Bladder biopsy is a procedure in which small pieces of tissue are removed from the bladder. The tissue is tested under a microscope.
How the Test is Performed
A bladder biopsy can be done as part of a cystoscopy. Cystoscopy is a telescopic examination of the inside of the bladder. A small piece of tissue or the entire abnormal area is removed. The tissue is sent to the lab to be tested if:
- Abnormalities of the bladder are found during this exam
- A tumor is seen
How to Prepare for the Test
You must sign an informed consent form before you have a bladder biopsy. In most cases, you are asked to urinate just before the procedure. You may also be asked to take an antibiotic before the procedure.
For infants and children, the preparation you can provide for this test depends on your child's age, previous experiences, and level of trust. For general information regarding how you can prepare your child, see the following topics:
How the Test will Feel
You may have a slight discomfort as the cystoscope is passed through your urethra into your bladder. You will feel discomfort that is similar to a strong urge to urinate when the fluid has filled your bladder.
You may feel a pinch during the biopsy. There may be a burning sensation when the blood vessels are sealed to stop bleeding (cauterized).
After the cystoscope is removed, your urethra may be sore. You may feel a burning sensation during urination for a day or two.
In some cases, the biopsy needs to be taken from a large area. In that case, you may need general or spinal anesthesia before the procedure.
Why the Test is Performed
This test is most often done to check for cancer of the bladder or urethra.
There is some risk for urinary tract infection.
There is a slight risk for excessive bleeding. There may be a rupture of the bladder wall with the cystoscope or during biopsy.
There is also a risk that the biopsy will fail to diagnose a serious condition.
You will likely have a small amount of blood in your urine shortly after this procedure. If the bleeding continues after you urinate, contact your health care provider.
Also contact your provider if:
- You have pain, chills, or a fever.
- You are producing less urine than usual (oliguria).
- You cannot urinate despite a strong urge to do so.
Biopsy - bladder
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National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Cystoscopy and ureteroscopy. www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/diagnostic-tests/cystoscopy-ureteroscopy/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed June 9, 2016.
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Review Date 5/23/2016
Updated by: Jennifer Sobol, DO, urologist with the Michigan Institute of Urology, West Bloomfield, MI. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.