URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/982.html


What is it?

Zinc is a mineral. It is called an "essential trace element" because very small amounts of zinc are necessary for human health. Since the human body does not store excess zinc, it must be consumed regularly as part of the diet. Common dietary sources of zinc include red meat, poultry, and fish. Zinc deficiency can cause short stature, reduced ability to taste food, and the inability of testes and ovaries to function properly.

Zinc is used for the treatment and prevention of zinc deficiency and its consequences, including stunted growth and acute diarrhea in children, slow wound healing, and Wilson's disease. Zinc is also used for many other conditions. There is some scientific evidence to support its use for some of these conditions. But for most, there is no good scientific evidence to support its use.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): While zinc may have benefit for the common cold and other airway infections, there is no good evidence to support using it for COVID-19. Also, zinc gluconate 50 mg daily does not seem to be beneficial. Follow healthy lifestyle choices and proven prevention methods instead.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for ZINC are as follows:

Effective for...

  • Zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency might occur in people with severe diarrhea, conditions that make it hard for the bowel to absorb food, liver cirrhosis, and alcoholism. It may also occur after major surgery and during long-term use of tube feeding in the hospital. Taking zinc by mouth or giving zinc intravenously (by IV) helps to restore zinc levels in people who are zinc deficient. However, taking zinc supplements regularly is not recommended.

Likely effective for...

  • Diarrhea. Taking zinc by mouth reduces the duration and severity of diarrhea in children who are undernourished or zinc deficient. Severe zinc deficiency in children is common in developing countries. Zinc 20 mg daily is the most common dose used. But doses of 5-10 mg also seem to work and cause less vomiting.
  • An inherited disorder that causes copper to build up in many organs (Wilson disease). Taking zinc by mouth improves symptoms of an inherited disorder called Wilson disease. People with Wilson disease have too much copper in their bodies. Zinc blocks how much copper is absorbed and increases how much copper the body releases.

Possibly effective for...

  • Acne. Research suggests that people with acne have lower blood and skin levels of zinc. Taking zinc by mouth appears to help treat acne. However, it's unclear how beneficial zinc is compared to acne medications such as tetracycline or minocycline. Applying zinc to the skin in an ointment does not seem to help treat acne unless used in combination with the antibiotic drug called erythromycin.
  • A disorder of zinc deficiency (acrodermatitis enteropathica). Taking zinc by mouth seems to help improve symptoms of acrodermatitis enteropathica.
  • An eye disease that leads to vision loss in older adults (age-related macular degeneration or AMD). People who consume more zinc as part of their diet seem to have a lower risk of developing age-related vision loss. Research shows that taking supplements containing zinc and antioxidant vitamins may modestly slow vision loss and prevent age-related vision loss from becoming advanced in people at high risk. It's still not clear if taking zinc along with antioxidant vitamins helps prevent age-related vision loss from becoming advanced in people at low risk. Most research shows that taking zinc alone, without antioxidant vitamins, does not help most people with age-related vision loss. However, it's possible that people with certain genes that make them susceptible to age-related vision loss might benefit from zinc supplements.
  • Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is evidence that children with ADHD might have lower blood levels of zinc than children without ADHD. There is also evidence that people with ADHD who have lower zinc levels might not respond well enough to prescription medications for ADHD (stimulants). Thus, zinc supplements are of interest for people with ADHD. Taking zinc by mouth along with medicine for ADHD might slightly improve hyperactivity, impulsiveness, and socialization problems in some children with ADHD. But zinc doesn't seem to improve attention span. Most studies using zinc for ADHD have taken place in the Middle East, where zinc deficiency is more common than in Western countries. One small study shows that taking zinc alone or as add-on therapy to prescription ADHD medication does not consistently improve symptoms of ADHD. But it does seem to lower the optimal dose of ADHD medication that is needed.
  • Common cold. Most research shows that taking lozenges containing zinc gluconate or zinc acetate by mouth helps shorten the length of a cold in adults. But side effects such as bad taste and nausea might make it hard to use. In adults, taking zinc supplements by mouth does not seem to prevent common colds. But zinc gluconate lozenges might help prevent colds in children and adolescents. Using zinc as a nose spray does not seem to help prevent colds.
  • Depression. Some research suggests that taking zinc along with antidepressants improves depression in people with major depression. Zinc might also improve depression in people who do not respond to treatment with antidepressants alone.
  • Diabetes. Taking zinc seems to reduce blood sugar and triglyceride levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Taking zinc might also help to lower blood sugar in women who develop diabetes during pregnancy.
  • Diaper rash. Giving zinc gluconate by mouth to infants seems to speed up the healing of diaper rash. Applying zinc oxide paste also seems to improve the healing of diaper rash. However, it doesn't seem to work as well as applying 2% eosin solution.
  • A mild form of gum disease (gingivitis). Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, might improve gingivitis. Some evidence also shows that zinc-containing toothpaste can reduce existing plaque. But it might not work as well as other conventional treatments. Also, most studies used zinc citrate in combination with triclosan, which is not available in the US.
  • Bad breath. Research suggests that chewing gum, sucking on a candy, or using a mouth rinse containing zinc reduces bad breath.
  • Cold sores (herpes labialis). Applying zinc sulfate or zinc oxide to the skin, alone or with other ingredients, seems to reduce the duration and severity of oral and genital herpes. However, zinc might not be beneficial for recurrent herpes infections.
  • Reduced ability to taste (hypogeusia). Some early research suggests that taking zinc by mouth improves the ability to taste foods in most people who have this condition.
  • Skin infection caused by Leishmania parasites (Leishmania lesions). Research suggests that taking zinc sulfate by mouth or injecting as a solution into lesions helps heal lesions in people with this condition. But it doesn't seem to work as well as conventional treatments.
  • Leprosy. Taking zinc by mouth in combination with anti-leprosy drugs seems to help treat leprosy.
  • Stomach ulcers. Taking zinc acexamate by mouth seems to help treat and prevent peptic ulcers. But this form of zinc is not available in the US.
  • Pneumonia. Most research suggests that taking zinc might help PREVENT pneumonia in some children. But it's unclear if zinc is helpful in children who already have pneumonia.
  • Preterm birth. Taking zinc by mouth during pregnancy appears to reduce the risk for early delivery. But zinc supplementation doesn't seem to reduce the risk for stillbirths, miscarriage, or infant deaths.
  • Bed sores (pressure ulcers). Applying zinc paste appears to help improve the healing of bed sores in elderly people. Also, increasing zinc intake in the diet seems to improve bed sore healing in hospitalized patients with bed sore.
  • Sickle cell disease. Taking zinc by mouth seems to help reduce symptoms of sickle cell disease in people with zinc deficiency. Taking zinc supplements also appears to decrease the risk for complications and infections related to sickle cell disease.
  • Leg sores caused by weak blood circulation (venous leg ulcer). Taking zinc sulfate by mouth appears to help some types of leg ulcers heal faster. The effects seem to be greater in people with low levels of zinc before treatment. Applying zinc paste to leg ulcers also appears to improve healing.
  • Warts. Early research suggests that applying a zinc sulfate solution improves plane warts but not common warts. Applying zinc oxide ointment appears to be as effective as conventional treatments for curing warts. Taking zinc sulfate by mouth also appears to be effective.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Patchy hair loss (alopecia areata). Although there is early evidence that suggests taking zinc together with biotin might be helpful for hair loss, most studies suggest that zinc is not effective for this condition.
  • Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Zinc gluconate 50 mg daily does not seem to speed up recovery from COVID-19 in people who have not been admitted to the hospital. Zinc also does not improve the response to a drug called hydroxychloroquine.
  • Cystic fibrosis. Zinc sulfate does not appear to improve lung function in children or adolescents with cystic fibrosis, although it may reduce the need for antibiotics.
  • HIV/AIDS. Taking zinc by mouth along with antiretroviral therapy does not improve immune function or reduce the risk of death in adults or children with HIV.
  • Pregnancy complications in women with HIV/AIDS. Taking zinc by mouth during pregnancy does not appear to reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to the infant. Also, zinc does not appear to prevent infant death or maternal wasting in pregnant women with HIV.
  • Infant development. Giving zinc to infants or children at risk for having low levels of zinc does not seem to improve mental or motor development. But giving zinc to women during pregnancy might increase the growth of the child during the first year of life.
  • Long-term swelling (inflammation) in the digestive tract (inflammatory bowel disease or IBD). Taking zinc by mouth does not seem to help treat IBD.
  • Flu (influenza). Taking zinc supplements by mouth is unlikely to improve immune function against the flu virus in people who are not at risk for zinc deficiency.
  • Ear infection (otitis media). Taking zinc does not appear to prevent ear infections in children.
  • A pregnancy complication marked by high blood pressure and protein in the urine (pre-eclampsia). Taking zinc does not seem to reduce the risk of high blood pressure in pregnancy.
  • Prostate cancer. Taking zinc does not seem to be linked to the risk of getting prostate cancer.
  • Scaly, itchy skin (psoriasis). Taking zinc by mouth does not seem to help treat psoriasis.
  • Joint swelling (inflammation) in people with psoriasis. Taking zinc by mouth, alone or together with painkillers, has no effect on the progression of this condition.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Taking zinc by mouth does not seem to help treat rheumatoid arthritis.
  • A skin condition that causes redness on the face (rosacea). Research suggests that taking zinc by mouth daily for 90 days does not improve quality of life or symptoms associated with rosacea.
  • Sexual problems that prevent satisfaction during sexual activity. Research suggests that zinc supplementation does not improve sexual function in men with sexual dysfunction related to kidney disease.
  • Ringing in the ears (tinnitus). Taking zinc by mouth does not seem to help treating ringing in the ears.

Likely ineffective for...

  • Malaria. Taking zinc by mouth does not help prevent or treat malaria in undernourished children in developing countries. But some research suggests it might reduce the risk for high fevers in children with malaria.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Liver disease in people who drink alcohol. Taking zinc sulfate by mouth might improve liver function in people with alcohol-related liver disease.
  • An eating disorder (anorexia nervosa). Taking zinc supplements by mouth might help increase weight gain and improve depression symptoms in teens and adults with anorexia.
  • Eczema (atopic dermatitis). Taking zinc by mouth does not appear to improve skin redness or itching in children with eczema.
  • A blood disorder that reduces levels of protein in the blood called hemoglobin (beta-thalassemia). Early research suggests that taking zinc sulfate while undergoing blood transfusions increases growth in children with this condition.
  • Brain tumor. Early research suggests that zinc intake is not linked with a reduced risk of developing brain cancer.
  • Swelling (inflammation) of small airways in the lung (bronchiolitis). Taking zinc while in the hospital might speed up recovery from this type of airway infection.
  • Burns. Giving zinc intravenously (by IV) together with other minerals seems to improve wound healing in people with burns. But taking zinc alone only seems to help people with severe burns.
  • Canker sores. Some early research suggests that taking zinc sulfate improves canker sores and prevents them from reappearing. But not all research agrees.
  • Tiredness in people treated with cancer drugs. Early research shows that taking zinc does not reduce tiredness or improve quality of life in people with colorectal cancer receiving chemotherapy.
  • Liver scarring (cirrhosis). Early research shows that taking zinc does not reduce death in people with liver scarring.
  • Colon cancer, rectal cancer. Increased intake of zinc has been linked to a 17% to 20% reduced risk of colon and rectal cancer.
  • Tooth plaque. Early evidence suggests that brushing teeth with toothpaste containing zinc reduces plaque buildup.
  • Nerve pain in people with diabetes (diabetic neuropathy). Research suggests that taking zinc sulfate improves nerve function and reduces blood sugar in people with nerve damage caused by diabetes.
  • Down syndrome. Early research suggests that taking zinc can improve immune function and reduce infections in people with Down syndrome who are zinc deficient and have weakened immune systems. But not all research agrees.
  • Seizure disorder (epilepsy). Taking zinc might reduce how often seizures occur in children not responding well to other treatments.
  • Cancer of the esophagus. Some early research has linked low intake of zinc with an increased risk of esophageal cancer. But not all research agrees.
  • Loss of bowel movement control (fecal incontinence). Research suggests that applying an ointment containing zinc and aluminum to the anus three times daily for 4 weeks improves symptoms and quality of life in women with a loss of control of bowel movements.
  • Stomach cancer. Early research shows that increased zinc intake is not linked to a lower risk of stomach cancer.
  • Head and neck cancer. Early research suggests that zinc supplementation does not improve survival rates or reduce the spread of cancer after 3 years in people with head and neck cancer.
  • Reduced brain function in people with advanced liver disease (hepatic encephalopathy). Early research suggests that taking zinc may slightly improve mental function in people with hepatic encephalopathy. However, zinc does not appear to improve disease severity or recurrence.
  • Diarrhea in people with HIV/AIDS. Taking zinc long-term might help prevent diarrhea in adults with HIV who have low blood levels of zinc. However, zinc doesn't seem to help treat diarrhea in adults with HIV-related diarrhea. In children with HIV, some research shows that taking zinc reduces the occurrence of diarrhea compared to placebo (sugar pills). But other research shows that it doesn't help prevent diarrhea compared to vitamin A.
  • Certain infections (opportunistic infections) in people with HIV/AIDS. There is some early evidence that taking zinc supplements by mouth in combination with the drug zidovudine might reduce infections that occur because of a weakened immune system. However, it might negatively affect survival in people with AIDS.
  • Infection of the intestines by parasites. Taking zinc alone or along with vitamin A might help treat some, but not all, parasite infections in children in developing countries. Also, some research suggests that taking zinc with vitamin A reduces the risk for some infections. However, other research suggests that zinc does not reduce the risk for infection.
  • Cancer of the white blood cells (leukemia). Research suggests that taking zinc by mouth helps improve weight gain and reduces infection rate in children and adolescents with leukemia. However, zinc does not appear to improve nutrient levels in the body so that the body can function properly.
  • Infants born weighing less than 2500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces). Taking zinc during pregnancy does not seem to reduce the risk of having a newborn with low birth weight. Giving zinc to underweight infants in developing countries seems to decrease the risk of death, prevent certain complications, and improve mental ability. Giving zinc supplements to low birth weight infants in industrialized countries also seems to help prevent some complications and death. But zinc doesn't appear to improve growth in low birth weight infants from industrialized countries.
  • Conditions in a man that prevent him from getting a woman pregnant within a year of trying to conceive (male infertility). Some early research suggests that zinc supplementation increases sperm count, testosterone levels, and pregnancy rates in infertile men with low testosterone levels. Other research suggests that taking zinc can improve sperm shape in men with moderate enlargement of a vein in the scrotum (grade III varicocele). However, in men with fertility problems due to diseases or medical treatment, taking zinc has produced mixed results.
  • Dark skin patches on the face (melasma). Research suggests that applying a solution containing zinc to the skin daily for 2 months is less effective than standard skin bleaching treatment for people with brown patches on the face.
  • Migraine. Early research suggests that zinc might be beneficial in migraine.
  • Heart attack. Early research shows that taking zinc twice daily for 9 months helps the heart to work better in people who have had a heart attack.
  • Cancer of the upper part of the throat behind the nose (nasopharyngeal cancer). Early research suggests that taking zinc improves survival rates after 5 years in people with a rare type of advanced nose and throat cancer.
  • Yellowing of the skin in infants (neonatal jaundice). Early research suggests that taking zinc twice daily for 7 days does not improve jaundice in newborns.
  • Injury to the brain, spine, or nerves (neurological trauma). Administering zinc immediately after a head trauma seems to improve the rate of recovery.
  • Build up of fat in the liver in people who drink little or no alcohol (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD). Taking zinc in addition to following a calorie-restricted diet does not seem to further improve NAFLD.
  • Cancer that starts in white blood cells (non-Hodgkin lymphoma). Early research suggests that zinc supplementation is linked to a decreased risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • A type of anxiety marked by recurrent thoughts and repetitive behaviors (obsessive-compulsive disorder or OCD). Early research suggests that taking zinc twice daily along with the drug fluoxetine for 8 weeks reduces OCD symptoms slightly more than taking fluoxetine alone.
  • Swelling (inflammation) and sores inside the mouth (oral mucositis). It is unclear if oral zinc prevents oral mucositis in people that receive drug treatment for cancer. But, zinc might reduce oral mucositis after radiation therapy treatment for cancer.
  • Weak and brittle bones (osteoporosis). Low zinc intake seems to be linked to lower bone mass. Taking a zinc supplement in combination with copper, manganese, and calcium might decrease bone loss in women who have passed menopause.
  • Sore throat (pharyngitis). Using a zinc lozenge before surgery that involves having a tube placed into the windpipe seems to reduce the chance of having a sore throat after surgery.
  • A hormonal disorder that causes enlarged ovaries with cysts (polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS). Some research shows that taking zinc helps prevent hair loss on the head and hair growth on the face in women with PCOS who are also taking a medication called metformin. Taking zinc does not seem to improve acne or levels of hormones in the body.
  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Zinc might improve quality of life, but not sleep, in women with PMS.
  • Swelling (inflammation) of the prostate due to infection. Taking zinc along with the drug prazosin does not seem to improve the ability to urinate or quality of life compared to taking prazosin alone in men with prostate swelling. But zinc might help to relive pain in some people with this condition.
  • Itching. Early research suggests that taking zinc twice daily for 2 months reduces itching in people with kidney disease who are experiencing itching due to dialysis treatment.
  • Seizures. Febrile seizures are seizures that occur during a fever. Taking zinc might prevent these seizures in children who already experienced one.
  • Blood infection (sepsis). Taking zinc along with antibiotics might protect the brain of newborns with sepsis. It isn't known if taking zinc can help these babies live longer.
  • Infections of the kidney, bladder, or urethra (urinary tract infections or UTIs). Early research shows that taking zinc helps to improve some symptoms of a bladder infection faster in children who are also taking antibiotics. Taking zinc might reduce how often they need to go to the bathroom. It doesn't seem to help with fever or to kill the bacteria in the bladder.
  • Wound healing. Early research suggests that applying a zinc solution twice daily improves wound healing better than a saline solution.
  • A type of inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn disease).
  • A type of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis).
  • Arsenic poisoning.
  • Athletic performance.
  • Cataracts.
  • Diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, that interfere with thinking (dementia).
  • Enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH).
  • Foot sores in people with diabetes.
  • Infection of the airways.
  • Involuntary weight loss in people with HIV/AIDS.
  • Illness from a Shigella bacteria infection (shigellosis).
  • Non-cancerous growths in the large intestine and rectum (colorectal adenoma).
  • Skin wrinkles from sun damage.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate zinc for these uses.

