Factor V deficiency is a bleeding disorder that is passed down through families. It affects the ability of the blood to clot.
Blood clotting is a complex process involving as many as 20 different proteins in blood plasma. These proteins are called blood coagulation factors.
Factor V deficiency is caused by a lack of factor V. When certain blood clotting factors are low or missing, your blood does not clot properly.
Factor V deficiency is rare. It may be caused by:
- A defective factor V gene passed down through families (inherited)
- An antibody that interferes with normal factor V function
You can develop an antibody that interferes with factor V:
- After giving birth
- After being treated with a certain type of fibrin glue
- After surgery
- With autoimmune diseases and certain cancers
Sometimes the cause is unknown.
The disease is similar to hemophilia, except bleeding into joints is less common. In the inherited form of factor V deficiency, a family history of a bleeding disorder is a risk factor.
Excessive bleeding with menstrual periods and after childbirth often occurs. Other symptoms can include:
- Bleeding into the skin
- Bleeding of the gums
- Excessive bruising
- Prolonged or excessive loss of blood with surgery or trauma
- Umbilical stump bleeding
Exams and Tests
Tests to detect factor V deficiency include:
- Factor V assay
- Blood clotting tests, including partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and prothrombin time
- Bleeding time
You will be given fresh blood plasma or fresh frozen plasma infusions during a bleeding episode or after surgery. These treatments will correct the deficiency temporarily.
The outlook is good with diagnosis and proper treatment.
Severe bleeding (hemorrhage) could occur.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Go to the emergency room or call 911 or the local emergency number if you have an unexplained or prolonged loss of blood.
Parahemophilia; Owren disease; Bleeding disorder - factor V deficiency
Gailani D, Wheeler AP, Neff AT. Rare coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 137.
Ragni MV. Hemorrhagic disorders: coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 165.
Scott JP, Flood VH. Hereditary clotting factor deficiencies (bleeding disorders). In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 503.
Review Date 1/25/2022
Updated by: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.