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Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy

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Description

Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is a condition in which fats (lipids) are stored abnormally in organs and tissues throughout the body. People with this condition have muscle weakness (myopathy) due to the accumulation of fats in muscle tissue. Other features of this condition may include a fatty liver, a weakened and enlarged heart (cardiomyopathy), inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), reduced thyroid activity (hypothyroidism), and type 2 diabetes (the most common form of diabetes). Signs and symptoms of neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy vary greatly among affected individuals.

Frequency

Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is a rare condition; its incidence is unknown.

Causes

Mutations in the PNPLA2 gene cause neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy. The PNPLA2 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). The ATGL enzyme plays a role in breaking down fats called triglycerides. Triglycerides are an important source of stored energy in cells. These fats must be broken down into simpler molecules called fatty acids before they can be used for energy.

PNPLA2 gene mutations impair the ATGL enzyme's ability to break down triglycerides. These triglycerides then accumulate in muscle and tissues throughout the body, resulting in the signs and symptoms of neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy.

Inheritance

This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

Other Names for This Condition

  • neutral lipid storage disease without ichthyosis
  • NLSDM

Additional Information & Resources

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

Research Studies from ClinicalTrials.gov

Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM

Scientific Articles on PubMed

References

  • Bruno C, Dimauro S. Lipid storage myopathies. Curr Opin Neurol. 2008 Oct;21(5):601-6. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0b013e32830dd5a6. Review. Citation on PubMed
  • Fischer J, Lefèvre C, Morava E, Mussini JM, Laforêt P, Negre-Salvayre A, Lathrop M, Salvayre R. The gene encoding adipose triglyceride lipase (PNPLA2) is mutated in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy. Nat Genet. 2007 Jan;39(1):28-30. Epub 2006 Dec 24. Citation on PubMed
  • Kobayashi K, Inoguchi T, Maeda Y, Nakashima N, Kuwano A, Eto E, Ueno N, Sasaki S, Sawada F, Fujii M, Matoba Y, Sumiyoshi S, Kawate H, Takayanagi R. The lack of the C-terminal domain of adipose triglyceride lipase causes neutral lipid storage disease through impaired interactions with lipid droplets. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jul;93(7):2877-84. doi: 10.1210/jc.2007-2247. Epub 2008 Apr 29. Citation on PubMed
  • Natali A, Gastaldelli A, Camastra S, Baldi S, Quagliarini F, Minicocci I, Bruno C, Pennisi E, Arca M. Metabolic consequences of adipose triglyceride lipase deficiency in humans: an in vivo study in patients with neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Sep;98(9):E1540-8. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-1444. Epub 2013 Jul 3. Citation on PubMed
  • Reilich P, Horvath R, Krause S, Schramm N, Turnbull DM, Trenell M, Hollingsworth KG, Gorman GS, Hans VH, Reimann J, MacMillan A, Turner L, Schollen A, Witte G, Czermin B, Holinski-Feder E, Walter MC, Schoser B, Lochmüller H. The phenotypic spectrum of neutral lipid storage myopathy due to mutations in the PNPLA2 gene. J Neurol. 2011 Nov;258(11):1987-97. doi: 10.1007/s00415-011-6055-4. Epub 2011 May 5. Citation on PubMed
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