How does it work?

Zinc is needed for the proper growth and maintenance of the human body. It is found in several systems and biological reactions, and it is needed for immune function, wound healing, blood clotting, thyroid function, and much more. Meats, seafood, dairy products, nuts, legumes, and whole grains offer relatively high levels of zinc.

Zinc deficiency is not uncommon worldwide, but is rare in the US. Symptoms include slowed growth, low insulin levels, loss of appetite, irritability, generalized hair loss, rough and dry skin, slow wound healing, poor sense of taste and smell, diarrhea, and nausea. Moderate zinc deficiency is associated with disorders of the intestine which interfere with food absorption (malabsorption syndromes), alcoholism, chronic kidney failure, and chronic debilitating diseases.

Zinc plays a key role in maintaining vision, and it is present in high concentrations in the eye. Zinc deficiency can alter vision, and severe deficiency can cause changes in the retina (the back of the eye where an image is focused).

Zinc might also have effects against viruses. It appears to lessen symptoms of the rhinovirus (common cold), but researchers can't yet explain exactly how this works. In addition, there is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus.

Low zinc levels can be associated with male infertility, sickle cell disease, HIV, major depression, and type 2 diabetes, and can be fought by taking a zinc supplement.

Are there safety concerns?

When taken by mouth: Zinc is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth in amounts not larger than 40 mg daily. Routine zinc supplementation is not recommended without the advice of a healthcare professional. In some people, zinc might cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, metallic taste, kidney and stomach damage, and other side effects. Zinc is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in doses greater than 40 mg daily, especially when these doses are taken only for a short period of time. There is some concern that taking doses higher than 40 mg daily might decrease how much copper the body absorbs. Decreased copper absorption may cause anemia. Taking high amounts of zinc is LIKELY UNSAFE. High doses above the recommended amounts might cause fever, coughing, stomach pain, fatigue, and many other problems. Taking more than 100 mg of supplemental zinc daily or taking supplemental zinc for 10 or more years doubles the risk of developing prostate cancer. There is also concern that taking large amounts of a multivitamin plus a separate zinc supplement increases the chance of dying from prostate cancer. Taking 450 mg or more of zinc daily can cause problems with blood iron. Single doses of 10-30 grams of zinc can be fatal.

When applied to the skin: Zinc is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when applied to the skin. Using zinc on broken skin may cause burning, stinging, itching, and tingling.

When inhaled: Zinc is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when inhaled through the nose, as it might cause permanent loss of smell. In June 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advised consumers not to use certain zinc-containing nose sprays (Zicam) after receiving over 100 reports of loss of smell. The maker of these zinc-containing nose sprays has also received several hundred reports of loss of smell from people who had used the products. Avoid using nose sprays containing zinc.

Special precautions & warnings:

Infants and children: Zinc is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately in the recommended amounts. Zinc is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when used in high doses.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Zinc is LIKELY SAFE for most pregnant and breast-feeding women when used in the recommended daily amounts (RDA). However, zinc is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when used in high doses by breast-feeding women and LIKELY UNSAFE when used in high doses by pregnant women. Pregnant women over 18 should not take more than 40 mg of zinc per day; pregnant women age 14 to 18 should not take more than 34 mg per day. Breast-feeding women over 18 should not take more than 40 mg of zinc per day; breast-feeding women age 14 to 18 should not take more than 34 mg per day.

Alcoholism: Long-term, excessive alcohol drinking is linked to poor zinc absorption in the body.

Kidney disease: Low zinc in the diet increases the risk of getting kidney disease. Also, people with kidney disease on hemodialysis are at risk for zinc deficiency and might require zinc supplements.

Vegetarianism: Vegetarian diets are often linked with lower zinc absorption. So this type of diet is considered a risk factor for zinc depletion. But the body adapts over the long term. It becomes better at absorbing zinc and reducing zinc loss.

Are there interactions with medications?

Be cautious with this combination.
Antibiotics (Quinolone antibiotics)
Zinc might decrease how much antibiotic the body absorbs from the gut. Taking zinc along with some antibiotics might decrease the effectiveness of some antibiotics. To avoid this interaction, take antibiotics at least 2 hours before or 4-6 hours after zinc supplements.
Some of these antibiotics that might interact with zinc include ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gemifloxacin (Factive), levofloxacin (Levaquin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), and others.
Antibiotics (Tetracycline antibiotics)
Zinc can attach to tetracyclines in the stomach. This decreases the amount of tetracyclines that can be absorbed. Taking zinc with tetracyclines might decrease the effectiveness of tetracyclines. To avoid this interaction, take tetracyclines 2 hours before or 4-6 hours after taking zinc supplements.

Some tetracyclines include demeclocycline (Declomycin), minocycline (Minocin), and tetracycline (Achromycin, Sumycin).
Atazanavir (Reyataz)
Atazanavir (Reyataz) is a drug used for HIV infection. Zinc decreases how much atazanavir (Reyataz) the body absorbs. But the body still absorbs enough atazanavir (Reyataz) for atazanavir to work for treating HIV. So this interaction is probably not a big concern.
Cephalexin (Keflex)
Cephalexin (Keflex) is an antibiotic used to treat infections. Zinc can reduce how much cephalexin (Keflex) the body absorbs if taken at the same time or 3 hours before cephalexin (Keflex). This might decrease how well cephalexin (Keflex) works for treating infections. But taking zinc 3 hours after taking cephalexin (Keflex) doesn't affect how much cephalexin (Keflex) the body absorbs. Therefore, zinc should be taken 3 hours after taking cephalexin (Keflex).
Cisplatin (Platinol-AQ)
Cisplatin (Platinol-AQ) is used to treat cancer. Taking zinc along with EDTA and cisplatin (Platinol-AQ) might inactivate cisplatin (Platinol-AQ) therapy. It is not known for sure, though, if the amount of interference caused by zinc is significant.
Medications for HIV/AIDS (Integrase inhibitors)
Taking zinc along with integrase inhibitors might decrease blood levels of integrase inhibitors. This might decrease their effectiveness. Talk to your healthcare provider if you are using integrase inhibitors and want to start taking zinc. Integrase inhibitors include dolutegravir (Tivicay), elvitegravir (Vitekta), and raltegravir (Isentress).
Penicillamine (Cuprimine, Depen)
Penicillamine is used for Wilson disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Zinc might decrease how much penicillamine your body absorbs and decrease the effectiveness of penicillamine. Take zinc and penicillamine at least 2 hours apart.
Ritonavir (Norvir)
Ritonavir (Norvir) is a drug used for HIV infection. Zinc can reduce how much ritonavir (Norvir) the body absorbs. But this doesn't seem to decrease the effects of ritonavir very much. So this interaction is probably not a big concern.
Be watchful with this combination.
Amiloride (Midamor)
Amiloride (Midamor) is used as a "water pill" to help remove excess water from the body. Another effect of amiloride (Midamor) is that it can increase the amount of zinc in the body. Taking zinc supplements with amiloride (Midamor) might cause you to have too much zinc in your body.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

High doses of zinc can lower beta-carotene blood levels.
Metals such as zinc might reduce the effects of bromelain. However, there are no reports of this interaction.
Calcium supplements might decrease dietary zinc absorption. This usually doesn't seem to be much of a problem. However, this interaction can be avoided by taking calcium supplements at bedtime instead of with meals.
There is early evidence that chromium and zinc could each reduce the absorption of the other. This is probably not a problem when usual supplemental doses of zinc and chromium are taken.
Taking zinc with coffee can reduce how much zinc your body absorbs.
Large amounts of zinc can reduce copper absorption. Taking zinc in high doses can cause significant copper deficiency and anemia, a condition in which the blood cannot carry enough oxygen. Some signs of copper deficiency have also occurred in people taking 150 mg/day or more of zinc for 2 years.
EDTA is a chemical compound that is given to people to remove excess metals in their systems, especially lead. EDTA works by binding with (chelating) the metal. Repeated high doses of EDTA, as used in chelation treatment, can reduce blood zinc levels by up to 40%. Symptoms of zinc depletion have been reported, even when supplemental zinc (15mg/day) was given. People receiving chelation therapy should be monitored for zinc depletion.
Folic acid
Studies on the effects of folic acid supplements on dietary zinc absorption are conflicting. Normal supplemental doses of folic acid are not likely to affect zinc balance in people with adequate dietary zinc intake.
IP-6 (Phytic acid)
Phytic acid found naturally in foods can bind zinc and reduce its absorption;. howeverHowever, zinc deficiency due to high dietary phytic acid levels has not been reported in Western populations. Avoid IP-6 supplements, which contain phytic acid, if you have other risk factors for zinc deficiency.
Under some circumstances, iron and zinc can interfere with each other's absorption. To avoid this effect, take these supplements with food.
High doses of zinc supplements (142 mg/day), or high dietary zinc intake (53mg/day) seem to decrease magnesium balance. The importance of this isn't known.
Research suggests zinc supplements can more than double the amount of manganese absorbed from supplements.
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
Research suggests riboflavin can improve zinc absorption. The importance of this isn't known.
Vitamin A
Research suggests that zinc supplements can increase blood levels of vitamin A. Theoretically, zinc might increase the effects and side effects of vitamin A.
Vitamin D
Research suggests vitamin D is involved in zinc absorption, but it's not clear whether vitamin D improves zinc absorption.

Are there interactions with foods?

