The IDS gene provides instructions for producing an enzyme called iduronate 2-sulfatase (I2S), which is essential for the breakdown of large sugar molecules called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Specifically, I2S removes a chemical group known as a sulfate from a molecule called sulfated alpha-L-iduronic acid, which is present in two GAGs called heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate. I2S is located in lysosomes, compartments within cells that digest and recycle different types of molecules.
Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II
More than 300 mutations in the IDS gene have been found to cause mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II). Mutations that change one DNA building block (nucleotide) are the most common. All mutations that cause MPS II reduce or completely eliminate the function of I2S. It usually cannot be determined whether a certain mutation will cause severe or mild MPS II; however, mutations that result in the complete absence of I2S cause the more severe form of the disorder.
Lack of I2S enzyme activity leads to the accumulation of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate within cells, specifically inside the lysosomes. The buildup of these GAGs increases the size of the lysosomes, which is why many tissues and organs are enlarged in MPS II. Researchers believe that the accumulated GAGs may also interfere with the functions of other proteins inside the lysosomes and disrupt the movement of molecules inside the cell.More About This Health Condition
Other Names for This Gene
- iduronate 2-sulfatase (Hunter syndrome)
Additional Information & Resources
Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry
Scientific Articles on PubMed
Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM
- Clarke LA. The mucopolysaccharidoses: a success of molecular medicine. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2008 Jan 18;10:e1. doi: 10.1017/S1462399408000550. Review. Citation on PubMed
- Martin R, Beck M, Eng C, Giugliani R, Harmatz P, Muñoz V, Muenzer J. Recognition and diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis II (Hunter syndrome). Pediatrics. 2008 Feb;121(2):e377-86. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-1350. Review. Citation on PubMed
- Scarpa M. Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II. 2007 Nov 6 [updated 2018 Oct 4]. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, Wallace SE, Bean LJH, Mirzaa G, Amemiya A, editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2021. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1274/ Citation on PubMed
- Trowbridge JM, Gallo RL. Dermatan sulfate: new functions from an old glycosaminoglycan. Glycobiology. 2002 Sep;12(9):117R-25R. Review. Citation on PubMed
- Wraith JE, Scarpa M, Beck M, Bodamer OA, De Meirleir L, Guffon N, Meldgaard Lund A, Malm G, Van der Ploeg AT, Zeman J. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome): a clinical review and recommendations for treatment in the era of enzyme replacement therapy. Eur J Pediatr. 2008 Mar;167(3):267-77. Epub 2007 Nov 23. Review. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central