The FREM2 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is part of a group of proteins called the FRAS/FREM complex; in addition to being part of the complex, FREM2 regulates the complex's formation. The FRAS/FREM complex is found in basement membranes, which are thin, sheet-like structures that separate and support cells in many tissues. The complex is particularly important during development before birth. One of its roles is to anchor the top layer of skin by connecting the basement membrane of the top layer to the layer of skin below. The FRAS/FREM complex is also involved in the proper development of certain other organs and tissues, including the kidneys, although the mechanism is unclear.
Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes
At least two mutations in the FREM2 gene have been found to cause Fraser syndrome; these mutations are involved in a small percentage of cases of this condition. Fraser syndrome affects development before birth and is characterized by eyes that are completely covered by skin (cryptophthalmos), fusion of the skin between the fingers and toes (cutaneous syndactyly), and abnormalities of the kidneys and other organs and tissues.
FREM2 gene mutations involved in Fraser syndrome lead to production of an abnormal FREM2 protein that likely does not function properly. As a result, the FRAS/FREM complex cannot form. Lack of the FRAS/FREM complex in the basement membrane of skin leads to detachment of the top layer of skin, causing blisters to form during development. These blisters likely prevent the proper formation of certain structures before birth, leading to cryptophthalmos and cutaneous syndactyly. It is unknown how lack of the FRAS/FREM complex leads to kidney abnormalities and other problems in Fraser syndrome.More About This Health Condition
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Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract
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Mutations in the FREM2 gene have also been found in people with abnormalities of the kidneys and urinary tract but no other signs and symptoms of Fraser syndrome (described above). Such abnormalities are grouped together as congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). The FREM2 gene mutations involved in CAKUT typically change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the FREM2 protein. Researchers speculate that the effects of these mutations are milder than those of mutations that cause Fraser syndrome; some FREM2 protein function may still remain. How these gene mutations affect the FRAS/FREM complex or lead to renal agenesis and other CAKUT is unknown.
Other Names for This Gene
- ECM3 homolog
- FRAS1-related extracellular matrix protein 2
Additional Information & Resources
Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry
Scientific Articles on PubMed
Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM
- Jadeja S, Smyth I, Pitera JE, Taylor MS, van Haelst M, Bentley E, McGregor L, Hopkins J, Chalepakis G, Philip N, Perez Aytes A, Watt FM, Darling SM, Jackson I, Woolf AS, Scambler PJ. Identification of a new gene mutated in Fraser syndrome and mouse myelencephalic blebs. Nat Genet. 2005 May;37(5):520-5. Epub 2005 Apr 17. Citation on PubMed
- Kohl S, Hwang DY, Dworschak GC, Hilger AC, Saisawat P, Vivante A, Stajic N, Bogdanovic R, Reutter HM, Kehinde EO, Tasic V, Hildebrandt F. Mild recessive mutations in six Fraser syndrome-related genes cause isolated congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014 Sep;25(9):1917-22. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2013101103. Epub 2014 Apr 3. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
- Pavlakis E, Chiotaki R, Chalepakis G. The role of Fras1/Frem proteins in the structure and function of basement membrane. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2011 Apr;43(4):487-95. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2010.12.016. Epub 2010 Dec 21. Review. Citation on PubMed
- Petrou P, Makrygiannis AK, Chalepakis G. The Fras1/Frem family of extracellular matrix proteins: structure, function, and association with Fraser syndrome and the mouse bleb phenotype. Connect Tissue Res. 2008;49(3):277-82. doi: 10.1080/03008200802148025. Citation on PubMed
- Short K, Wiradjaja F, Smyth I. Let's stick together: the role of the Fras1 and Frem proteins in epidermal adhesion. IUBMB Life. 2007 Jul;59(7):427-35. Review. Citation on PubMed
- van Haelst MM, Maiburg M, Baujat G, Jadeja S, Monti E, Bland E, Pearce K; Fraser Syndrome Collaboration Group, Hennekam RC, Scambler PJ. Molecular study of 33 families with Fraser syndrome new data and mutation review. Am J Med Genet A. 2008 Sep 1;146A(17):2252-7. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32440. Citation on PubMed