Caffeine-containing foods
Taking zinc sulfate with black coffee instead of water reduces zinc absorption by half. Researchers aren't sure why this happens or how important the interaction may be.
Calcium-containing foods
Calcium can decrease zinc absorption. The risk of losing too much zinc isn't significant unless lots of dairy products are consumed along with calcium supplements. However, the body adapts over the long term, becoming more efficient at absorbing zinc and reducing zinc losses.
Fiber-containing foods
Eating fiber can reduce zinc absorption. However, over time the body adapts to increased dietary fiber by increasing zinc absorption.
Phytate-containing foods
Phytate is a molecule found in grains (e.g., maize, corn, sorghum), legumes, seeds (e.g., sunflower, pumpkin), and soy. Phytate can reduce zinc absorption. Some foods with higher phytate contents also have a higher zinc content (for example, whole wheat vs. white bread), canceling out the effect in zinc absorption. Some people in Middle Eastern countries have zinc deficiencies because they eat unleavened bread and maize, which contain phytate. People in Western populations most at risk are those with diets high in unrefined grains, legumes, soy protein, and calcium, and low in animal protein. However, the body adapts over the long term, becoming more efficient at absorbing zinc and reducing zinc losses.
Protein-containing foods
Zinc binds to proteins, becoming available for absorption as the protein is digested. The type of protein influences how much zinc is absorbed. Animal proteins generally increase zinc absorption, although a protein in cow's milk slows absorption down. Soy proteins also reduce zinc absorption, possibly due to their phytate content. These effects can influence zinc balance in infants; babies get the most zinc from mother's milk, less from cow's milk, and even less from soy-based milk. It isn't known whether high-protein diets influence zinc balance in adults.

What dose is used?

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • General: Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) quantities of zinc have been established for boys and men age 14 and older, 11 mg/day; women 19 and older, 8 mg/day; pregnant women 14 to 18, 13 mg/day; pregnant women 19 and older, 11 mg/day; lactating women 14 to 18, 14 mg/day; lactating women 19 and older, 12 mg/day. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL) of zinc for people who are not receiving zinc under medical supervision: adults 19 years and older (including pregnancy and lactation), 40 mg/day. The typical North American male consumes about 13 mg/day of dietary zinc; women consume approximately 9 mg/day. Different salt forms provide different amounts of elemental zinc. Zinc sulfate contains 23% elemental zinc; 220 mg zinc sulfate contains 50 mg zinc. Zinc gluconate contains 14.3% elemental zinc; 10 mg zinc gluconate contains 1.43 mg zinc.
  • For zinc deficiency: In people with mild zinc deficiency, recommendations suggest taking two to three times the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of zinc for 6 months. In people with moderate to severe deficiency, recommendations suggest taking four to five times the RDA for 6 months.
  • For diarrhea: To prevent diarrhea in infants, pregnant women have used 15 mg of zinc, with or without 60 mg of iron and 250 mcg of folic acid, starting 10-24 weeks into pregnancy through one month after giving birth.
  • For an inherited disorder that causes copper to build up in many organs (Wilson disease): Zinc acetate (Galzin in the U.S.; Wilzin in Europe) is an FDA-approved drug for treating Wilson disease. The recommended dose, which contains 25-50 mg of zinc, is to be taken three to five times daily.
  • For acne: 30-150 mg elemental zinc daily has been used.
  • For a disorder of zinc deficiency (acrodermatitis enteropathica): Taking 2-3 mg/kg of elemental zinc daily for a lifetime is recommended for treating an inherited disorder that affects zinc uptake.
  • For an eye disease that leads to vision loss in older adults (age-related macular degeneration or AMD): A combination of 80 mg of elemental zinc, 2 mg of copper, 500 mg of vitamin C, 400 IU of vitamin E, and 15 mg of beta-carotene taken daily for 5 years has been used in people with advanced age-related vision loss.
  • For the common cold: One zinc gluconate or acetate lozenge, providing 4.5-24 mg elemental zinc, dissolved in the mouth every two hours while awake when cold symptoms are present.
  • For depression: 25 mg of elemental zinc has been used daily for 12 weeks along with antidepressant medications.
  • For diabetes:
    • For type 2 diabetes: 25 mg of zinc gluconate has been taken twice daily for 8 weeks.
    • For diabetes in pregnant women: 30 mg of zinc gluconate has been taken daily for 6 weeks.
  • For reduced ability to taste (hypogeusia): 140-450 mg of zinc gluconate has been taken in up to three divided doses daily for up to 4 months. Also, 25 mg of elemental zinc taken daily for 6 weeks has been used. A zinc-containing product called polaprezinc (Promac, Zeria Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd) has also been used.
  • For a skin infection caused by Leishmania parasites (Leishmania lesions): 2.5-10 mg/kg of zinc sulfate has been taken in three divided doses daily for 45 days.
  • For stomach ulcers: 300-900 mg of zinc acexamate has been taken in one to three divided doses daily for up to one year. Also, 220 mg of zinc sulfate has been taken three times daily for 3-6 weeks.
  • For bed sores (pressure ulcers): A standard hospital diet plus 9 grams of arginine, 500 mg of vitamin C, and 30 mg of zinc has been used daily for 3 weeks.
  • For sickle cell disease: 220 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily has been used. Also, 50-75 mg of elemental zinc taken daily in up to two divided doses for 2-3 years has been used.
  • For leg sores caused by weak blood circulation (venous leg ulcer): 220 mg of zinc sulfate taken three times daily has been used along with ulcer dressings.
  • For warts: 400-600 mg of zinc sulfate daily for 2-3 months.
  • For acne: Zinc acetate 1.2% with erythromycin 4% as a lotion applied twice daily.
  • For a mild form of gum disease (gingivitis): Toothpaste containing 0.2% to 2% zinc citrate alone or with sodium monofluorophosphate or 0.2% triclosan, have been used at least two times daily for up to 7 months. A mouth rinse containing 0.4% zinc sulfate and 0.15% triclosan has also been used.
  • For bad breath: Two zinc-containing mouth rinses called Halita and Meridol have been used as single doses or twice daily for 7 days. Candies and chewing gums containing zinc have also been used.
  • For cold sores (herpes labialis): Zinc sulfate 0.025% to 0.25% applied 8 to 10 times daily or zinc oxide 0.3% with glycine applied every 2 hours while awake has been used. Specific products containing zinc (Virudermin Gel, Robugen GmbH, SuperLysine Plus +, Quantum Health, Inc., Herpigon) have also been used.
  • For bed sores (pressure ulcers): A zinc oxide paste has applied daily along with standard care for 8-12 weeks.
  • For leg sores caused by weak blood circulation (venous leg ulcer): A paste containing zinc oxide 25% has been applied as a dressing once daily for the first 14 days of treatment and every third day thereafter for 8 weeks.
  • For warts: A zinc oxide 20% ointment has been applied twice daily for 3 months or until cured. Zinc sulfate 5% to 10% has been applied to the skin three times daily for 4 weeks.
  • For burns: An injectable solution containing 59 mcmol of copper, 4.8 mcmol of selenium, and 574 mcmol of zinc has been used for 14-21 days.
  • For reduced ability to taste (hypogeusia): A zinc solution has been added to 10 L of commercially available dialysis concentrate for 12 weeks.
  • For a skin infection caused by Leishmania parasites (Leishmania lesions): An injection of zinc sulfate 2% for 6 weeks has been used.

  • General: The Institute of Medicine has established Adequate Intake (AI) levels of zinc for infants from birth to 6 months is 2 mg/day. For older infants and children, Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) quantities of zinc have been established: infants and children 7 months to 3 years, 3 mg/day; 4 to 8 years, 5 mg/day; 9 to 13 years, 8 mg/day; girls 14 to 18 years, 9 mg/day. The Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL) of zinc for people who are not receiving zinc under medical supervision: Infants birth to 6 months, 4 mg/day; 7 to 12 months, 5 mg/day; children 1 to 3 years, 7 mg/day; 4 to 8 years, 12 mg/day; 9 to 13 years, 23 mg/day; and 14 to 18 years (including pregnancy and lactation), 34 mg/day.
  • For a disorder of zinc deficiency (acrodermatitis enteropathica): Taking 2-3 mg/kg of elemental zinc daily for a lifetime is recommended for treating an inherited disorder that affects zinc uptake.
  • For an eating disorder (anorexia nervosa): 14-50 mg of elemental zinc has been used daily.
  • For attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): 55-150 mg of zinc sulfate containing 15-40 mg of elemental zinc has been taken daily for 6-12 weeks.
  • For the common cold: One lozenge containing 10-23 mg of zinc gluconate, dissolved in the mouth every two hours has been used for up to 10 days. A syrup containing 15 mg of zinc has also been used twice daily for up to 10 days.
  • For diaper rash: 10 mg of zinc has been taken daily from the first or second day of life until 4 months of age.
  • For diarrhea: 10-40 mg of elemental zinc has been taken daily for 7-15 days to treat diarrhea in malnourished or zinc-deficient children.
  • For a skin infection caused by Leishmania parasites (Leishmania lesions): 2.5-10 mg/kg of zinc sulfate taken in three divided doses daily has been used for 45 days.
  • For pneumonia: In developing countries, 10-70 mg of elemental zinc has been taken daily in undernourished children aged 3 months to 5 years. Also, 2 mg/kg of zinc sulfate has been taken daily in two divided doses for 5 days.
  • For sickle cell disease: 10 mg of elemental zinc has been taken daily for one year in children 4-10 years of age. Also, 15 mg of elemental zinc has been taken twice daily for one year in boys aged 14-18 years.
  • For leg sores caused by weak blood circulation (venous leg ulcer): 220 mg of zinc sulfate has been used three times daily along with ulcer dressings.
  • For vitamin A deficiency: 20 mg of elemental zinc has been taken daily for 14 days, with 200,000 IU of vitamin A on day 14, has been used in children 1-3 years of age.
  • For acne: Zinc acetate 1.2% with erythromycin 4% as a lotion applied twice daily for 12-40 weeks.
  • For diaper rash: A zinc oxide paste containing allantoin 0.5%, cod liver oil 17%, and zinc oxide 47% has been used for 5 days.
  • For skin infection caused by Leishmania parasites (Leishmania lesions): An injection of zinc sulfate 2% for 6 weeks has been used.

Other names

Acétate de Zinc, Acexamate de Zinc, Aspartate de Zinc, Atomic Number 30, Chelated Zinc, Chlorure de Zinc, Citrate de Zinc, Gluconate de Zinc, Méthionine de Zinc, Monométhionine de Zinc, Numéro Atomique 30, Orotate de Zinc, Oxyde de Zinc, Picolinate de Zinc, Polaprezinc, Pyrithione de Zinc, Sulfate de Zinc, Zinc Acetate, Zinc Acetylmethionate, Zinc Acexamate, Zinc Aspartate, Zinc carbobenzoxy-beta-alanyltaurinate , Zinc Chelate, Zinc Chloride, Zinc Citrate, Zinc Difumarate Hydrate, Zinc Gluconate, Zinc Glycinate, Zinc Methionine, Zinc Monomethionine, Zinc Murakab, Zinc Nicotinate, Zinc Orotate, Zinc Oxide, Zinc Picolinate, Zinc Pyrithione, Zinc Sulfate, Zinc Sulphate, Zincum Aceticum, Zincum Gluconicum, Zincum Metallicum, Zincum Valerianicum, Zn.


To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.


