An autoimmune liver disease panel is a group of tests that is done to check for autoimmune liver disease. An autoimmune liver disease means that the body's immune system attacks the liver.
These tests include:
- Anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibodies
- Anti-mitochondrial antibodies
- Anti-nuclear antibodies
- Anti-smooth muscle antibodies
- Serum IgG
The panel may also include other tests. Often, immune protein levels in the blood are also checked.
How the Test is Performed
A blood sample is taken from a vein.
The blood sample is sent to the lab for testing.
How to Prepare for the Test
You do not need to take special steps before this test.
How the Test will Feel
You may feel slight pain or a sting when the needle is inserted to draw blood. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.
Why the Test is Performed
Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis).
This group of tests helps your health care provider diagnose liver disease.
The normal range for protein levels in the blood will change with each laboratory. Please check with your provider for the normal ranges in your particular laboratory.
Negative results on all antibodies are normal.
Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.
The examples above show the common measurements for results for these tests. Some laboratories use different measurements or may test different specimens.
What Abnormal Results Mean
Blood tests for autoimmune diseases are not wholly accurate. They can have false negative results (you have the disease, but the test is negative) and false positive results (you do not have the disease, but the test is positive).
A weakly positive or low titer positive test for autoimmune disease is often not due to any disease.
A positive test on the panel may be a sign of autoimmune hepatitis or other autoimmune liver disease.
If the test is positive mostly for anti-mitochondrial antibodies, you are likely to have primary biliary cholangitis. If the immune proteins are high and albumin is low, you may have liver cirrhosis or chronic active hepatitis.
Slight risks from having blood drawn include:
- Excessive bleeding
- Fainting or feeling lightheaded
- Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
- Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)
Liver disease test panel - autoimmune
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Czaja AJ. Autoimmune hepatitis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 90.
Daniels L, Khalili M, Goldstein E, Bluth MH, Bowne WB, Pincus MR. Evaluation of liver function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 24th ed. Philadelphia PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 22.
Review Date 1/14/2021
Updated by: Michael M. Phillips, MD, Emeritus Professor of Medicine, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.