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Hypervitaminosis D

Hypervitaminosis D is a condition that occurs after taking very high doses of vitamin D.

Causes

The cause is excess intake of vitamin D. The doses need to be very high, far above what most medical providers normally prescribe.

There has been a lot of confusion about vitamin D supplementation. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for vitamin D is between 400 and 800 IU/day, according to age and pregnancy status. Higher doses may be needed for some people, such as those with vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and other conditions. However, most people do not need more than 2,000 IU of vitamin D a day.

For most people, vitamin D toxicity only occurs with vitamin D doses above 10,000 IU per day.

Symptoms

An excess of vitamin D causes abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia). This can severely damage the kidneys, soft tissues, and bones over time.

Exams and Tests

The health care provider will examine you and ask about your symptoms.

Tests that may be ordered include:

Treatment

Your provider will likely tell you to stop taking vitamin D. In severe cases, other treatment may be needed.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Recovery is expected, but permanent kidney damage can occur.

Possible Complications

Health problems that can result from taking too much vitamin D over a long time include:

  • Dehydration
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Kidney damage
  • Kidney stones

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your provider if:

  • You or your child shows symptoms of hypervitaminosis D and has been taking more vitamin D than the RDA
  • You or your child shows symptoms and has been taking a prescription or over-the-counter form of vitamin D

Prevention

To prevent this condition, pay careful attention to the correct vitamin D dose.

Many combination vitamin supplements contain vitamin D, so check the labels of all the supplements you are taking for vitamin D content.

Alternative Names

Vitamin D toxicity

References

Aronson JK. Vitamin D analogues. In: Aronson JK, ed. Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs. 16th ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2016:478-487.

Greenbaum LA. Rickets and hypervitaminosis D. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 51.

Review Date 11/17/2017

Updated by: Brent Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.