  1. Hosseini R, Ferns GA, Sahebkar A, Mirshekar MA, Jalali M. Zinc supplementation is associated with a reduction in serum markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Cytokine 2021 Feb;138:155396. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2020.155396. View abstract.
  2. Jafari A, Noormohammadi Z, Askari M, Daneshzad E. Zinc supplementation and immune factors in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 Dec 24:1-19. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2020.1862048. View abstract.
  3. Elfarargy MS, Al-Ashmawy G, Abu-Risha S, Khattab H. Zinc supplementation in preterm neonates with late-onset sepsis: is it beneficial? Am J Perinatol 2020 Dec 7. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1721659. View abstract.
  4. Abd-Elsalam S, Soliman S, Esmail ES, et al. Do zinc supplements enhance the clinical efficacy of hydroxychloroquine? A randomized, multicenter trial. Biol Trace Elem Res 2020 Nov 27:1-5. doi: 10.1007/s12011-020-02512-1. View abstract.
  5. Sajedi F, Shahshahani S, Ghiasvand H, Mosallanezhad Z, Fatollahierad S. Does zinc with and without iron co-supplementation have effect on motor and mental development of children? A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Pediatr 2020;20:451. View abstract.
  6. Gutiérrez-Vargas R, Villasis-Keever MÁ, Portilla-Robertson J, et al. Effect of zinc on oropharyngeal mucositis in children with acute leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2020;25:e791-8. View abstract.
  7. Khera D, Singh S, Purohit P, Sharma P, Singh K. Prevalence of zinc deficiency and the effect of zinc supplementation on the prevention of acute respiratory infections. Turk Thorac J 2020;21:371-6. View abstract.
  8. Khoshnevisasl P, Sadeghzadeh M, Kamali K, Moeinian M. Effect of zinc on hyperbilirubinemia of newborns, a randomized double blinded clinical trial. Curr Health Sci J 2020;46:250-4. View abstract.
  9. Thomas S, Patel D, Bittel B, et al. Effect of High-Dose Zinc and Ascorbic Acid Supplementation vs Usual Care on Symptom Length and Reduction Among Ambulatory Patients With SARS-CoV-2 Infection: The COVID A to Z Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4:e210369. View abstract.
  10. Wang X, Wu W, Zheng W, et al. Zinc supplementation improves glycemic control for diabetes prevention and management: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019 Jul 1;110:76-90. View abstract.
  11. Wilkinson EAJ. Oral zinc for arterial and venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;2014:CD001273. View abstract.
  12. Yosaee S, Clark CCT, Keshtkaran Z, Ashourpour M, Keshani P, Soltani S. Zinc in depression: From development to treatment: A comparative/ dose response meta-analysis of observational studies and randomized controlled trials. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2020:S0163-834330114-6. View abstract.
  13. Yee BE, Richards P, Sui JY, Marsch AF. Serum zinc levels and efficacy of zinc treatment in acne vulgaris: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Dermatol Ther. 2020:e14252. View abstract.
  14. Nagraj SK, George RP, Shetty N, Levenson D, Ferraiolo DM, Shrestha A. Interventions for managing taste disturbances. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Dec 20;12:CD010470. View abstract.
  15. Tan HK, Streeter A, Cramp ME, Dhanda AD. Effect of zinc treatment on clinical outcomes in patients with liver cirrhosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. World J Hepatol. 2020;12:389-398. View abstract.
  16. Ota E, Mori R, Middleton P, et al. Zinc supplementation for improving pregnancy and infant outcome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;2015:CD000230. View abstract.
  17. Mousavi SM, Mofrad MD, do Nascimento IJB, Milajerdi A, Mokhtari T, Esmaillzadeh A. The effect of zinc supplementation on blood pressure: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials. Eur J Nutr. 2020;59:1815-1827. View abstract.
  18. Joo YS, Kim HW, Lee S, et al. Dietary zinc intake and incident chronic kidney disease. Clin Nutr. 2020;S0261-561430352-6. View abstract.
  19. Jafari F, Tarrahi MJ, Farhang A, Amani R. Effect of zinc supplementation on quality of life and sleep quality in young women with premenstrual syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2020;302:657-664. View abstract.
  20. Ghorbani A, Akbari J, Boorboor M, Nekoukar Z, Eslami G. Evaluation of zinc sulfate mucoadhesive formulation on recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. BMC Oral Health. 2020;20:212. View abstract.
  21. Lassi ZS, Moin A, Bhutta ZA. Zinc supplementation for the prevention of pneumonia in children aged 2 months to 59 months. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;12:CD005978. View abstract.
  22. Fathi M, Alavinejad P, Haidari Z, Amani R. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Steatosis Severity and Liver Function Enzymes in Overweight/Obese Patients with Mild to Moderate Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Following Calorie-Restricted Diet: a Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2020;197:394-404. View abstract.
  23. Dhingra U, Kisenge R, Sudfeld CR, et al. Lower-Dose Zinc for Childhood Diarrhea - A Randomized, Multicenter Trial. N Engl J Med. 2020;383:1231-1241. View abstract.
  24. da Silva LEM, de Santana MLP, Costa PRF, et al. Zinc supplementation combined with antidepressant drugs for treatment of patients with depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Rev. 2021; 79:1-12. View abstract.
  25. Chi WJ, Myers JN, Frank SJ, et al. The effects of zinc on radiation-induced dysgeusia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Support Care Cancer. 2020;28:1-12. View abstract.
  26. Brown N, Kukka AJ, Mårtensson A. Efficacy of zinc as adjunctive pneumonia treatment in children aged 2 to 60 months in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Paediatr Open. 2020;4:e000662. View abstract.
  27. Asbaghi O, Sadeghian M, Fouladvand F, et al. Effects of zinc supplementation on lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2020;30:1260-1271. View abstract.
  28. Ahmadi H, Mazloumi-Kiapey SS, Sadeghi O, et al. Zinc supplementation affects favorably the frequency of migraine attacks: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Nutr J. 2020;19:101. View abstract.
  29. Schisterman EF, Sjaarda LA, Clemons T, et al. Effect of folic acid and zinc supplementation in men on semen quality and live birth among couples undergoing infertility treatment: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2020;323:35-48. View abstract.
  30. Yoshikawa F, Nakajima T, Hanada M, et al. Beneficial effect of polaprezinc on cardiac function post-myocardial infarction: A prospective and randomized clinical trial. Medicine (Baltimore) 2019;98:e14637. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000014637. View abstract.
  31. Suliburska J, Skrypnik K, Szulinska M, Kupsz J, Markuszewski L, Bogdanski P. Diuretics, Ca-Antagonists, and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Affect Zinc Status in Hypertensive Patients on Monotherapy: A Randomized Trial. Nutrients. 2018;10. View abstract.
  32. Sturman N, Deckx L, van Driel ML. Methylphenidate for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Nov 21;11:CD011144. View abstract.
  33. Rambod M, Pasyar N, Ramzi M. The effect of zinc sulfate on prevention, incidence, and severity of mucositis in leukemia patients undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Oncol Nurs 2018;33:14-21. View abstract.
  34. Howie S, Bottomley C, Chimah O, et al. Zinc as an adjunct therapy in the management of severe pneumonia among Gambian children: randomized controlled trial. Glob Health 2018;8:010418. View abstract.
  35. Zahiri Sorouri Z, Sadeghi H, Pourmarzi D. The effect of zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcome: a randomized controlled trial. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016;29:2194-8. View abstract.
  36. Ribeiro SMF, Braga CBM, Peria FM, Martinez EZ, Rocha JJRD, Cunha SFC. Effects of zinc supplementation on fatigue and quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2017;15:24-28. View abstract.
  37. Mathur NB, Agarwal DK. Zinc Supplementation in Preterm Neonates and Neurological Development, A Randomized Controlled Trial. Indian Pediatr. 2015;52:951-5. View abstract.
  38. Li Z, Li B, Song X, Zhang D. Dietary zinc and iron intake and risk of depression: A meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res. 2017;251:41-47. View abstract.
  39. Farhang B, Grondin L. The Effect of Zinc Lozenge on Postoperative Sore Throat: A Prospective Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study. Anesth Analg. 2018;126:78-83. View abstract.
  40. Bredholt M, Frederiksen JL. Zinc in Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. ASN Neuro. 2016;8. View abstract.
  41. Yousefichaijan P, Naziri M, Taherahmadi H, Kahbazi M, Tabaei A. Zinc supplementation in treatment of children with urinary tract infection. Iran J Kidney Dis. 2016;10:213-6. View abstract.
  42. Tie HT, Tan Q, Luo MZ, Li Q, Yu JL, Wu QC. Zinc as an adjunct to antibiotics for the treatment of severe pneumonia in children <5 years: a meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2016;115:807-16. View abstract.
  43. Sharma G, Lodha R, Shastri S, et al. Zinc supplementation for one year among children with cystic fibrosis does not decrease pulmonary infection. Respir Care. 2016;61:78-84. View abstract.
  44. Saad K, El-Houfey AA, Abd El-Hamed MA, El-Asheer OM, Al-Atram AA, Tawfeek MS. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of the efficacy of treatment with zinc in children with intractable epilepsy. Funct Neurol. 2015;30:181-5. View abstract.
  45. Newton B, Bhat BV, Dhas BB, Mondal N, Gopalakrishna SM. Effect of zinc supplementation on early outcome of neonatal sepsis--A randomized controlled trial. Indian J Pediatr. 2016;83:289-93. View abstract.
  46. Mahyar A, Ayazi P, Ahmadi NK, et al. Zinc sulphate for acute bronchiolitis: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Infez Med. 2016;24:331-336. View abstract.
  47. Mahmoud AM, Al-Alem U, Dabbous F, et al. Zinc intake and risk of prostate cancer: Case-control study and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2016;11:e0165956. View abstract.
  48. Lazzerini M, Wanzira H. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;12:CD005436. View abstract.
  49. Karamali M, Heidarzadeh Z, Seifati SM, et al. Zinc supplementation and the effects on pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2016;124:28-33. View abstract.
  50. Karamali M, Heidarzadeh Z, Seifati SM, et al. Zinc supplementation and the effects on metabolic status in gestational diabetes: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Diabetes Complications. 2015;29:1314-9. View abstract.
  51. Jamilian M, Foroozanfard F, Bahmani F, Talaee R, Monavari M, Asemi Z. Effects of zinc supplementation on endocrine outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016;170:271-8. View abstract.
  52. Fallah R, Sabbaghzadegan S, Karbasi SA, Binesh F. Efficacy of zinc sulfate supplement on febrile seizure recurrence prevention in children with normal serum zinc level: A randomised clinical trial. Nutrition. 2015;31(11-12):1358-61. View abstract.
  53. Ding Y, Jia YY, Li F, et al. The effect of staggered administration of zinc sulfate on the pharmacokinetics of oral cephalexin. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2012 Mar;73:422-7. View abstract.
  54. Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents: Drug Interactions between Integrase Inhibitors and Other Drugs. AIDSinfo. July 14, 2016. Available at: https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/html/1/adult-and-adolescent-arv-guidelines/287/insti-drug-interactions. (Accessed: 4/12/2017).
  55. Jalloh MA, Gregory PJ, Hein D, et al. Dietary supplement interactions with antiretrovirals: a systematic review. Int J STD AIDS. 2017 Jan;28:4-15. View abstract.
  56. AAO Retina/Vitreous PPP Panel, Hoskins Center for Quality Eye Care. Age-Related Macular Degeneration PPP - Updated 2015. www.aao.org/preferred-practice-pattern/age-related-macular-degeneration-ppp-2015. Accessed 11 November 2016.
  57. Chew EY1, Klein ML2, Clemons TE3, Agrón E4, Abecasis GR5. Genetic testing in persons with age-related macular degeneration and the use of the AREDS supplements: to test or not to test? Ophthalmology. 2015 Jan;122:212-5. View abstract.
  58. Wittes J, Musch DC. Should we test for genotype in deciding on age-related eye disease study supplementation? Ophthalmology. 2015 Jan;122:3-5. View abstract.
  59. Bonelli L, Puntoni M, Gatteschi B, et al. Antioxidant supplement and long-term reduction of recurrent adenomas of the large bowel. A double-blind randomized trial. J Gastroenterol 2013;48:698-705. View abstract.
  60. Hemilä H, Petrus EJ, Fitzgerald JT, Prasad A. Zinc acetate lozenges for treating the common cold: an individual patient data meta-analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Jul 5. View abstract.
  61. Lalles J-P.Intestinal alkaline phosphatase: multiple biological roles in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and modulation by diet. Nutr Rev. 2010;68:323-332. View abstract.
  62. Zittel S, Ufer F, Gerloff C, Münchau A, Rosenkranz M. Severe myelopathy after denture cream use--is copper deficiency or excess zinc the cause? Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2014 Jun;121:17-8. View abstract.
  63. Yousefi A, Khani Khoozani Z, Zakerzadeh Forooshani S, Omrani N, Moini AM, Eskandari Y. Is topical zinc effective in the treatment of melasma? A double-blind randomized comparative study. Dermatol Surg. 2014 Jan;40:33-7. View abstract.
  64. Terrin G, Berni Canani R, Passariello A, Messina F, Conti MG, Caoci S, Smaldore A, Bertino E, De Curtis M. Zinc supplementation reduces morbidity and mortality in very-low-birth-weight preterm neonates: a hospital-based randomized, placebo-controlled trial in an industrialized country. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Dec;98:1468-74. View abstract.
