Good health habits can allow you to avoid illness and improve your quality of life. The following steps will help you feel better and live better.
- Get regular exercise and control your weight.
- Don't smoke.
- Do NOT drink a lot of alcohol. Avoid alcohol completely if you have a history of alcoholism.
- Use the medicines your health care provider gives you as directed.
- Eat a balanced and healthy diet.
- Take care of your teeth.
- Manage high blood pressure.
- Follow good safety practices.
Exercise is a key factor in staying healthy. Exercise strengthens the bones, heart, and lungs, tones muscles, improves vitality, relieves depression, and helps you sleep better.
Talk to your provider before starting an exercise program if you have health conditions such as obesity, high blood pressure, or diabetes. This can help ensure that your exercise is safe and that you get the most of out of it.
Cigarette smoking is the main preventable cause of death in the United States. One out of every 5 deaths each year is either directly or indirectly caused by smoking.
Secondhand cigarette smoke exposure can cause lung cancer in nonsmokers. Secondhand smoke is also linked to heart disease.
Drinking alcohol changes many brain functions. Emotions, thinking, and judgment are first to be affected. Continued drinking will affect motor control, causing slurred speech, slower reactions, and poor balance. Having a higher amount of body fat and drinking on an empty stomach will speed up the effects of alcohol.
Alcoholism can lead to diseases including:
- Diseases of the liver and pancreas
- Cancer and other diseases of the esophagus and digestive tract
- Heart muscle damage
- Brain damage
- Do NOT drink alcohol when you are pregnant. Alcohol can cause serious harm to the unborn baby and lead to fetal alcohol syndrome.
Parents should talk to their children about the dangerous effects of alcohol. Talk to your provider if you or someone close to you has a problem with alcohol. Many people whose lives have been affected by alcohol get benefit from taking part in an alcohol support group.
DRUG AND MEDICINE USE
Drugs and medicines affect people in different ways. Always tell your provider about all the drugs you are taking. This includes over-the-counter medicines and vitamins.
- Drug interactions can be dangerous.
- Older people need to be very careful about interactions when they are taking many medicines.
- All of your providers should know all the medicines you are taking. Carry the list with you when you go for checkups and treatments.
- Avoid drinking alcohol while taking medicines. This can cause serious problems. The combination of alcohol and tranquilizers or painkillers can be deadly.
Pregnant women should not take any drug or medicine without talking to the provider. This includes over-the-counter medicines. The unborn baby is even more sensitive to the harm from drugs in the first 3 months. Tell your provider if you have been taking any drugs just before becoming pregnant.
Always take medicines as prescribed. Taking any drug in a way other than prescribed or taking too much can cause serious health problems. It is considered drug abuse. Abuse and addiction are not just associated with illegal "street" drugs.
Legal drugs such as laxatives, painkillers, nasal sprays, diet pills, and cough medicines can also be misused.
Addiction is defined as continuing to use a substance even though you are experiencing problems related to the use. Simply needing a drug (like a painkiller or antidepressant) and taking it as prescribed is not addiction.
DEALING WITH STRESS
Stress is normal. It can be a great motivator and help in some cases. But too much stress can cause health problems such as trouble sleeping, stomach upset, anxiety, and mood changes.
- Learn to recognize the things most likely to cause stress in your life.
- You may not be able to avoid all stress but knowing the source can help you feel in control.
- The more control you feel you have over your life, the less damaging the stress in your life will be.
Obesity is a serious health concern. Excess body fat can overwork the heart, bones, and muscles. It can also increase your risk for developing high blood pressure, stroke, varicose veins, breast cancer, and gallbladder disease.
Obesity can be caused by eating too much and eating unhealthy foods. Lack of exercise also plays a part. Family history may be a risk for some people as well.
Having a balanced diet is important to being in good health.
- Choose foods that are low in saturated and trans fat, and low in cholesterol.
- Limit your intake of sugar, salt (sodium), and alcohol.
- Eat more fiber, which can be found in fruits, vegetables, beans, whole grain products, and nuts.
Good dental care can help you keep your teeth and gums healthy for a lifetime. It is important for children to begin good dental habits when they are young. For proper dental hygiene:
- Brush your teeth twice a day and floss at least once daily.
- Use fluoride toothpaste.
- Get regular dental checkups.
- Limit sugar intake.
- Use a toothbrush with soft bristles. Replace your toothbrush when bristles get bent.
- Have your dentist show you the proper ways to brush and floss.
Ridker PM, Libby P, Buring JE. Risk markers and the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 45.
US Preventive Services Task Force website. Final recommendation statement: dental caries in children from birth through age 5 years: screening. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/dental-caries-in-children-from-birth-through-age-5-years-screening. Updated May 2019. Accessed July 11, 2019.
US Preventive Services Task Force website. Final recommendation statement: drug use, illicit: screening. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/drug-use-illicit-screening. Updated February 2014. Accessed July 11, 2019.
US Preventive Services Task Force website. Final recommendation statement: healthful diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults with cardiovascular risk factors: behavioral counseling. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/healthy-diet-and-physical-activity-counseling-adults-with-high-risk-of-cvd. Updated December 2016. Accessed July 11, 2019.
US Preventive Services Task Force website. Final recommendation statement: tobacco smoking cessation in adults, including pregnant women: behavioral and pharmacotherapy interventions. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/tobacco-use-in-adults-and-pregnant-women-counseling-and-interventions1. Updated May 2019. Accessed July 11, 2019.
US Preventive Services Task Force website. Unhealthy alcohol use in adolescents and adults: screening and behavioral counseling interventions. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/unhealthy-alcohol-use-in-adolescents-and-adults-screening-and-behavioral-counseling-interventions. Updated May 2019. Accessed July 11, 2019.
Review Date 7/11/2019
Updated by: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.