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Spastic paraplegia type 31


Spastic paraplegia type 31 is one of a group of genetic disorders known as hereditary spastic paraplegias. These disorders are characterized by progressive muscle stiffness (spasticity) and the development of paralysis of the lower limbs (paraplegia) caused by degeneration of nerve cells that trigger muscle movement (motor neurons). Hereditary spastic paraplegias are divided into two types: pure and complicated. The pure types involve only the lower limbs, while the complicated types also involve the upper limbs and other areas of the body, including the brain. Spastic paraplegia type 31 is usually a pure hereditary spastic paraplegia, although a few complicated cases have been reported.

The first signs and symptoms of spastic paraplegia type 31 usually appear before age 20 or after age 30. An early feature is difficulty walking due to spasticity and weakness, which typically affect both legs equally. People with spastic paraplegia type 31 can also experience progressive muscle wasting (amyotrophy) in the lower limbs, exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia), a decreased ability to feel vibrations, reduced bladder control, and high-arched feet (pes cavus). As the condition progresses, some individuals require walking support.


Spastic paraplegia type 31 is one of a subgroup of hereditary spastic paraplegias known as autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia, which has an estimated prevalence of one to 12 per 100,000 individuals. Spastic paraplegia type 31 accounts for 3 to 9 percent of all autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia cases.


Spastic paraplegia type 31 is caused by mutations in the REEP1 gene. This gene provides instructions for making a protein called receptor expression-enhancing protein 1 (REEP1), which is found in neurons in the brain and spinal cord. The REEP1 protein is located within cell compartments called mitochondria, which are the energy-producing centers in cells, and the endoplasmic reticulum, which helps with protein processing and transport. The REEP1 protein plays a role in regulating the size of the endoplasmic reticulum and determining how many proteins it can process. The function of the REEP1 protein in the mitochondria is unknown.

REEP1 gene mutations that cause spastic paraplegia type 31 result in a short, nonfunctional protein that is usually broken down quickly. As a result, there is a reduction in functional REEP1 protein. It is unclear how REEP1 gene mutations lead to the signs and symptoms of spastic paraplegia type 31. Researchers have shown that mitochondria in cells of affected individuals are less able to produce energy, which may contribute to the death of neurons and lead to the progressive movement problems of spastic paraplegia type 31; however, the exact mechanism that causes this condition is unknown.


This condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder.

Other Names for This Condition

  • Autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia 31
  • Spastic paraplegia 31
  • SPG31

Additional Information & Resources

Patient Support and Advocacy Resources

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Scientific Articles on PubMed


  • Beetz C, Schule R, Deconinck T, Tran-Viet KN, Zhu H, Kremer BP, Frints SG, van Zelst-Stams WA, Byrne P, Otto S, Nygren AO, Baets J, Smets K, Ceulemans B, Dan B, Nagan N, Kassubek J, Klimpe S, Klopstock T, Stolze H, Smeets HJ, Schrander-Stumpel CT, Hutchinson M, van de Warrenburg BP, Braastad C, Deufel T, Pericak-Vance M, Schols L, de Jonghe P, Zuchner S. REEP1 mutation spectrum and genotype/phenotype correlation in hereditary spastic paraplegia type 31. Brain. 2008 Apr;131(Pt 4):1078-86. doi: 10.1093/brain/awn026. Epub 2008 Mar 5. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central
  • Goizet C, Depienne C, Benard G, Boukhris A, Mundwiller E, Sole G, Coupry I, Pilliod J, Martin-Negrier ML, Fedirko E, Forlani S, Cazeneuve C, Hannequin D, Charles P, Feki I, Pinel JF, Ouvrard-Hernandez AM, Lyonnet S, Ollagnon-Roman E, Yaouanq J, Toutain A, Dussert C, Fontaine B, Leguern E, Lacombe D, Durr A, Rossignol R, Brice A, Stevanin G. REEP1 mutations in SPG31: frequency, mutational spectrum, and potential association with mitochondrial morpho-functional dysfunction. Hum Mutat. 2011 Oct;32(10):1118-27. doi: 10.1002/humu.21542. Epub 2011 Sep 9. Citation on PubMed
  • Hewamadduma C, McDermott C, Kirby J, Grierson A, Panayi M, Dalton A, Rajabally Y, Shaw P. New pedigrees and novel mutation expand the phenotype of REEP1-associated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). Neurogenetics. 2009 Apr;10(2):105-10. doi: 10.1007/s10048-008-0163-z. Epub 2008 Nov 26. Citation on PubMed
  • Zuchner S, Wang G, Tran-Viet KN, Nance MA, Gaskell PC, Vance JM, Ashley-Koch AE, Pericak-Vance MA. Mutations in the novel mitochondrial protein REEP1 cause hereditary spastic paraplegia type 31. Am J Hum Genet. 2006 Aug;79(2):365-9. doi: 10.1086/505361. Epub 2006 May 26. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central

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