  65. Swe KM, Abas AB, Bhardwaj A, Barua A, Nair NS. Zinc supplements for treating thalassaemia and sickle cell disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jun 28;6:CD009415. View abstract.
  66. Swardfager W, Herrmann N, Mazereeuw G, Goldberger K, Harimoto T, Lanctôt KL. Zinc in depression: a meta-analysis. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Dec 15;74:872-8. View abstract.
  67. Sheqwara J, Alkhatib Y. Sideroblastic anemia secondary to zinc toxicity. Blood. 2013 Jul 18;122:311. View abstract.
  68. Sayyah M, Olapour A, Saeedabad Ys, Yazdan Parast R, Malayeri A. Evaluation of oral zinc sulfate effect on obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Nutrition. 2012 Sep;28:892-5. View abstract.
  69. Ranjbar E, Shams J, Sabetkasaei M, M-Shirazi M, Rashidkhani B, Mostafavi A, Bornak E, Nasrollahzadeh J. Effects of zinc supplementation on efficacy of antidepressant therapy, inflammatory cytokines, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with major depression. Nutr Neurosci. 2014 Feb;17:65-71. View abstract.
  70. Qiao L, Feng Y. Intakes of heme iron and zinc and colorectal cancer incidence: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Jun;24:1175-83. View abstract.
  71. Pinedo G, Zarate AJ, Inostroza G, Meneses X, Falloux E, Molina O, Molina ME, Bellolio F, Zúñiga A. New treatment for faecal incontinence using zinc-aluminium ointment: a double-blind randomized trial. Colorectal Dis. 2012 May;14:596-8. View abstract.
  72. Najafabadi MM, Faghihi G, Emami A, Monghad M, Moeenzadeh F, Sharif N, Davarpanah Jazi AH. Zinc sulfate for relief of pruritus in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Ther Apher Dial. 2012 Apr;16:142-5. View abstract.
  73. Moyle G, Else L, Jackson A, Back D, Yapa MH, Seymour N, Ringner-Nackter L, Karolia Z, Gazzard B, Boffito M. Coadministration of atazanavir-ritonavir and zinc sulfate: impact on hyperbilirubinemia and pharmacokinetics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Aug;57:3640-4. View abstract.
  74. Mansouri A, Hadjibabaie M, Iravani M, Shamshiri AR, Hayatshahi A, Javadi MR, Khoee SH, Alimoghaddam K, Ghavamzadeh A. The effect of zinc sulfate in the prevention of high-dose chemotherapy-induced mucositis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Hematol Oncol. 2012 Mar;30:22-6. View abstract.
  75. Lyckholm L, Heddinger SP, Parker G, Coyne PJ, Ramakrishnan V, Smith TJ, Henkin RI. A randomized, placebo controlled trial of oral zinc for chemotherapy-related taste and smell disorders. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2012 Jun;26:111-4. View abstract.
  76. Li P, Xu J, Shi Y, Ye Y, Chen K, Yang J, Wu Y. Association between zinc intake and risk of digestive tract cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Nutr. 2014 Jun;33:415-20. View abstract.
  77. Kumar A, Bagri NK, Basu S, Asthana RK. Zinc supplementation for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: a randomized controlled trial. Indian Pediatr. 2014 May;51:375-8. View abstract.
  78. Goodarzi D, Cyrus A, Baghinia MR, Kazemifar AM, Shirincar M. The efficacy of zinc for treatment of chronic prostatitis. Acta Med Indones. 2013 Oct;45:259-64. View abstract.
  79. Gogia S, Sachdev HS. Zinc supplementation for mental and motor development in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Dec 12;12:CD007991. View abstract.
  80. Fung EB, Kwiatkowski JL, Huang JN, Gildengorin G, King JC, Vichinsky EP. Zinc supplementation improves bone density in patients with thalassemia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Oct;98:960-71. View abstract.
  81. Dadamio J, Van Tournout M, Teughels W, Dekeyser C, Coucke W, Quirynen M. Efficacy of different mouthrinse formulations in reducing oral malodour: a randomized clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol. 2013 May;40:505-13. View abstract.
  82. Crown LA, May JA. Zinc toxicity: denture adhesives, bone marrow failure and polyneuropathy. Tenn Med. 2012 Feb;105:39-40, 42. View abstract.
  83. Consolo LZ, Melnikov P, Cônsolo FZ, Nascimento VA, Pontes JC. Zinc supplementation in children and adolescents with acute leukemia. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Oct;67:1056-9. View abstract.
  84. Chavez-Tapia NC, Cesar-Arce A, Barrientos-Gutiérrez T, Villegas-López FA, Méndez-Sanchez N, Uribe M. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the use of oral zinc in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Nutr J. 2013 Jun 6;12:74. View abstract.
  85. Gibson RS. A historical review of progress in the assessment of dietary zinc intake as an indicator of population zinc status. Adv Nutr. 2012 Nov 1;3:772-82. View abstract.
  86. Basnet S, Shrestha PS, Sharma A, Mathisen M, Prasai R, Bhandari N, Adhikari RK, Sommerfelt H, Valentiner-Branth P, Strand TA; Zinc Severe Pneumonia Study Group. A randomized controlled trial of zinc as adjuvant therapy for severe pneumonia in young children. Pediatrics. 2012 Apr;129:701-8. View abstract.
  87. Barak S, Katz J. The effect of Breezy candy on halitosis: a double-blind, controlled, and randomized study. Quintessence Int. 2012 Apr;43:313-7. View abstract.
  88. Bamford JT, Gessert CE, Haller IV, Kruger K, Johnson BP. Randomized, double-blind trial of 220 mg zinc sulfate twice daily in the treatment of rosacea. Int J Dermatol. 2012 Apr;51:459-62. View abstract.
  89. Azizollahi G, Azizollahi S, Babaei H, Kianinejad M, Baneshi MR, Nematollahi-mahani SN. Effects of supplement therapy on sperm parameters, protamine content and acrosomal integrity of varicocelectomized subjects. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2013;30:593-9. View abstract.
  90. Awh CC, Hawken S, Zanke BW. Treatment response to antioxidants and zinc based on CFH and ARMS2 genetic risk allele number in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 2015 Jan;122:162-9. View abstract.
  91. Attia EA, Belal DM, El Samahy MH, El Hamamsy MH. A pilot trial using topical regular crystalline insulin vs. aqueous zinc solution for uncomplicated cutaneous wound healing: Impact on quality of life. Wound Repair Regen. 2014 Jan-Feb;22:52-7. View abstract.
  92. Arbabi-kalati F, Arbabi-kalati F, Deghatipour M, Ansari Moghadam A. Evaluation of the efficacy of zinc sulfate in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced mucositis: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Arch Iran Med. 2012 Jul;15:413-7. View abstract.
  93. Akhavan S, Mohammadi SR, Modarres Gillani M, Mousavi AS, Shirazi M. Efficacy of combination therapy of oral zinc sulfate with imiquimod, podophyllin or cryotherapy in the treatment of vulvar warts. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2014 Oct;40:2110-3. View abstract.
  94. Chew EY, Clemons TE, Agrón E, Sperduto RD, Sangiovanni JP, Kurinij N, Davis MD; Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. Long-term effects of vitamins C and E, ß-carotene, and zinc on age-related macular degeneration: AREDS report no. 35. Ophthalmology. 2013 Aug;120:1604-11.e4. View abstract.
  95. Roy, S. K., Tornkins, A. M., Haider, R., Akramuzzaman, S. M., Behren, R. H., and Mahalanabis, D. Impact of zinc supplementation on subsequent growth and morbidity in children presenting with persistent diarrhoea syndrome (PDS) in Bangladesh [Abstract]. 1994;
  96. Roy, S. K., Tomkins, A. M., Haider, R., Akramuzzaman, S. M., and Behrens, R. Impact of zinc supplementation on subsequent growth and morbidity in Bangladeshi children with acute diarrhoea [abstract]. 1991;
  97. Khatun, U. H. F. Impact of zinc and vitamin A supplementation in malnourished hospitalized children suffering from persistent diarrhoea. PhD thesis. The University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 1998;
  98. Shankar, A. H., Genton, B., Tamja, S., Arnold, S., and Wu, L. Zinc Supplementation can Reduce Malaria-Related Morbidity in Preschool Children. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1997;57(3 Suppl/1):434.
  99. Hidayat, A., Achadi, A., Sunoto, and Soedarmo, S. P. THe effect of zinc sulfate supplementation in children under three years of age with acute diarrhea in Indonesia. Med J Indonesia 1998;7:237-241.
  100. Nachnani, S. Reduction of oral malodor with Zinc containing Chewing gum(abstract). J Dent Res 1999;78
  101. DeCook, C. A. and Hirsch, A. R. Anosmia due to inhalational zinc: a case report (abstract). Chem Senses 2000;25:659.
  102. Bosch, F. and Jimenez, E. Post-marketing surveillance of zinc acexamate in peptic ulcer treatment. Clin Trials J 1990;27:301-312.
  103. Varas Lorenzo, M. J. Zinc acexamate and ranitidine in the short- and mid-term management of gastroduodenal ulcers. Curr Ther Res 21986;39:19-29.
  104. Roy, S. K., Tomkins, A. M., Mahalanabis, D., Akramuzzaman, S. M., Haider, R., Behrens, R. H., and Fuchs, G. Impact of zinc supplementation on persistent diarrhoea in malnourished Bangladeshi children. Acta Paediatr. 1998;87:1235-1239. View abstract.
  105. Marchesini, G., Bugianesi, E., Ronchi, M., Flamia, R., Thomaseth, K., and Pacini, G. Zinc supplementation improves glucose disposal in patients with cirrhosis. Metabolism 1998;47:792-798. View abstract.
  106. Sazawal, S., Black, R. E., Jalla, S., Mazumdar, S., Sinha, A., and Bhan, M. K. Zinc supplementation reduces the incidence of acute lower respiratory infections in infants and preschool children: a double-blind, controlled trial. Pediatrics 1998;102(1 Pt 1):1-5. View abstract.
  107. Meeks, Gardner J., Witter, M. M., and Ramdath, D. D. Zinc supplementation: effects on the growth and morbidity of undernourished Jamaican children. Eur.J Clin Nutr 1998;52:34-39. View abstract.
  108. Sazawal, S., Jalla, S., Mazumder, S., Sinha, A., Black, R. E., and Bhan, M. K. Effect of zinc supplementation on cell-mediated immunity and lymphocyte subsets in preschool children. Indian Pediatr. 1997;34:589-597. View abstract.
  109. Jackson, J. L., Peterson, C., and Lesho, E. A meta-analysis of zinc salts lozenges and the common cold. Arch.Intern.Med 11-10-1997;157:2373-2376. View abstract.
  110. Sazawal, S., Black, R. E., Bhan, M. K., Jalla, S., Sinha, A., and Bhandari, N. Efficacy of zinc supplementation in reducing the incidence and prevalence of acute diarrhea--a community-based, double-blind, controlled trial. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1997;66:413-418. View abstract.
  111. Fairbrother, K. J., Kowolik, M. J., Curzon, M. E., Muller, I., McKeown, S., Hill, C. M., Hannigan, C., Bartizek, R. D., and White, D. J. The comparative clinical efficacy of pyrophosphate/triclosan, copolymer/triclosan and zinc citrate/triclosan dentifrices for the reduction of supragingival calculus formation. J.Clin.Dent. 1997;8(2 Spec No):62-66. View abstract.
  112. Fjellner, B. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus aggravated by oral zinc therapy. Acta Derm.Venereol. 1979;59:368-370. View abstract.
  113. Zinc lozenges reduce the duration of common cold symptoms. Nutr.Rev. 1997;55:82-85. View abstract.
  114. Ruel, M. T., Rivera, J. A., Santizo, M. C., Lonnerdal, B., and Brown, K. H. Impact of zinc supplementation on morbidity from diarrhea and respiratory infections among rural Guatemalan children. Pediatrics 1997;99:808-813. View abstract.
  115. Friis, H., Ndhlovu, P., Mduluza, T., Kaondera, K., Sandstrom, B., Michaelsen, K. F., Vennervald, B. J., and Christensen, N. O. The impact of zinc supplementation on Schistosoma mansoni reinfection rate and intensities: a randomized, controlled trial among rural Zimbabwean schoolchildren. Eur.J Clin Nutr 1997;51:33-37. View abstract.
  116. Esmaeli, B., Burnstine, M. A., Martonyi, C. L., Sugar, A., Johnson, V., and Brewer, G. J. Regression of Kayser-Fleischer rings during oral zinc therapy: correlation with systemic manifestations of Wilson's disease. Cornea 1996;15:582-588. View abstract.
  117. Trubiani, O., Antonucci, A., Palka, G., and Di Primio, R. Programmed cell death of peripheral myeloid precursor cells in Down patients: effect of zinc therapy. Ultrastruct.Pathol. 1996;20:457-462. View abstract.
  118. Ninh, N. X., Thissen, J. P., Collette, L., Gerard, G., Khoi, H. H., and Ketelslegers, J. M. Zinc supplementation increases growth and circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in growth-retarded Vietnamese children. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1996;63:514-519. View abstract.
  119. Bates, C. J., Evans, P. H., Dardenne, M., Prentice, A., Lunn, P. G., Northrop-Clewes, C. A., Hoare, S., Cole, T. J., Horan, S. J., Longman, S. C., and . A trial of zinc supplementation in young rural Gambian children. Br.J.Nutr. 1993;69:243-255. View abstract.
  120. Hinojosa, J., Prosper, M., Primo, J., and Moles, J. R. [The effect of a single nighttime dose of zinc acexamate (ZAC) on basal and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric secretion]. Rev Esp.Enferm.Dig. 1993;83:55-56. View abstract.
  121. Scholl, T. O., Hediger, M. L., Schall, J. I., Fischer, R. L., and Khoo, C. S. Low zinc intake during pregnancy: its association with preterm and very preterm delivery. Am.J Epidemiol. 5-15-1993;137:1115-1124. View abstract.
  122. Lang, C. J., Rabas-Kolominsky, P., Engelhardt, A., Kobras, G., and Konig, H. J. Fatal deterioration of Wilson's disease after institution of oral zinc therapy. Arch Neurol. 1993;50:1007-1008. View abstract.
  123. Kajanachumpol, S., Srisurapanon, S., Supanit, I., Roongpisuthipong, C., and Apibal, S. Effect of zinc supplementation on zinc status, copper status and cellular immunity in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus. J Med Assoc Thai 1995;78:344-349. View abstract.
  124. Castillo-Duran, C., Rodriguez, A., Venegas, G., Alvarez, P., and Icaza, G. Zinc supplementation and growth of infants born small for gestational age. J.Pediatr. 1995;127:206-211. View abstract.
  125. Golik, A., Cohen, N., Ramot, Y., Maor, J., Moses, R., Weissgarten, J., Leonov, Y., and Modai, D. Type II diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, and zinc metabolism. Biol.Trace Elem.Res 1993;39(2-3):171-175. View abstract.
