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PRICKLE1-related progressive myoclonus epilepsy with ataxia

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Description

PRICKLE1-related progressive myoclonus epilepsy with ataxia is a rare inherited condition characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy) and problems with movement. The signs and symptoms of this disorder usually begin between the ages of 5 and 10.

Problems with balance and coordination (ataxia) are usually the first symptoms of PRICKLE1-related progressive myoclonus epilepsy with ataxia. Affected children often have trouble walking. Their gait is unbalanced and wide-based, and they may fall frequently. Later, children with this condition develop episodes of involuntary muscle jerking or twitching (myoclonus), which cause additional problems with movement. Myoclonus can also affect muscles in the face, leading to difficulty swallowing and slurred speech (dysarthria).

Beginning later in childhood, some affected individuals develop tonic-clonic or grand mal seizures. These seizures involve a loss of consciousness, muscle rigidity, and convulsions. They often occur at night (nocturnally) while the person is sleeping.

PRICKLE1-related progressive myoclonus epilepsy with ataxia does not seem to affect intellectual ability. Although a few affected individuals have died in childhood, many have lived into adulthood.

Frequency

The prevalence of PRICKLE1-related progressive myoclonus epilepsy with ataxia is unknown. The condition has been reported in three large families from Jordan and northern Israel and in at least two unrelated individuals.

Causes

PRICKLE1-related progressive myoclonus epilepsy with ataxia is caused by mutations in the PRICKLE1 gene. This gene provides instructions for making a protein called prickle homolog 1, whose function is unknown. Studies suggest that it interacts with other proteins that are critical for brain development and function.

Mutations in the PRICKLE1 gene alter the structure of prickle homolog 1 and disrupt its ability to interact with other proteins. However, it is unclear how these changes lead to movement problems, seizures, and the other features of PRICKLE1-related progressive myoclonus epilepsy with ataxia.

Inheritance

Some cases of PRICKLE1-related progressive myoclonus epilepsy with ataxia are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

Other cases of PRICKLE1-related progressive myoclonus epilepsy with ataxia are considered autosomal dominant because one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. These cases result from new mutations in the gene and occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family.

Other Names for This Condition

  • EPM1B
  • PME with ataxia
  • PRICKLE1-related progressive myoclonic epilepsy with ataxia
  • progressive myoclonic epilepsy 1B
  • progressive myoclonus epilepsy with ataxia

Additional Information & Resources

Research Studies from ClinicalTrials.gov

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Scientific Articles on PubMed

References

  • Bassuk AG, Wallace RH, Buhr A, Buller AR, Afawi Z, Shimojo M, Miyata S, Chen S, Gonzalez-Alegre P, Griesbach HL, Wu S, Nashelsky M, Vladar EK, Antic D, Ferguson PJ, Cirak S, Voit T, Scott MP, Axelrod JD, Gurnett C, Daoud AS, Kivity S, Neufeld MY, Mazarib A, Straussberg R, Walid S, Korczyn AD, Slusarski DC, Berkovic SF, El-Shanti HI. A homozygous mutation in human PRICKLE1 causes an autosomal-recessive progressive myoclonus epilepsy-ataxia syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2008 Nov;83(5):572-81. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.10.003. Epub 2008 Oct 30. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Berkovic SF, Mazarib A, Walid S, Neufeld MY, Manelis J, Nevo Y, Korczyn AD, Yin J, Xiong L, Pandolfo M, Mulley JC, Wallace RH. A new clinical and molecular form of Unverricht-Lundborg disease localized by homozygosity mapping. Brain. 2005 Mar;128(Pt 3):652-8. Epub 2005 Jan 5. Citation on PubMed
  • El-Shanti H, Daoud A, Sadoon AA, Leal SM, Chen S, Lee K, Spiegel R. A distinct autosomal recessive ataxia maps to chromosome 12 in an inbred family from Jordan. Brain Dev. 2006 Jul;28(6):353-7. Epub 2006 Jan 10. Citation on PubMed
  • Fox MH, Bassuk AG. PRICKLE1-Related Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy with Ataxia. 2009 Sep 8 [updated 2014 Apr 10]. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, Wallace SE, Bean LJH, Stephens K, Amemiya A, editors. GeneReviews┬« [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2020. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9674/ Citation on PubMed
  • Straussberg R, Basel-Vanagaite L, Kivity S, Dabby R, Cirak S, Nurnberg P, Voit T, Mahajnah M, Inbar D, Saifi GM, Lupski JR, Delague V, Megarbane A, Richter A, Leshinsky E, Berkovic SF. An autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia syndrome with upward gaze palsy, neuropathy, and seizures. Neurology. 2005 Jan 11;64(1):142-4. Citation on PubMed
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