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GTF2IRD1 gene

GTF2I repeat domain containing 1
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Normal Function

The GTF2IRD1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that regulates the activity of many other genes. This protein probably interacts with specific regions of DNA and with other proteins to turn genes on or off. Based on this role, the GTF2IRD1 protein is called a transcription factor.

Although its exact function is unknown, the GTF2IRD1 gene is active in many of the body's tissues. It appears to be particularly important for gene regulation in the brain and in muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). Studies suggest that this gene also plays a role in the development of tissues in the head and face (craniofacial development).

Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

Williams syndrome

The GTF2IRD1 gene is located in a region of chromosome 7 that is deleted in people with Williams syndrome. As a result of this deletion, people with this condition are missing one copy of the GTF2IRD1 gene in each cell. Studies suggest that the loss of this gene may contribute to some of the characteristic features of Williams syndrome, including the distinctive facial features, dental abnormalities, and problems with visual-spatial tasks such as writing and drawing. Researchers are investigating how a deletion of this gene may be related to these specific features.

More About This Health Condition

Other Names for This Gene

  • CREAM1
  • general transcription factor 3
  • GTF2I repeat domain-containing 1
  • GTF3
  • hMusTRD1alpha1
  • muscle TFII-I repeat domain-containing protein 1 alpha 1
  • MusTRD1
  • RBAP2
  • WBSCR11

Additional Information & Resources

Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Research Resources


  • Edelmann L, Prosnitz A, Pardo S, Bhatt J, Cohen N, Lauriat T, Ouchanov L, Gonz├ílez PJ, Manghi ER, Bondy P, Esquivel M, Monge S, Delgado MF, Splendore A, Francke U, Burton BK, McInnes LA. An atypical deletion of the Williams-Beuren syndrome interval implicates genes associated with defective visuospatial processing and autism. J Med Genet. 2007 Feb;44(2):136-43. Epub 2006 Sep 13. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Franke Y, Peoples RJ, Francke U. Identification of GTF2IRD1, a putative transcription factor within the Williams-Beuren syndrome deletion at 7q11.23. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1999;86(3-4):296-304. Citation on PubMed
  • Hirota H, Matsuoka R, Chen XN, Salandanan LS, Lincoln A, Rose FE, Sunahara M, Osawa M, Bellugi U, Korenberg JR. Williams syndrome deficits in visual spatial processing linked to GTF2IRD1 and GTF2I on chromosome 7q11.23. Genet Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;5(4):311-21. Citation on PubMed
  • Meyer-Lindenberg A, Mervis CB, Berman KF. Neural mechanisms in Williams syndrome: a unique window to genetic influences on cognition and behaviour. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006 May;7(5):380-93. Review. Citation on PubMed
  • O'Mahoney JV, Guven KL, Lin J, Joya JE, Robinson CS, Wade RP, Hardeman EC. Identification of a novel slow-muscle-fiber enhancer binding protein, MusTRD1. Mol Cell Biol. 1998 Nov;18(11):6641-52. Erratum in: Mol Cell Biol 2000 Jul;20(14):5361. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Ohazama A, Sharpe PT. TFII-I gene family during tooth development: candidate genes for tooth anomalies in Williams syndrome. Dev Dyn. 2007 Oct;236(10):2884-8. Citation on PubMed
  • Osborne LR, Campbell T, Daradich A, Scherer SW, Tsui LC. Identification of a putative transcription factor gene (WBSCR11) that is commonly deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome. Genomics. 1999 Apr 15;57(2):279-84. Citation on PubMed
  • Tassabehji M, Carette M, Wilmot C, Donnai D, Read AP, Metcalfe K. A transcription factor involved in skeletal muscle gene expression is deleted in patients with Williams syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 1999 Oct-Nov;7(7):737-47. Citation on PubMed
  • Tassabehji M, Hammond P, Karmiloff-Smith A, Thompson P, Thorgeirsson SS, Durkin ME, Popescu NC, Hutton T, Metcalfe K, Rucka A, Stewart H, Read AP, Maconochie M, Donnai D. GTF2IRD1 in craniofacial development of humans and mice. Science. 2005 Nov 18;310(5751):1184-7. Epub 2005 Nov 3. Citation on PubMed
  • Tassabehji M. Williams-Beuren syndrome: a challenge for genotype-phenotype correlations. Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Oct 15;12 Spec No 2:R229-37. Epub 2003 Sep 2. Review. Citation on PubMed
  • Yan X, Zhao X, Qian M, Guo N, Gong X, Zhu X. Characterization and gene structure of a novel retinoblastoma-protein-associated protein similar to the transcription regulator TFII-I. Biochem J. 2000 Feb 1;345 Pt 3:749-57. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
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