  126. Balogh, Z., El-Ghobarey, A. F., Fell, G. S., Brown, D. H., Dunlop, J., and Dick, W. C. Plasma zinc and its relationship to clinical symptoms and drug treatment in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann.Rheum.Dis. 1980;39:329-332. View abstract.
  127. Netter, A., Hartoma, R., and Nahoul, K. Effect of zinc administration on plasma testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and sperm count. Arch Androl 1981;7:69-73. View abstract.
  128. Addy, M., Richards, J., and Williams, G. Effects of a zinc citrate mouthwash on dental plaque and salivary bacteria. J.Clin.Periodontol. 1980;7:309-315. View abstract.
  129. Zetin, M. and Stone, R. A. Effects of zinc in chronic hemodialysis. Clin Nephrol. 1980;13:20-25. View abstract.
  130. Duchateau, J., Delepesse, G., Vrijens, R., and Collet, H. Beneficial effects of oral zinc supplementation on the immune response of old people. Am.J.Med. 1981;70:1001-1004. View abstract.
  131. Mattingly, P. C. and Mowat, A. G. Zinc sulphate in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann.Rheum.Dis. 1982;41:456-457. View abstract.
  132. Prasad, A. S. and Cossack, Z. T. Zinc supplementation and growth in sickle cell disease. Ann Intern Med 1984;100:367-371. View abstract.
  133. Dahl, H., Norskov, K., Peitersen, E., and Hilden, J. Zinc therapy of acetazolamide-induced side-effects. Acta Ophthalmol.(Copenh) 1984;62:739-745. View abstract.
  134. Sprenger, K. B., Schmitz, J., Hetzel, D., Bundschu, D., and Franz, H. E. Zinc and sexual dysfunction. Contrib.Nephrol. 1984;38:119-128. View abstract.
  135. Demetree, J. W., Safer, L. F., and Artis, W. M. The effect of zinc on the sebum secretion rate. Acta Derm.Venereol. 1980;60:166-169. View abstract.
  136. Reding, P., Duchateau, J., and Bataille, C. Oral zinc supplementation improves hepatic encephalopathy. Results of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 9-1-1984;2:493-495. View abstract.
  137. Murphy, J. V. Intoxication following ingestion of elemental zinc. JAMA 6-22-1970;212:2119-2120. View abstract.
  138. Voorhees, J. J., Chakrabarti, S. G., Botero, F., Miedler, L., and Harrell, E. R. Zinc therapy and distribution in psoriasis. Arch.Dermatol. 1969;100:669-673. View abstract.
  139. Aamodt, R. L., Rumble, W. F., Johnston, G. S., Foster, D., and Henkin, R. I. Zinc metabolism in humans after oral and intravenous administration of Zn-69m. Am J Clin Nutr 1979;32:559-569. View abstract.
  140. Serjeant, G. R., Galloway, R. E., and Gueri, M. C. Oral zinc sulphate in sickle-cell ulcers. Lancet 10-31-1970;2:891-892. View abstract.
  141. Brocks, A., Reid, H., and Glazer, G. Acute intravenous zinc poisoning. Br.Med J 5-28-1977;1:1390-1391. View abstract.
  142. Agren, M. S. and Stromberg, H. E. Topical treatment of pressure ulcers. A randomized comparative trial of Varidase and zinc oxide. Scand.J.Plast.Reconstr.Surg. 1985;19:97-100. View abstract.
  143. Graham, R. M., James, M. P., and Bennett, S. Low concentration zinc sulphate solution in the management of recurrent herpes simplex infection. Br.J.Dermatol. 1985;112:123-124. View abstract.
  144. Arcasoy, A., Cavdar, A., Cin, S., Erten, J., Babacan, E., Gozdasoglu, S., and Akar, N. Effects of zinc supplementation on linear growth in beta-thalassemia (a new approach). Am J Hematol. 1987;24:127-136. View abstract.
  145. Hill, G. M., Brewer, G. J., Juni, J. E., Prasad, A. S., and Dick, R. D. Treatment of Wilson's disease with zinc. II. Validation of oral 64copper with copper balance. Am J Med Sci 1986;292:344-349. View abstract.
  146. Weismann, K., Christensen, E., and Dreyer, V. Zinc supplementation in alcoholic cirrhosis. A double-blind clinical trial. Acta Med Scand. 1979;205:361-366. View abstract.
  147. Mathe, G., Blazsek, I., Canon, C., Gil-Delgado, M., and Misset, J. L. From experimental to clinical attempts in immunorestoration with bestatin and zinc. Comp Immunol.Microbiol.Infect.Dis. 1986;9(2-3):241-252. View abstract.
  148. Morgan, A. A. Bleeding gastric erosion after oral zinc sulphate. Br.Med.J. 5-13-1978;1:1283-1284. View abstract.
  149. Hustead, V. A., Greger, J. L., and Gutcher, G. R. Zinc supplementation and plasma concentration of vitamin A in preterm infants. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1988;47:1017-1021. View abstract.
  150. Samman, S. and Roberts, D. C. The effect of zinc supplements on lipoproteins and copper status. Atherosclerosis 1988;70:247-252. View abstract.
  151. Shah, D. R., Singh, P. P., Gupta, R. C., and Bhandari, T. K. Effect of oral zinc sulphate on serum lipids and lipoproteins in human subjects. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1988;32:47-50. View abstract.
  152. Cochran, R. J., Tucker, S. B., and Flannigan, S. A. Topical zinc therapy for acne vulgaris. Int.J Dermatol. 1985;24:188-190. View abstract.
  153. Sachdev, H. P., Mittal, N. K., Mittal, S. K., and Yadav, H. S. A controlled trial on utility of oral zinc supplementation in acute dehydrating diarrhea in infants. J Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr 1988;7:877-881. View abstract.
  154. Franceschi, C., Chiricolo, M., Licastro, F., Zannotti, M., Masi, M., Mocchegiani, E., and Fabris, N. Oral zinc supplementation in Down's syndrome: restoration of thymic endocrine activity and of some immune defects. J Ment.Defic.Res 1988;32 ( Pt 3):169-181. View abstract.
  155. Alcala-Santaella, R., Castellanos, D., Velo, J. L., and Gonzalez, Lara, V. Zinc acexamate in treatment of duocenal ulcer. Lancet 7-20-1985;2:157. View abstract.
  156. Collipp, P. J. Effect of oral zinc supplements on diaper rash in normal infants. J Med Assoc.Ga 1989;78:621-623. View abstract.
  157. Lockitch, G., Puterman, M., Godolphin, W., Sheps, S., Tingle, A. J., and Quigley, G. Infection and immunity in Down syndrome: a trial of long-term low oral doses of zinc. J.Pediatr. 1989;114:781-787. View abstract.
  158. Rebello, T., Atherton, D. J., and Holden, C. The effect of oral zinc administration on sebum free fatty acids in acne vulgaris. Acta Derm.Venereol. 1986;66:305-310. View abstract.
  159. Bogden, J. D., Oleske, J. M., Lavenhar, M. A., Munves, E. M., Kemp, F. W., Bruening, K. S., Holding, K. J., Denny, T. N., Guarino, M. A., and Holland, B. K. Effects of one year of supplementation with zinc and other micronutrients on cellular immunity in the elderly. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 1990;9:214-225. View abstract.
  160. Grattan, B. J. and Freake, H. C. Zinc and cancer: implications for LIV-1 in breast cancer. Nutrients. 2012;4:648-675. View abstract.
  161. Lazzerini, M. and Ronfani, L. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;6:CD005436. View abstract.
  162. Gulani, A. and Sachdev, H. S. Zinc supplements for preventing otitis media. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;4:CD006639. View abstract.
  163. Haider, B. A., Lassi, Z. S., Ahmed, A., and Bhutta, Z. A. Zinc supplementation as an adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of pneumonia in children 2 to 59 months of age. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2011;:CD007368. View abstract.
  164. Zeng, L. and Zhang, L. Efficacy and safety of zinc supplementation for adults, children and pregnant women with HIV infection: systematic review. Trop.Med.Int Health 2011;16:1474-1482. View abstract.
  165. Valavi, E., Hakimzadeh, M., Shamsizadeh, A., Aminzadeh, M., and Alghasi, A. The efficacy of zinc supplementation on outcome of children with severe pneumonia. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Indian J Pediatr. 2011;78:1079-1084. View abstract.
  166. Dutta, P., Mitra, U., Dutta, S., Naik, T. N., Rajendran, K., and Chatterjee, M. K. Zinc, vitamin A, and micronutrient supplementation in children with diarrhea: a randomized controlled clinical trial of combination therapy versus monotherapy. J Pediatr. 2011;159:633-637. View abstract.
  167. Patel, A. B., Mamtani, M., Badhoniya, N., and Kulkarni, H. What zinc supplementation does and does not achieve in diarrhea prevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC.Infect.Dis. 2011;11:122. View abstract.
  168. Yakoob, M. Y., Theodoratou, E., Jabeen, A., Imdad, A., Eisele, T. P., Ferguson, J., Jhass, A., Rudan, I., Campbell, H., Black, R. E., and Bhutta, Z. A. Preventive zinc supplementation in developing countries: impact on mortality and morbidity due to diarrhea, pneumonia and malaria. BMC.Public Health 2011;11 Suppl 3:S23. View abstract.
  169. Dalgic, N., Sancar, M., Bayraktar, B., Pullu, M., and Hasim, O. Probiotic, zinc and lactose-free formula in children with rotavirus diarrhea: are they effective? Pediatr.Int 2011;53:677-682. View abstract.
  170. Simonart, T. and de, Maertelaer, V. Systemic treatments for cutaneous warts: a systematic review. J Dermatolog.Treat. 2012;23:72-77. View abstract.
  171. Patro, B., Szymanski, H., and Szajewska, H. Oral zinc for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in Polish children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Pediatr. 2010;157:984-988. View abstract.
  172. Vecchio, M., Navaneethan, S. D., Johnson, D. W., Lucisano, G., Graziano, G., Querques, M., Saglimbene, V., Ruospo, M., Bonifati, C., Jannini, E. A., and Strippoli, G. F. Treatment options for sexual dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:985-995. View abstract.
  173. Hu, D., Sreenivasan, P. K., Zhang, Y. P., and De, Vizio W. The effects of a zinc citrate dentifrice on bacteria found on oral surfaces. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2010;8:47-53. View abstract.
  174. Baum, M. K., Lai, S., Sales, S., Page, J. B., and Campa, A. Randomized, controlled clinical trial of zinc supplementation to prevent immunological failure in HIV-infected adults. Clin Infect.Dis. 6-15-2010;50:1653-1660. View abstract.
  175. Patel, A., Mamtani, M., Dibley, M. J., Badhoniya, N., and Kulkarni, H. Therapeutic value of zinc supplementation in acute and persistent diarrhea: a systematic review. PLoS.One. 2010;5:e10386. View abstract.
  176. Bao, B., Prasad, A. S., Beck, F. W., Fitzgerald, J. T., Snell, D., Bao, G. W., Singh, T., and Cardozo, L. J. Zinc decreases C-reactive protein, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory cytokines in elderly subjects: a potential implication of zinc as an atheroprotective agent. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:1634-1641. View abstract.
  177. Walker, C. L. and Black, R. E. Zinc for the treatment of diarrhoea: effect on diarrhoea morbidity, mortality and incidence of future episodes. Int J Epidemiol. 2010;39 Suppl 1:i63-i69. View abstract.
  178. Sheikh, A., Shamsuzzaman, S., Ahmad, S. M., Nasrin, D., Nahar, S., Alam, M. M., Al, Tarique A., Begum, Y. A., Qadri, S. S., Chowdhury, M. I., Saha, A., Larson, C. P., and Qadri, F. Zinc influences innate immune responses in children with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-induced diarrhea. J Nutr 2010;140:1049-1056. View abstract.
  179. Hambidge, K. M., Miller, L. V., Westcott, J. E., Sheng, X., and Krebs, N. F. Zinc bioavailability and homeostasis. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:1478S-1483S. View abstract.
  180. Segreto, V. A., Collins, E. M., D'Agostino, R., Cancro, L. P., Pfeifer, H. J., and Gilbert, R. J. Anticalculus effect of a dentifrice containing 0.5% zinc citrate trihydrate. Community Dent.Oral Epidemiol. 1991;19:29-31. View abstract.
  181. Gutierrez, Castrellon P., Polanco, Allue, I, and Salazar, Lindo E. [An evidence based Iberic-Latin American guideline for acute gastroenteritis management in infants and prescholars]. An.Pediatr.(Barc.) 2010;72:220. View abstract.
  182. Foster, M., Petocz, P., and Samman, S. Effects of zinc on plasma lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in humans: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Atherosclerosis 2010;210:344-352. View abstract.
  183. Grimwood, K. and Forbes, D. A. Acute and persistent diarrhea. Pediatr Clin North Am 2009;56:1343-1361. View abstract.
  184. Brandrup, F., Menne, T., Agren, M. S., Stromberg, H. E., Holst, R., and Frisen, M. A randomized trial of two occlusive dressings in the treatment of leg ulcers. Acta Derm.Venereol 1990;70:231-235. View abstract.
  185. Cereda, E., Gini, A., Pedrolli, C., and Vanotti, A. Disease-specific, versus standard, nutritional support for the treatment of pressure ulcers in institutionalized older adults: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr.Soc 2009;57:1395-1402. View abstract.
  186. Taneja, S., Bhandari, N., Rongsen-Chandola, T., Mahalanabis, D., Fontaine, O., and Bhan, M. K. Effect of zinc supplementation on morbidity and growth in hospital-born, low-birth-weight infants. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:385-391. View abstract.
  187. Rashidi, A. A., Salehi, M., Piroozmand, A., and Sagheb, M. M. Effects of zinc supplementation on serum zinc and C-reactive protein concentrations in hemodialysis patients. J Ren Nutr 2009;19:475-478. View abstract.
  188. Patel, A., Dibley, M. J., Mamtani, M., Badhoniya, N., and Kulkarni, H. Zinc and copper supplementation in acute diarrhea in children: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. BMC.Med 2009;7:22. View abstract.
  189. Lin, Y. S., Lin, L. C., and Lin, S. W. Effects of zinc supplementation on the survival of patients who received concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: follow-up of a double-blind randomized study with subgroup analysis. Laryngoscope 2009;119:1348-1352. View abstract.
  190. Tang, Y., Yang, Q., Lu, J., Zhang, X., Suen, D., Tan, Y., Jin, L., Xiao, J., Xie, R., Rane, M., Li, X., and Cai, L. Zinc supplementation partially prevents renal pathological changes in diabetic rats. J Nutr Biochem. 2010;21:237-246. View abstract.
  191. Siwek, M., Dudek, D., Paul, I. A., Sowa-Kucma, M., Zieba, A., Popik, P., Pilc, A., and Nowak, G. Zinc supplementation augments efficacy of imipramine in treatment resistant patients: a double blind, placebo-controlled study. J Affect.Disord. 2009;118(1-3):187-195. View abstract.
