Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin.
Vitamin E has the following functions:
- It is an antioxidant. This means it protects body tissue from damage caused by substances called free radicals. Free radicals can harm cells, tissues, and organs. They are believed to play a role in certain conditions related to aging.
- The body also needs vitamin E to help keep the immune system strong against viruses and bacteria. Vitamin E is also important in the formation of red blood cells. It helps the body use vitamin K. It also helps widen blood vessels and keep blood from clotting inside them.
- Cells use vitamin E to interact with each other. It helps them carry out many important functions.
Whether vitamin E can prevent cancer, heart disease, dementia, liver disease, and stroke still requires further research.
The best way to get the daily requirement of vitamin E is by eating food sources. Vitamin E is found in the following foods:
- Vegetable oils (such as wheat germ, sunflower, safflower, corn, and soybean oils)
- Nuts (such as almonds, peanuts, and hazelnuts/filberts)
- Seeds (such as sunflower seeds)
- Green leafy vegetables (such as spinach and broccoli)
- Fortified breakfast cereals, fruit juices, margarine, and spreads.
Fortified means that vitamins have been added to the food. Check the Nutrition Fact Panel on the food label.
Products made from these foods, such as margarine, also contain vitamin E.
Eating vitamin E in foods is not risky or harmful. However, high doses of vitamin E supplements (alpha-tocopherol supplements) might increase the risk of bleeding in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke).
High levels of vitamin E may also increase the risk for birth defects. However, it needs more research.
Low intake may lead to hemolytic anemia in premature babies.
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamins reflect how much of each vitamin most people should get each day.
- The RDA for vitamins may be used as goals for each person.
- How much of each vitamin you need depends on your age and sex.
- Other factors, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, and illnesses may increase the amount you need.
The Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine Recommended Intakes for individuals for vitamin E:
Infants (adequate intake of vitamin E)
- 0 to 6 months: 4 mg/day
- 7 to 12 months: 5 mg/day
- 1 to 3 years: 6 mg/day
- 4 to 8 years: 7 mg/day
- 9 to 13 years: 11 mg/day
Adolescents and adults
- 14 and older: 15 mg/day
- Pregnant teens and women: 15 mg/day
- Breastfeeding teens and women: 19 mg/day
Ask your health care provider which amount is best for you.
The highest safe level of vitamin E supplements for adults is 1,500 IU/day for natural forms of vitamin E, and 1,000 IU/day for the man-made (synthetic) form.
Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 218.
Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.
Review Date 2/2/2019
Updated by: Emily Wax, RD, CNSC, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.