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DNAI1 gene

dynein axonemal intermediate chain 1
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Normal Function

The DNAI1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is part of a group (complex) of proteins called dynein. This complex functions within cell structures called cilia. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. Coordinated back and forth movement of cilia can move the cell or the fluid surrounding the cell. Dynein produces the force needed for cilia to move.

Within the core of cilia (the axoneme), dynein complexes are part of structures known as inner dynein arms (IDAs) and outer dynein arms (ODAs) depending on their location. Coordinated movement of the dynein arms causes the entire axoneme to bend back and forth. IDAs and ODAs have different combinations of protein components (subunits) that are classified by weight as heavy, intermediate, or light chains. The DNAI1 gene provides instructions for making intermediate chain 1, which is found in ODAs. Other subunits are produced from different genes.

Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

Primary ciliary dyskinesia

At least 21 mutations in the DNAI1 gene have been found to cause primary ciliary dyskinesia, which is a condition characterized by respiratory tract infections, abnormal organ placement, and an inability to have children (infertility). DNAI1 gene mutations result in an absent or abnormal intermediate chain 1. Without a normal version of this subunit, the ODAs cannot form properly and may be shortened or absent. As a result, cilia cannot produce the force needed to bend back and forth. Defective cilia lead to the features of primary ciliary dyskinesia.

More About This Health Condition

Heterotaxy syndrome

MedlinePlus Genetics provides information about Heterotaxy syndrome

More About This Health Condition

Other Names for This Gene

  • axonemal dynein intermediate chain 1
  • CILD1
  • DIC1
  • DNAI1_HUMAN
  • dynein intermediate chain 1, axonemal
  • dynein intermediate chain DNAI1
  • dynein, axonemal, intermediate chain 1
  • dynein, axonemal, intermediate polypeptide 1
  • IC78
  • ICS1
  • immotile cilia syndrome 1
  • MGC26204

Additional Information & Resources

Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry

Scientific Articles on PubMed

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Research Resources

References

  • Escudier E, Duquesnoy P, Papon JF, Amselem S. Ciliary defects and genetics of primary ciliary dyskinesia. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2009 Jun;10(2):51-4. doi: 10.1016/j.prrv.2009.02.001. Epub 2009 Apr 18. Review. Citation on PubMed
  • Failly M, Saitta A, Muñoz A, Falconnet E, Rossier C, Santamaria F, de Santi MM, Lazor R, DeLozier-Blanchet CD, Bartoloni L, Blouin JL. DNAI1 mutations explain only 2% of primary ciliary dykinesia. Respiration. 2008;76(2):198-204. doi: 10.1159/000128567. Epub 2008 Apr 23. Citation on PubMed
  • Leigh MW, Pittman JE, Carson JL, Ferkol TW, Dell SD, Davis SD, Knowles MR, Zariwala MA. Clinical and genetic aspects of primary ciliary dyskinesia/Kartagener syndrome. Genet Med. 2009 Jul;11(7):473-87. doi: 10.1097/GIM.0b013e3181a53562. Review. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Pennarun G, Escudier E, Chapelin C, Bridoux AM, Cacheux V, Roger G, Clément A, Goossens M, Amselem S, Duriez B. Loss-of-function mutations in a human gene related to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii dynein IC78 result in primary ciliary dyskinesia. Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Dec;65(6):1508-19. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Zariwala MA, Knowles MR, Leigh MW. Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. 2007 Jan 24 [updated 2019 Dec 5]. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, Wallace SE, Bean LJH, Stephens K, Amemiya A, editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2020. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1122/ Citation on PubMed
  • Zariwala MA, Leigh MW, Ceppa F, Kennedy MP, Noone PG, Carson JL, Hazucha MJ, Lori A, Horvath J, Olbrich H, Loges NT, Bridoux AM, Pennarun G, Duriez B, Escudier E, Mitchison HM, Chodhari R, Chung EM, Morgan LC, de Iongh RU, Rutland J, Pradal U, Omran H, Amselem S, Knowles MR. Mutations of DNAI1 in primary ciliary dyskinesia: evidence of founder effect in a common mutation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Oct 15;174(8):858-66. Epub 2006 Jul 20. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Ziętkiewicz E, Nitka B, Voelkel K, Skrzypczak U, Bukowy Z, Rutkiewicz E, Humińska K, Przystałowska H, Pogorzelski A, Witt M. Population specificity of the DNAI1 gene mutation spectrum in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Respir Res. 2010 Dec 8;11:174. doi: 10.1186/1465-9921-11-174. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
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