  192. Holtkamp, W., Brodersen, H. P., Thiery, J., Falkner, C., Bolzius, R., Larbig, D., and Reis, H. E. [Effect of zinc substitution on lymphocyte subsets and cellular immune function in hemodialysis patients]. Klin.Wochenschr. 6-18-1991;69:392-396. View abstract.
  193. Lin, S. F., Wei, H., Maeder, D., Franklin, R. B., and Feng, P. Profiling of zinc-altered gene expression in human prostate normal vs. cancer cells: a time course study. J Nutr Biochem. 2009;20:1000-1012. View abstract.
  194. Fajolu, I. B., Emokpae, A., Oduwole, A. O., Silva, B. O., Abidoye, R. O., and Renner, J. K. Zinc supplementation in children with acute diarrhoea. Nig.Q.J Hosp.Med. 2008;18:101-103. View abstract.
  195. Sakagami, M., Ikeda, M., Tomita, H., Ikui, A., Aiba, T., Takeda, N., Inokuchi, A., Kurono, Y., Nakashima, M., Shibasaki, Y., and Yotsuya, O. A zinc-containing compound, Polaprezinc, is effective for patients with taste disorders: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center study. Acta Otolaryngol. 11-26-2008;1-6. View abstract.
  196. Riggio, O., Ariosto, F., Merli, M., Caschera, M., Zullo, A., Balducci, G., Ziparo, V., Pedretti, G., Fiaccadori, F., Bottari, E., and . Short-term oral zinc supplementation does not improve chronic hepatic encephalopathy. Results of a double-blind crossover trial. Dig.Dis.Sci 1991;36:1204-1208. View abstract.
  197. Sandstead, H. H., Prasad, A. S., Penland, J. G., Beck, F. W., Kaplan, J., Egger, N. G., Alcock, N. W., Carroll, R. M., Ramanujam, V. M., Dayal, H. H., Rocco, C. D., Plotkin, R. A., and Zavaleta, A. N. Zinc deficiency in Mexican American children: influence of zinc and other micronutrients on T cells, cytokines, and antiinflammatory plasma proteins. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;88:1067-1073. View abstract.
  198. Larson, C. P., Roy, S. K., Khan, A. I., Rahman, A. S., and Qadri, F. Zinc treatment to under-five children: applications to improve child survival and reduce burden of disease. J Health Popul.Nutr 2008;26:356-365. View abstract.
  199. Bellamy, P. G., Jhaj, R., Mussett, A. J., Barker, M. L., Klukowska, M., and White, D. J. Comparison of a stabilized stannous fluoride/sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice and a zinc citrate dentifrice on plaque formation measured by digital plaque imaging (DPIA) with white light illumination. J Clin Dent. 2008;19:48-54. View abstract.
  200. Winch, P. J., Gilroy, K. E., Doumbia, S., Patterson, A. E., Daou, Z., Diawara, A., Swedberg, E., Black, R. E., and Fontaine, O. Operational issues and trends associated with the pilot introduction of zinc for childhood diarrhoea in Bougouni district, Mali. J Health Popul.Nutr 2008;26:151-162. View abstract.
  201. Lazzerini, M. and Ronfani, L. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;:CD005436. View abstract.
  202. Iannotti, L. L., Zavaleta, N., Leon, Z., Shankar, A. H., and Caulfield, L. E. Maternal zinc supplementation and growth in Peruvian infants. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;88:154-160. View abstract.
  203. Hunt, J. R., Beiseigel, J. M., and Johnson, L. K. Adaptation in human zinc absorption as influenced by dietary zinc and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:1336-1345. View abstract.
  204. Chung, C. S., Stookey, J., Dare, D., Welch, R., Nguyen, T. Q., Roehl, R., Peerson, J. M., King, J. C., and Brown, K. H. Current dietary zinc intake has a greater effect on fractional zinc absorption than does longer term zinc consumption in healthy adult men. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:1224-1229. View abstract.
  205. Bhandari, N., Mazumder, S., Taneja, S., Dube, B., Agarwal, R. C., Mahalanabis, D., Fontaine, O., Black, R. E., and Bhan, M. K. Effectiveness of zinc supplementation plus oral rehydration salts compared with oral rehydration salts alone as a treatment for acute diarrhea in a primary care setting: a cluster randomized trial. Pediatrics 2008;121:e1279-e1285. View abstract.
  206. Stabile, A., Pesaresi, M. A., Stabile, A. M., Pastore, M., Sopo, S. M., Ricci, R., Celestini, E., and Segni, G. Immunodeficiency and plasma zinc levels in children with Down's syndrome: a long-term follow-up of oral zinc supplementation. Clin Immunol.Immunopathol. 1991;58:207-216. View abstract.
  207. Lukacik, M., Thomas, R. L., and Aranda, J. V. A meta-analysis of the effects of oral zinc in the treatment of acute and persistent diarrhea. Pediatrics 2008;121:326-336. View abstract.
  208. Abdulhamid, I., Beck, F. W., Millard, S., Chen, X., and Prasad, A. Effect of zinc supplementation on respiratory tract infections in children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr.Pulmonol. 2008;43:281-287. View abstract.
  209. Roy, S. K., Hossain, M. J., Khatun, W., Chakraborty, B., Chowdhury, S., Begum, A., Mah-e-Muneer, Shafique, S., Khanam, M., and Chowdhury, R. Zinc supplementation in children with cholera in Bangladesh: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2-2-2008;336:266-268. View abstract.
  210. Lin, L. C., Que, J., Lin, K. L., Leung, H. W., Lu, C. L., and Chang, C. H. Effects of zinc supplementation on clinical outcomes in patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancers: a double-blinded randomized study. Int J Radiat.Oncol Biol Phys 2-1-2008;70:368-373. View abstract.
  211. Long, K. Z., Rosado, J. L., Montoya, Y., de Lourdes, Solano M., Hertzmark, E., DuPont, H. L., and Santos, J. I. Effect of vitamin A and zinc supplementation on gastrointestinal parasitic infections among Mexican children. Pediatrics 2007;120:e846-e855. View abstract.
  212. Dimitropoulou, P., Nayee, S., Liu, J. F., Demetriou, L., van, Tongeren M., Hepworth, S. J., and Muir, K. R. Dietary zinc intake and brain cancer in adults: a case-control study. Br J Nutr 2008;99:667-673. View abstract.
  213. Varas Lorenzo, M. J., Lopez, Martinez A., Gordillo, Bernal J., and Mundet, Surroca J. [Comparative study of 3 drugs (aceglutamide aluminum, zinc acexamate, and magaldrate) in the long-term maintenance treatment (1 year) of peptic ulcer]. Rev.Esp.Enferm.Dig. 1991;80:91-94. View abstract.
  214. Koehler, K., Parr, M. K., Geyer, H., Mester, J., and Schanzer, W. Serum testosterone and urinary excretion of steroid hormone metabolites after administration of a high-dose zinc supplement. Eur.J Clin Nutr 2009;63:65-70. View abstract.
  215. Sharquie, K. E., Khorsheed, A. A., and Al-Nuaimy, A. A. Topical zinc sulphate solution for treatment of viral warts. Saudi.Med.J 2007;28:1418-1421. View abstract.
  216. Roy, S. K., Tomkins, A. M., Akramuzzaman, S. M., Chakraborty, B., Ara, G., Biswas, R., Islam, K. E., Khatun, W., and Jolly, S. P. Impact of zinc supplementation on subsequent morbidity and growth in Bangladeshi children with persistent diarrhoea. J Health Popul.Nutr. 2007;25:67-74. View abstract.
  217. Fischer Walker, C. L. and Black, R. E. Micronutrients and diarrheal disease. Clin Infect.Dis. 7-15-2007;45 Suppl 1:S73-S77. View abstract.
  218. Roy, S. K., Raqib, R., Khatun, W., Azim, T., Chowdhury, R., Fuchs, G. J., and Sack, D. A. Zinc supplementation in the management of shigellosis in malnourished children in Bangladesh. Eur J Clin Nutr 2008;62:849-855. View abstract.
  219. Tremellen, K., Miari, G., Froiland, D., and Thompson, J. A randomised control trial examining the effect of an antioxidant (Menevit) on pregnancy outcome during IVF-ICSI treatment. Aust.N.Z.J Obstet.Gynaecol. 2007;47:216-221. View abstract.
  220. Gregorio, G. V., Dans, L. F., Cordero, C. P., and Panelo, C. A. Zinc supplementation reduced cost and duration of acute diarrhea in children. J Clin Epidemiol. 2007;60:560-566. View abstract.
  221. Berger, M. M., Baines, M., Raffoul, W., Benathan, M., Chiolero, R. L., Reeves, C., Revelly, J. P., Cayeux, M. C., Senechaud, I., and Shenkin, A. Trace element supplementation after major burns modulates antioxidant status and clinical course by way of increased tissue trace element concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:1293-1300. View abstract.
  222. Khattar, J. A., Musharrafieh, U. M., Tamim, H., and Hamadeh, G. N. Topical zinc oxide vs. salicylic acid-lactic acid combination in the treatment of warts. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46:427-430. View abstract.
  223. Sazawal, S., Black, R. E., Ramsan, M., Chwaya, H. M., Dutta, A., Dhingra, U., Stoltzfus, R. J., Othman, M. K., and Kabole, F. M. Effect of zinc supplementation on mortality in children aged 1-48 months: a community-based randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 3-17-2007;369:927-934. View abstract.
  224. Walker, C. L., Bhutta, Z. A., Bhandari, N., Teka, T., Shahid, F., Taneja, S., and Black, R. E. Zinc during and in convalescence from diarrhea has no demonstrable effect on subsequent morbidity and anthropometric status among infants <6 mo of age. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:887-894. View abstract.
  225. Safai-Kutti, S., Selin, E., Larsson, S., Jagenburg, R., Denfors, I., Sten, G., and Kjellmer, I. Zinc therapy in children with cystic fibrosis. Beitr.Infusionsther. 1991;27:104-114. View abstract.
  226. Mei, W., Dong, Z. M., Liao, B. L., and Xu, H. B. Study of immune function of cancer patients influenced by supplemental zinc or selenium-zinc combination. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 1991;28:11-19. View abstract.
  227. Ellis, A. A., Winch, P., Daou, Z., Gilroy, K. E., and Swedberg, E. Home management of childhood diarrhoea in southern Mali--implications for the introduction of zinc treatment. Soc Sci Med 2007;64:701-712. View abstract.
  228. Lu, H., Cai, L., Mu, L. N., Lu, Q. Y., Zhao, J., Cui, Y., Sul, J. H., Zhou, X. F., Ding, B. G., Elashoff, R. M., Marshall, J., Yu, S. Z., Jiang, Q. W., and Zhang, Z. F. Dietary mineral and trace element intake and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in a Chinese population. Nutr Cancer 2006;55:63-70. View abstract.
  229. Fischer Walker, C. L., Bhutta, Z. A., Bhandari, N., Teka, T., Shahid, F., Taneja, S., and Black, R. E. Zinc supplementation for the treatment of diarrhea in infants in Pakistan, India and Ethiopia. J Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr 2006;43:357-363. View abstract.
  230. Sachdev, H. P., Mittal, N. K., and Yadav, H. S. Oral zinc supplementation in persistent diarrhoea in infants. Ann.Trop.Paediatr. 1990;10:63-69. View abstract.
  231. Carcamo, C., Hooton, T., Weiss, N. S., Gilman, R., Wener, M. H., Chavez, V., Meneses, R., Echevarria, J., Vidal, M., and Holmes, K. K. Randomized controlled trial of zinc supplementation for persistent diarrhea in adults with HIV-1 infection. J Acquir.Immune.Defic.Syndr. 10-1-2006;43:197-201. View abstract.
  232. Kelemen, L. E., Cerhan, J. R., Lim, U., Davis, S., Cozen, W., Schenk, M., Colt, J., Hartge, P., and Ward, M. H. Vegetables, fruit, and antioxidant-related nutrients and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a National Cancer Institute-Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based case-control study. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83:1401-1410. View abstract.
  233. Kristensen, M. B., Hels, O., Morberg, C. M., Marving, J., Bugel, S., and Tetens, I. Total zinc absorption in young women, but not fractional zinc absorption, differs between vegetarian and meat-based diets with equal phytic acid content. Br.J Nutr 2006;95:963-967. View abstract.
  234. Larson, C. P., Hoque, A. B., Larson, C. P., Khan, A. M., and Saha, U. R. Initiation of zinc treatment for acute childhood diarrhoea and risk for vomiting or regurgitation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Health Popul.Nutr. 2005;23:311-319. View abstract.
  235. Awasthi, S. Zinc supplementation in acute diarrhea is acceptable, does not interfere with oral rehydration, and reduces the use of other medications: a randomized trial in five countries. J Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr 2006;42:300-305. View abstract.
  236. Green, J. A., Lewin, S. R., Wightman, F., Lee, M., Ravindran, T. S., and Paton, N. I. A randomised controlled trial of oral zinc on the immune response to tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients. Int J Tuberc.Lung Dis. 2005;9:1378-1384. View abstract.
  237. Eby, G. A. and Halcomb, W. W. Ineffectiveness of zinc gluconate nasal spray and zinc orotate lozenges in common-cold treatment: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Altern.Ther.Health Med 2006;12:34-38. View abstract.
  238. Villamor, E., Aboud, S., Koulinska, I. N., Kupka, R., Urassa, W., Chaplin, B., Msamanga, G., and Fawzi, W. W. Zinc supplementation to HIV-1-infected pregnant women: effects on maternal anthropometry, viral load, and early mother-to-child transmission. Eur.J Clin Nutr. 2006;60:862-869. View abstract.
  239. Boran, P., Tokuc, G., Vagas, E., Oktem, S., and Gokduman, M. K. Impact of zinc supplementation in children with acute diarrhoea in Turkey. Arch.Dis.Child 2006;91:296-299. View abstract.
  240. Sheng, X. Y., Hambidge, K. M., Krebs, N. F., Lei, S., Westcott, J. E., and Miller, L. V. Dysprosium as a nonabsorbable fecal marker in studies of zinc homeostasis. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;82:1017-1023. View abstract.
  241. Brooks, W. A., Santosham, M., Naheed, A., Goswami, D., Wahed, M. A., Diener-West, M., Faruque, A. S., and Black, R. E. Effect of weekly zinc supplements on incidence of pneumonia and diarrhoea in children younger than 2 years in an urban, low-income population in Bangladesh: randomised controlled trial. Lancet 9-17-2005;366:999-1004. View abstract.
  242. Brooks, W. A., Santosham, M., Roy, S. K., Faruque, A. S., Wahed, M. A., Nahar, K., Khan, A. I., Khan, A. F., Fuchs, G. J., and Black, R. E. Efficacy of zinc in young infants with acute watery diarrhea. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;82:605-610. View abstract.
  243. Moran, J., Newcombe, R. G., Wright, P., Haywood, J., Marlow, I., and Addy, M. A study into the plaque-inhibitory activity of experimental toothpaste formulations containing antimicrobial agents. J Clin Periodontol. 2005;32:841-845. View abstract.
