The PPT1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1. This enzyme is found in structures called lysosomes, which are compartments within cells that break down and recycle different types of molecules. Palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 removes certain fats called long-chain fatty acids from specific proteins, typically a fatty acid called palmitate. Removing these fatty acids helps break the proteins down when they are no longer needed. Palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 is also thought to be involved in a variety of other cell functions, such as the development of synapses, which are the connections between nerve cells where cell-to-cell communication occurs.
Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes
More than 65 mutations in the PPT1 gene have been found to cause CLN1 disease. This condition impairs mental and motor development causing difficulty with walking, speaking, and intellectual function. In addition, affected children often develop recurrent seizures (epilepsy) and vision loss. Signs and symptoms of CLN1 disease typically appear by age 18 months but can begin later, sometimes in adulthood, in some individuals.
The PPT1 gene mutations that cause CLN1 disease decrease or eliminate the production or function of palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1. The most common mutation causing CLN1 disease worldwide, written as Arg151Ter or R151X, replaces the protein building block (amino acid) arginine with a premature stop signal in the instructions used to make the enzyme. This mutation results in an abnormally short, nonfunctional version of the enzyme. Another mutation causes most cases of the disorder in people of Finnish descent; this genetic change replaces arginine with the amino acid tryptophan at position 122 in the palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 enzyme (written as Arg122Trp or R122W).
PPT1 gene mutations that cause CLN1 disease lead to a shortage of functional enzyme, which impairs the removal of long-chain fatty acids from certain proteins. These partially broken down fats and proteins accumulate in lysosomes. While accumulations of these substances occurs in cells throughout the body, nerve cells appear to be particularly vulnerable to damage caused by the abnormal cell materials. Early and widespread loss of nerve cells in CLN1 disease leads to severe signs and symptoms and death in childhood.
In the later-onset cases of CLN1 disease, PPT1 gene mutations result in the production of a palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 enzyme that has a reduced level of normal function; however, protein function in these individuals is higher than in those who have the condition beginning in early childhood. As a result, long-chain fatty acids are removed from some proteins, allowing for a small amount of proteins to be broken down. Because it takes longer for these substances to accumulate in lysosomes and cause nerve cell death, the signs and symptoms of CLN1 disease in these individuals occur later in life.More About This Health Condition
Other Names for This Gene
- ceriod-lipofuscinosis, neuronal 1
- palmitoyl-protein hydrolase 1
Additional Information & Resources
Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry
Scientific Articles on PubMed
Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM
- Das AK, Lu JY, Hofmann SL. Biochemical analysis of mutations in palmitoyl-protein thioesterase causing infantile and late-onset forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2001 Jun 15;10(13):1431-9. Citation on PubMed
- Hawkins-Salsbury JA, Cooper JD, Sands MS. Pathogenesis and therapies for infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (infantile CLN1 disease). Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Nov;1832(11):1906-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.05.026. Epub 2013 Jun 6. Review. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
- Jalanko A, Braulke T. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009 Apr;1793(4):697-709. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2008.11.004. Epub 2008 Nov 24. Review. Citation on PubMed
- Kim SJ, Zhang Z, Sarkar C, Tsai PC, Lee YC, Dye L, Mukherjee AB. Palmitoyl protein thioesterase-1 deficiency impairs synaptic vesicle recycling at nerve terminals, contributing to neuropathology in humans and mice. J Clin Invest. 2008 Sep;118(9):3075-86. doi: 10.1172/JCI33482. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
- Kollmann K, Uusi-Rauva K, Scifo E, Tyynelä J, Jalanko A, Braulke T. Cell biology and function of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-related proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Nov;1832(11):1866-81. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.01.019. Epub 2013 Feb 9. Review. Citation on PubMed
- Kousi M, Lehesjoki AE, Mole SE. Update of the mutation spectrum and clinical correlations of over 360 mutations in eight genes that underlie the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Hum Mutat. 2012 Jan;33(1):42-63. doi: 10.1002/humu.21624. Epub 2011 Nov 16. Review. Citation on PubMed
- Ramadan H, Al-Din AS, Ismail A, Balen F, Varma A, Twomey A, Watts R, Jackson M, Anderson G, Green E, Mole SE. Adult neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by deficiency in palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1. Neurology. 2007 Jan 30;68(5):387-8. Citation on PubMed
- Simonati A, Tessa A, Bernardina BD, Biancheri R, Veneselli E, Tozzi G, Bonsignore M, Grosso S, Piemonte F, Santorelli FM. Variant late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis because of CLN1 mutations. Pediatr Neurol. 2009 Apr;40(4):271-6. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2008.10.018. Citation on PubMed