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The bladder is a hollow organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer occurs in the lining of the bladder. It is the sixth most common type of cancer in the United States.
- Blood in your urine
- A frequent urge to urinate
- Pain when you urinate
- Low back pain
Risk factors for developing bladder cancer include smoking and exposure to certain chemicals in the workplace. People with a family history of bladder cancer or who are older, white, or male have a higher risk.
Treatments for bladder cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and biologic therapy. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to fight cancer.
NIH: National Cancer Institute
Diagnosis and Tests
- Cystoscopy and Ureteroscopy (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases)
- Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP) (American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of North America) Also in Spanish
- Screening for Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish
- Stages of Bladder Cancer (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish
- Urine Cytology (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
- Urography (American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of North America) Also in Spanish
- General Information about Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish
- Genetics Home Reference: bladder cancer (National Library of Medicine)
Statistics and Research
- Cancer of the Urinary Bladder (National Cancer Institute)
Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
- Article: Efficacy, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of apaziquone in the treatment...
- Article: The Role of Robotics in the Invasive Management of Bladder...
- Article: Impact of diagnostic ureteroscopy on intravesical recurrence in patients undergoing...
- Bladder Cancer -- see more articles
- Bladder biopsy (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish
- Bladder cancer (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish
- Cancer - renal pelvis or ureter (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish
- Understanding Chemotherapy (National Cancer Institute) - PDF Also in Spanish
- What to Know about External Beam Radiation Therapy (National Cancer Institute) - PDF Also in Spanish