Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) is a protein that plays a role in moving cholesterol around your body. It is a form of low density lipoprotein (LDL).
Mutations (changes) in apoB100 can cause a condition called familial hypercholesterolemia. This is a form of high cholesterol that is passed down in families (inherited).
This article discusses the test used to measure the level of apoB100 in the blood.
How the Test is Performed
How to Prepare for the Test
Your health care provider may tell you not to eat or drink anything for 4 to 6 hours before the test.
How the Test will Feel
When the needle is inserted to draw blood, you may feel moderate pain, or only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.
Why the Test is Performed
Most often, this test is done to help determine the cause or specific type of high blood cholesterol. It is not clear whether the information helps improve treatment. Because of this, most health insurance companies DO NOT pay for the test. If you DO NOT have a diagnosis of high cholesterol or heart disease, this test may not be recommended for you.
The normal range is about 50 to 150 mg/dL.
Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some laboratories use different measurements or may test different specimens. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.
What Abnormal Results Mean
An abnormal result may mean you have high lipid (fat) levels in your blood. A medical term for this is hyperlipidemia.
Risks linked with having blood drawn are slight, but may include:
- Excessive bleeding
- Fainting or feeling lightheaded
- Hematoma (blood buildup under the skin)
- Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)
- Multiple punctures to locate veins
Apolipoprotein measurements may provide more detail about your risk for heart disease, but the added value of this test beyond a lipid panel is unknown.
ApoB100; Apoprotein B100; Hypercholesterolemia - apolipoprotein B100
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Genest J, Libby P. Lipoprotein disorders and cardiovascular disease. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 48.
Remaley AT, Dayspring TD, Warnick GR. Lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and other cardiovascular risk factors. In: Rifai N, ed. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2018:chap 34.
Robinson JG. Disorders of lipid metabolism. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 195.
Review Date 7/7/2020
Updated by: Thomas S. Metkus, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine and Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.