The ANKRD11 gene provides instructions for making a protein called ankyrin repeat domain 11 (ANKRD11). As its name suggests, this protein contains multiple regions called ankyrin domains; proteins with these domains help other proteins interact with each other. The ANKRD11 protein interacts with certain proteins called histone deacetylases, which are important for controlling gene activity. Through these interactions, ANKRD11 affects when genes are turned on and off. For example, ANKRD11 brings together histone deacetylases and other proteins called p160 coactivators. This association regulates the ability of p160 coactivators to turn on gene activity. ANKRD11 may also enhance the activity of a protein called p53, which controls the growth and division (proliferation) and the self-destruction (apoptosis) of cells.
The ANKRD11 protein is found in nerve cells (neurons) in the brain. During embryonic development, ANKRD11 helps regulate the proliferation of these cells and development of the brain. Researchers speculate that the protein may also be involved in the ability of neurons to change and adapt over time (plasticity), which is important for learning and memory. ANKRD11 may function in other cells in the body and appears to be involved in normal bone development.
Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes
Several ANKRD11 gene mutations have been found to cause KBG syndrome, a condition characterized by large upper front teeth and other unusual facial features, skeletal abnormalities, and intellectual disability. Most of these mutations lead to an abnormally short ANKRD11 protein, which likely has little or no function. Reduction of this protein's function is thought to underlie the signs and symptoms of the condition. Because ANKRD11 is thought to play an important role in neurons and brain development, researchers speculate that a partial loss of its function may lead to developmental delay and intellectual disability in KBG syndrome. However, the mechanism is not fully known. It is also unclear how loss of ANKRD11 function leads to the skeletal features of the condition.
Another type of mutation that affects the ANKRD11 gene, called 16q24.3 microdeletion, deletes genetic material from chromosome 16 in a region designated q24.3. The deleted region typically removes the ANKRD11 and ZNF778 genes, although other nearby genes may also be affected. People with this type of mutation have similar signs and symptoms to those of KBG syndrome, including unusual facial features and intellectual disability. Many also have brain abnormalities and features of autism spectrum disorders, which are characterized by impaired communication and socialization skills. Some researchers think that these microdeletions are different enough from KBG syndrome to be considered a separate disorder, called 16q24.3 microdeletion syndrome.More About This Health Condition
Other Names for This Gene
- ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 11
- ankyrin repeat-containing cofactor 1
- nasopharyngeal carcinoma susceptibility protein
Additional Information & Resources
Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry
Scientific Articles on PubMed
Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM
- Gallagher D, Voronova A, Zander MA, Cancino GI, Bramall A, Krause MP, Abad C, Tekin M, Neilsen PM, Callen DF, Scherer SW, Keller GM, Kaplan DR, Walz K, Miller FD. Ankrd11 is a chromatin regulator involved in autism that is essential for neural development. Dev Cell. 2015 Jan 12;32(1):31-42. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2014.11.031. Epub 2014 Dec 31. Citation on PubMed
- Kim HJ, Cho E, Park JB, Im WY, Kim HJ. A Korean family with KBG syndrome identified by ANKRD11 mutation, and phenotypic comparison of ANKRD11 mutation and 16q24.3 microdeletion. Eur J Med Genet. 2015 Feb;58(2):86-94. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2014.11.003. Epub 2014 Nov 20. Citation on PubMed
- Neilsen PM, Cheney KM, Li CW, Chen JD, Cawrse JE, Schulz RB, Powell JA, Kumar R, Callen DF. Identification of ANKRD11 as a p53 coactivator. J Cell Sci. 2008 Nov 1;121(Pt 21):3541-52. doi: 10.1242/jcs.026351. Epub 2008 Oct 7. Citation on PubMed
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- Walz K, Cohen D, Neilsen PM, Foster J 2nd, Brancati F, Demir K, Fisher R, Moffat M, Verbeek NE, Bjørgo K, Lo Castro A, Curatolo P, Novelli G, Abad C, Lei C, Zhang L, Diaz-Horta O, Young JI, Callen DF, Tekin M. Characterization of ANKRD11 mutations in humans and mice related to KBG syndrome. Hum Genet. 2015 Feb;134(2):181-90. doi: 10.1007/s00439-014-1509-2. Epub 2014 Nov 21. Citation on PubMed
- Willemsen MH, Fernandez BA, Bacino CA, Gerkes E, de Brouwer AP, Pfundt R, Sikkema-Raddatz B, Scherer SW, Marshall CR, Potocki L, van Bokhoven H, Kleefstra T. Identification of ANKRD11 and ZNF778 as candidate genes for autism and variable cognitive impairment in the novel 16q24.3 microdeletion syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2010 Apr;18(4):429-35. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2009.192. Epub 2009 Nov 18. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
- Zhang A, Yeung PL, Li CW, Tsai SC, Dinh GK, Wu X, Li H, Chen JD. Identification of a novel family of ankyrin repeats containing cofactors for p160 nuclear receptor coactivators. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 6;279(32):33799-805. Epub 2004 Jun 7. Citation on PubMed