, Simon R, Spiegel R, Swoboda KJ, Temtamy SA, Vassallo G, Vilain CN, Vogt J, Wermenbol V, Whitehouse WP, Soler D, Olivieri I, Orcesi S, Aglan MS, Zaki MS, Abdel-Salam GM, Vanderver A, Kisand K, Rozenberg F, Lebon P, Crow YJ. Assessment of interferon-related biomarkers in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome associated with mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, and ADAR: a case-control study. Lancet Neurol. 2013 Dec;12(12):1159-69. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70258-8. Epub 2013 Oct 30. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
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