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The bladder is a hollow organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer occurs in the lining of the bladder. It is the sixth most common type of cancer in the United States.
- Blood in your urine
- A frequent urge to urinate
- Pain when you urinate
- Low back pain
Risk factors for developing bladder cancer include smoking and exposure to certain chemicals in the workplace. People with a family history of bladder cancer or who are older, white, or male have a higher risk.
Treatments for bladder cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and biologic therapy. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to fight cancer.
NIH: National Cancer Institute
Diagnosis and Tests
- Cystoscopy and Ureteroscopy (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases)
- Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP) (American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of North America) Also in Spanish
- PDL1 (Immunotherapy) Tests (National Library of Medicine) Also in Spanish
- Screening for Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish
- Stages of Bladder Cancer (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish
- Urine Cytology (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
- Urography (American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of North America) Also in Spanish
- General Information about Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish
- Genetics Home Reference: bladder cancer (National Library of Medicine)
Statistics and Research
- Cancer of the Urinary Bladder (National Cancer Institute)
Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
- Article: Update on perioperative systemic therapy for urothelial carcinoma.
- Article: Association between five polymorphisms in vascular endothelial growth factor gene and...
- Article: Biomarkers in Non-Schistosomiasis-related squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A...
- Bladder Cancer -- see more articles