Hepatitis C is a viral disease that leads to swelling (inflammation) of the liver.
Other types of viral hepatitis include:
Hepatitis C infection is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV).
You can catch hepatitis C if the blood of someone who has hepatitis C enters your body. Exposure may occur:
- After a needle stick or sharps injury
- If blood from someone who has hepatitis C contacts a cut on your skin or contacts your eyes or mouth
People at risk of hepatitis C are those who:
- Inject street drugs or share a needle with someone who has hepatitis C
- Have been on long-term kidney dialysis
- Have regular contact with blood at work (such as a health care worker)
- Have unprotected sexual contact with a person who has hepatitis C
- Were born to a mother who had hepatitis C
- Received a tattoo or acupuncture with needles that were not disinfected properly after being used on another person (risk is very low with practitioners who have a tattoo license or permit or an acupuncture license)
- Received an organ transplant from a donor who has hepatitis C
- Share personal items, such as toothbrushes and razors, with someone who has hepatitis C (less common)
- Received a blood transfusion (rare in the United States since blood screening became available in 1992)
Most people who are recently infected with hepatitis C do not have symptoms. Some people have yellowing of the skin (jaundice). Chronic infection often causes no symptoms. But fatigue, depression and other problems can occur.
Persons who have long-term (chronic) infection often have no symptoms until their liver becomes scarred (cirrhosis). Most people with this condition are ill and have many health problems.
The following symptoms may occur with hepatitis C infection:
Exams and Tests
Blood tests are done to check for hepatitis C:
- Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to detect hepatitis C antibody
- Hepatitis C RNA assays to measure virus levels (viral load)
Everyone born from 1945 to 1965 (the baby boomer generation) should get a one-time test for hepatitis C.
Genetic testing is done to check for the type of hepatitis C (genotype). There are six types of the virus (genotypes 1 through 6). Test results can help your doctor choose treatment that is best for you.
The following tests are done to identify and monitor liver damage from hepatitis C:
- Albumin level
- Liver function tests
- Prothrombin time
- Liver biopsy
You should talk to your health care provider about your treatment options and when treatment should begin.
- The goal of treatment is to rid the body of the virus. This can prevent liver damage that may lead to liver failure or liver cancer.
- Your provider will monitor you by checking liver blood tests, viral load (the amount of HCV in your blood), imaging tests, and biopsy results.
- Treatment is especially important for people who are showing signs of liver fibrosis or scarring.
Antiviral medicines are used to treat hepatitis C. These drugs help fight the HCV. Newer antiviral drugs:
- Provide a much improved cure rate
- Have fewer side effects and are easier to take
- Are taken by mouth for 8 to 24 weeks
The choice of which medicine depends on the genotype of the HCV you have.
A liver transplant may be recommended for people who develop cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. Your provider can tell you more about liver transplant.
If you have hepatitis C:
- Do not take over-the-counter medicines that you have not taken before without asking your provider. Also ask about vitamins and other supplements.
- Do not use alcohol or street drugs. Alcohol can speed up the damage to your liver. It can also reduce how well medicines work.
- Ask your provider whether you need the hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines. If you have not received a vaccine for hepatitis A or B or have not had these forms of hepatitis, you may need vaccination for them.
Joining a support group can help ease the stress of having hepatitis C. Ask your provider about liver disease resources and support groups in your area.
Most people (75% to 85%) who are infected with the virus develop chronic hepatitis C. This condition poses a risk for cirrhosis, liver cancer, or both. The outlook for hepatitis C depends in part on the genotype.
A good response to treatment occurs when the virus can no longer be detected in the blood 12 weeks or more after treatment. This is called "sustained virologic response" (SVR). Up to 90% of those treated for some genotypes have this type of response.
Some people do not respond to initial treatment. They may need to be re-treated with a different class of medicines.
Also, some people can become re-infected or infected with a different genotype strain.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your provider if:
- You develop symptoms of hepatitis
- You believe you have been exposed to the HCV
Steps that can be taken to help prevent the spread of hepatitis C from one person to another include:
- Health care workers should follow precautions when handling blood.
- Do not share needles with anyone.
- Do not get tattoos or body piercings or receive acupuncture from someone who does not have a permit or license.
- Do not share personal items, such as razors and toothbrushes.
- Practice safe sex.
If you or your partner is infected with hepatitis C and you have been in a stable and monogamous (no other partners) relationship, the risk of giving the virus to, or getting the virus from, the other person is low.
HCV cannot be spread by casual contact, such as holding hands, kissing, coughing or sneezing, breastfeeding, sharing eating utensils or drinking glasses.
Currently there is no vaccine for hepatitis C.
Sustained virologic response - hepatitis C; SVR - hepatitis C
AASLD-IDSA HCV Guidance Panel. Hepatitis C Guidance 2018 Update: AASLD-IDSA recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;67(10):1477-1492. PMID: 30215672 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30215672.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Hepatitis C. www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hcv/cfaq.htm. Updated November 2, 2018. Accessed June 22, 2019.
Jacobson IM, Lim JK, Fried MW. American Gastroenterological Association Institute clinical practice update-expert review: care of patients who have achieved a sustained virologic response after antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection. Gastroenterology. 2017;152(6):1578-1587 PMID: 28344022 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28344022.
Ray SC, Thomas DL. Hepatitis C. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 156.
Wedemeyer H. Hepatitis C. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 80.
Review Date 1/12/2018
Updated by: Michael M. Phillips, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Internal review and update on 07/12/2019 by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.