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prickle planar cell polarity protein 1

Normal Function

The PRICKLE1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called prickle homolog 1. The function of this protein is unclear, although it appears to play an important role in the development of the nervous system. Prickle homolog 1 is likely part of a chemical signaling pathway known as noncanonical Wnt signaling. During development before birth, noncanonical Wnt signaling helps to determine the position of various components within cells (cell polarity). This pathway also regulates the movement of nerve cells (neurons) in the developing nervous system.

Studies suggest that prickle homolog 1 interacts with other proteins, including RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST). The REST protein regulates several critical genes in neurons by turning off (suppressing) their activity. To regulate these genes, REST must enter the nucleus and attach (bind) to particular regions of DNA. Researchers believe that prickle homolog 1 controls REST by transporting it out of the nucleus, which prevents it from binding to DNA and suppressing gene activity. It remains unclear how the interaction between prickle homolog 1 and REST contributes to the normal development of the nervous system.

Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

PRICKLE1-related progressive myoclonus epilepsy with ataxia

At least three mutations in the PRICKLE1 gene have been identified in people with PRICKLE1-related progressive myoclonus epilepsy with ataxia. Each mutation changes a single protein building block (amino acid) in the prickle homolog 1 protein. One of the known mutations appears to disrupt the interaction between prickle homolog 1 and REST, blocking the transport of REST out of the nucleus. As a result, REST may inappropriately suppress certain genes in the developing nervous system. It is unclear how mutations in the PRICKLE1 gene lead to movement problems, seizures, and the other features of PRICKLE1-related progressive myoclonus epilepsy with ataxia.

More About This Health Condition

Other Names for This Gene

  • EPM1B
  • FLJ31627
  • FLJ31937
  • MGC138902
  • MGC138903
  • prickle homolog 1
  • prickle-like 1
  • REST (RE-1 silencing transcription factor)/NRSF (neuron-restrictive silencer factor)-interacting LIM domain protein
  • REST/NRSF-interacting LIM domain protein
  • RILP

Additional Information & Resources

Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Gene and Variant Databases


  • Bassuk AG, Wallace RH, Buhr A, Buller AR, Afawi Z, Shimojo M, Miyata S, Chen S, Gonzalez-Alegre P, Griesbach HL, Wu S, Nashelsky M, Vladar EK, Antic D, Ferguson PJ, Cirak S, Voit T, Scott MP, Axelrod JD, Gurnett C, Daoud AS, Kivity S, Neufeld MY, Mazarib A, Straussberg R, Walid S, Korczyn AD, Slusarski DC, Berkovic SF, El-Shanti HI. A homozygous mutation in human PRICKLE1 causes an autosomal-recessive progressive myoclonus epilepsy-ataxia syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2008 Nov;83(5):572-81. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.10.003. Epub 2008 Oct 30. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Katoh M, Katoh M. Identification and characterization of human PRICKLE1 and PRICKLE2 genes as well as mouse Prickle1 and Prickle2 genes homologous to Drosophila tissue polarity gene prickle. Int J Mol Med. 2003 Feb;11(2):249-56. Citation on PubMed
  • Shimojo M, Hersh LB. Characterization of the REST/NRSF-interacting LIM domain protein (RILP): localization and interaction with REST/NRSF. J Neurochem. 2006 Feb;96(4):1130-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2005.03608.x. Epub 2006 Jan 17. Citation on PubMed
  • Shimojo M, Hersh LB. REST/NRSF-interacting LIM domain protein, a putative nuclear translocation receptor. Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Dec;23(24):9025-31. doi: 10.1128/MCB.23.24.9025-9031.2003. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Tao H, Manak JR, Sowers L, Mei X, Kiyonari H, Abe T, Dahdaleh NS, Yang T, Wu S, Chen S, Fox MH, Gurnett C, Montine T, Bird T, Shaffer LG, Rosenfeld JA, McConnell J, Madan-Khetarpal S, Berry-Kravis E, Griesbach H, Saneto RP, Scott MP, Antic D, Reed J, Boland R, Ehaideb SN, El-Shanti H, Mahajan VB, Ferguson PJ, Axelrod JD, Lehesjoki AE, Fritzsch B, Slusarski DC, Wemmie J, Ueno N, Bassuk AG. Mutations in prickle orthologs cause seizures in flies, mice, and humans. Am J Hum Genet. 2011 Feb 11;88(2):138-49. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.12.012. Epub 2011 Feb 3. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central

The information on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Contact a health care provider if you have questions about your health.