  244. Patel, A. B., Dhande, L. A., and Rawat, M. S. Therapeutic evaluation of zinc and copper supplementation in acute diarrhea in children: double blind randomized trial. Indian Pediatr 2005;42:433-442. View abstract.
  245. Cameron, J., Hoffman, D., Wilson, J., and Cherry, G. Comparison of two peri-wound skin protectants in venous leg ulcers: a randomised controlled trial. J Wound Care 2005;14:233-236. View abstract.
  246. Valery, P. C., Torzillo, P. J., Boyce, N. C., White, A. V., Stewart, P. A., Wheaton, G. R., Purdie, D. M., Wakerman, J., and Chang, A. B. Zinc and vitamin A supplementation in Australian Indigenous children with acute diarrhoea: a randomised controlled trial. Med J Aust. 5-16-2005;182:530-535. View abstract.
  247. Taneja, S., Bhandari, N., Bahl, R., and Bhan, M. K. Impact of zinc supplementation on mental and psychomotor scores of children aged 12 to 18 months: a randomized, double-blind trial. J Pediatr 2005;146:506-511. View abstract.
  248. Fine, D. H., Furgang, D., Sinatra, K., Charles, C., McGuire, A., and Kumar, L. D. In vivo antimicrobial effectiveness of an essential oil-containing mouth rinse 12 h after a single use and 14 days' use. J Clin Periodontol. 2005;32:335-340. View abstract.
  249. Firooz, A., Khatami, A., Khamesipour, A., Nassiri-Kashani, M., Behnia, F., Nilforoushzadeh, M., Pazoki-Toroudi, H., and Dowlati, Y. Intralesional injection of 2% zinc sulfate solution in the treatment of acute old world cutaneous leishmaniasis: a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. J Drugs Dermatol 2005;4:73-79. View abstract.
  250. Weimar, V. M., Puhl, S. C., Smith, W. H., and tenBroeke, J. E. Zinc sulfate in acne vulgaris. Arch.Dermatol. 1978;114:1776-1778. View abstract.
  251. Jafek, B. W., Linschoten, M. R., and Murrow, B. W. Anosmia after intranasal zinc gluconate use. Am J Rhinol. 2004;18:137-141. View abstract.
  252. Iraji, F., Vali, A., Asilian, A., Shahtalebi, M. A., and Momeni, A. Z. Comparison of intralesionally injected zinc sulfate with meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis. Dermatology 2004;209:46-49. View abstract.
  253. Nowak, G., Siwek, M., Dudek, D., Zieba, A., and Pilc, A. Effect of zinc supplementation on antidepressant therapy in unipolar depression: a preliminary placebo-controlled study. Pol.J Pharmacol. 2003;55:1143-1147. View abstract.
  254. Moore, R. Bleeding gastric erosion after oral zinc sulphate. Br.Med J 3-25-1978;1:754. View abstract.
  255. Ertekin, M. V., Koc, M., Karslioglu, I., and Sezen, O. Zinc sulfate in the prevention of radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis: a prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Int.J.Radiat.Oncol.Biol.Phys. 1-1-2004;58:167-174. View abstract.
  256. Bhatnagar, S., Bahl, R., Sharma, P. K., Kumar, G. T., Saxena, S. K., and Bhan, M. K. Zinc with oral rehydration therapy reduces stool output and duration of diarrhea in hospitalized children: a randomized controlled trial. J Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr 2004;38:34-40. View abstract.
  257. Sur, D., Gupta, D. N., Mondal, S. K., Ghosh, S., Manna, B., Rajendran, K., and Bhattacharya, S. K. Impact of zinc supplementation on diarrheal morbidity and growth pattern of low birth weight infants in kolkata, India: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, community-based study. Pediatrics 2003;112(6 Pt 1):1327-1332. View abstract.
  258. Polat, T. B., Uysalol, M., and Cetinkaya, F. Efficacy of zinc supplementation on the severity and duration of diarrhea in malnourished Turkish children. Pediatr Int 2003;45:555-559. View abstract.
  259. McElroy, B. H. and Miller, S. P. An open-label, single-center, phase IV clinical study of the effectiveness of zinc gluconate glycine lozenges (Cold-Eeze) in reducing the duration and symptoms of the common cold in school-aged subjects. Am.J.Ther. 2003;10:324-329. View abstract.
  260. Gupta, D. N., Mondal, S. K., Ghosh, S., Rajendran, K., Sur, D., and Manna, B. Impact of zinc supplementation on diarrhoeal morbidity in rural children of West Bengal, India. Acta Paediatr. 2003;92:531-536. View abstract.
  261. Orbak, R., Cicek, Y., Tezel, A., and Dogru, Y. Effects of zinc treatment in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Dent.Mater.J. 2003;22:21-29. View abstract.
  262. Al Sonboli, N., Gurgel, R. Q., Shenkin, A., Hart, C. A., and Cuevas, L. E. Zinc supplementation in Brazilian children with acute diarrhoea. Ann.Trop.Paediatr. 2003;23:3-8. View abstract.
  263. Osendarp, S. J., Santosham, M., Black, R. E., Wahed, M. A., van Raaij, J. M., and Fuchs, G. J. Effect of zinc supplementation between 1 and 6 mo of life on growth and morbidity of Bangladeshi infants in urban slums. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:1401-1408. View abstract.
  264. Bahl, R., Bhandari, N., Saksena, M., Strand, T., Kumar, G. T., Bhan, M. K., and Sommerfelt, H. Efficacy of zinc-fortified oral rehydration solution in 6- to 35-month-old children with acute diarrhea. J Pediatr. 2002;141:677-682. View abstract.
  265. Chevalier, C. A., Liepa, G., Murphy, M. D., Suneson, J., Vanbeber, A. D., Gorman, M. A., and Cochran, C. The effects of zinc supplementation on serum zinc and cholesterol concentrations in hemodialysis patients. J Ren Nutr 2002;12:183-189. View abstract.
  266. Bhandari, N., Bahl, R., Taneja, S., Strand, T., Molbak, K., Ulvik, R. J., Sommerfelt, H., and Bhan, M. K. Substantial reduction in severe diarrheal morbidity by daily zinc supplementation in young north Indian children. Pediatrics 2002;109:e86. View abstract.
  267. Strand, T. A., Chandyo, R. K., Bahl, R., Sharma, P. R., Adhikari, R. K., Bhandari, N., Ulvik, R. J., Molbak, K., Bhan, M. K., and Sommerfelt, H. Effectiveness and efficacy of zinc for the treatment of acute diarrhea in young children. Pediatrics 2002;109:898-903. View abstract.
  268. Fontaine, O. Effect of zinc supplementation on clinical course of acute diarrhoea. J Health Popul.Nutr. 2001;19:339-346. View abstract.
  269. Dreno, B., Moyse, D., Alirezai, M., Amblard, P., Auffret, N., Beylot, C., Bodokh, I., Chivot, M., Daniel, F., Humbert, P., Meynadier, J., and Poli, F. Multicenter randomized comparative double-blind controlled clinical trial of the safety and efficacy of zinc gluconate versus minocycline hydrochloride in the treatment of inflammatory acne vulgaris. Dermatology 2001;203:135-140. View abstract.
  270. Khatun, U. H., Malek, M. A., Black, R. E., Sarkar, N. R., Wahed, M. A., Fuchs, G., and Roy, S. K. A randomized controlled clinical trial of zinc, vitamin A or both in undernourished children with persistent diarrhea in Bangladesh. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90:376-380. View abstract.
  271. Shankar, A. H., Genton, B., Baisor, M., Paino, J., Tamja, S., Adiguma, T., Wu, L., Rare, L., Bannon, D., Tielsch, J. M., West, K. P., Jr., and Alpers, M. P. The influence of zinc supplementation on morbidity due to Plasmodium falciparum: a randomized trial in preschool children in Papua New Guinea. Am.J.Trop.Med.Hyg. 2000;62:663-669. View abstract.
  272. Sharquie, K. E., Najim, R. A., Farjou, I. B., and Al Timimi, D. J. Oral zinc sulphate in the treatment of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clin.Exp.Dermatol. 2001;26:21-26. View abstract.
  273. Gupta, R., Garg, V. K., Mathur, D. K., and Goyal, R. K. Oral zinc therapy in diabetic neuropathy. J Assoc.Physicians India 1998;46:939-942. View abstract.
  274. Dutta, P., Mitra, U., Datta, A., Niyogi, S. K., Dutta, S., Manna, B., Basak, M., Mahapatra, T. S., and Bhattacharya, S. K. Impact of zinc supplementation in malnourished children with acute watery diarrhoea. J Trop.Pediatr. 2000;46:259-263. View abstract.
  275. Castilla-Higuero, L., Romero-Gomez, M., Suarez, E., and Castro, M. Acute hepatitis after starting zinc therapy in a patient with presymptomatic Wilson's disease. Hepatology 2000;32(4 Pt 1):877. View abstract.
  276. Munoz, E. C., Rosado, J. L., Lopez, P., Furr, H. C., and Allen, L. H. Iron and zinc supplementation improves indicators of vitamin A status of Mexican preschoolers. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2000;71:789-794. View abstract.
  277. Arad, A., Mimouni, D., Ben Amitai, D., Zeharia, A., and Mimouni, M. Efficacy of topical application of eosin compared with zinc oxide paste and corticosteroid cream for diaper dermatitis. Dermatology 1999;199:319-322. View abstract.
  278. Al-Bader, A., Omu, A. E., and Dashti, H. Chronic cadmium toxicity to sperm of heavy cigarette smokers: immunomodulation by zinc. Arch Androl 1999;43:135-140. View abstract.
  279. Mocchegiani, E., Muzzioli, M., Gaetti, R., Veccia, S., Viticchi, C., and Scalise, G. Contribution of zinc to reduce CD4+ risk factor for 'severe' infection relapse in aging: parallelism with HIV. Int.J.Immunopharmacol. 1999;21:271-281. View abstract.
  280. Liang, J. Y., Liu, Y. Y., Zou, J., Franklin, R. B., Costello, L. C., and Feng, P. Inhibitory effect of zinc on human prostatic carcinoma cell growth. Prostate 8-1-1999;40:200-207. View abstract.
  281. Bhutta, Z. A., Nizami, S. Q., and Isani, Z. Zinc supplementation in malnourished children with persistent diarrhea in Pakistan. Pediatrics 1999;103:e42. View abstract.
  282. Humphreys, E. H., Smith, N. A., Azman, H., McLeod, D., and Rutherford, G. W. Prevention of diarrhoea in children with HIV infection or exposure to maternal HIV infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;:CD008563. View abstract.
  283. Luabeya, K. K., Mpontshane, N., Mackay, M., Ward, H., Elson, I., Chhagan, M., Tomkins, A., Van den Broeck, J., and Bennish, M. L. Zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementation to reduce diarrhea and respiratory disease in South African children: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS.One. 2007;2:e541. View abstract.
  284. Bobat, R., Coovadia, H., Stephen, C., Naidoo, K. L., McKerrow, N., Black, R. E., and Moss, W. J. Safety and efficacy of zinc supplementation for children with HIV-1 infection in South Africa: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 11-26-2005;366:1862-1867. View abstract.
  285. Rahman, M. M., Vermund, S. H., Wahed, M. A., Fuchs, G. J., Baqui, A. H., and Alvarez, J. O. Simultaneous zinc and vitamin A supplementation in Bangladeshi children: randomised double blind controlled trial. BMJ 8-11-2001;323:314-318. View abstract.
  286. Rahman, M. J., Sarker, P., Roy, S. K., Ahmad, S. M., Chisti, J., Azim, T., Mathan, M., Sack, D., Andersson, J., and Raqib, R. Effects of zinc supplementation as adjunct therapy on the systemic immune responses in shigellosis. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:495-502. View abstract.
  287. Brewer, G. J., Johnson, V., Dick, R. D., Kluin, K. J., Fink, J. K., and Brunberg, J. A. Treatment of Wilson disease with ammonium tetrathiomolybdate. II. Initial therapy in 33 neurologically affected patients and follow-up with zinc therapy. Arch Neurol. 1996;53:1017-1025. View abstract.
  288. Rosado, J. L., Lopez, P., Munoz, E., Martinez, H., and Allen, L. H. Zinc supplementation reduced morbidity, but neither zinc nor iron supplementation affected growth or body composition of Mexican preschoolers. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1997;65:13-19. View abstract.
  289. Lind, T., Lonnerdal, B., Stenlund, H., Gamayanti, I. L., Ismail, D., Seswandhana, R., and Persson, L. A. A community-based randomized controlled trial of iron and zinc supplementation in Indonesian infants: effects on growth and development. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2004;80:729-736. View abstract.
  290. Penny, M. E., Marin, R. M., Duran, A., Peerson, J. M., Lanata, C. F., Lonnerdal, B., Black, R. E., and Brown, K. H. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of daily supplementation with zinc or multiple micronutrients on the morbidity, growth, and micronutrient status of young Peruvian children. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:457-465. View abstract.
  291. Festa, M. D., Anderson, H. L., Dowdy, R. P., and Ellersieck, M. R. Effect of zinc intake on copper excretion and retention in men. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;41:285-292. View abstract.
  292. Desneves, K. J., Todorovic, B. E., Cassar, A., and Crowe, T. C. Treatment with supplementary arginine, vitamin C and zinc in patients with pressure ulcers: a randomised controlled trial. Clin.Nutr. 2005;24:979-987. View abstract.
  293. Intorre, F., Polito, A., Andriollo-Sanchez, M., Azzini, E., Raguzzini, A., Toti, E., Zaccaria, M., Catasta, G., Meunier, N., Ducros, V., O'Connor, J. M., Coudray, C., Roussel, A. M., and Maiani, G. Effect of zinc supplementation on vitamin status of middle-aged and older European adults: the ZENITH study. Eur.J Clin Nutr 2008;62:1215-1223. View abstract.
  294. Cossack, Z. T. and van den Hamer, C. J. Kinetics of copper absorption in zinc-overload states and following the withdrawal of zinc supplement: the role of endogenous zinc status. J Pediatr Gastroenterol.Nutr 1987;6:296-301. View abstract.
  295. Kimmel, P. Zinc and chronic renal disease. Seminar in Dialysis 1989;2:253-259.
  296. Palomo F, Wantland L, Sanchez A, Volpe AR, McCool J, DeVizio W. The effect of three commercially available dentifrices containing triclosan on supragingival plaque formation and gingivitis: a six month clinical study. Int Dent J. 1994 Feb;44(1 Suppl 1):75-81. View abstract.
  297. Misbahuddin M, Islam A Z, Khandker S, et al. Efficacy of spirulina extract plus zinc in patients of chronic arsenic poisoning: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2006;44:135-41. View abstract.
  298. Science M, Johnstone J, Roth DE, et al. Zinc for the treatment of the common cold: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. CMAJ 2012;184:E551-61. View abstract.
  299. Nouri M, Chalian H, Bahman A, et al. Nail molybdenum and zinc contents in populations with low and moderate incidence of esophageal cancer. Arch Iranian Med 2008;11:392-6. View abstract.
  300. GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Advisory. GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) warns about a potential health risk associated with long-term, excessive use of GSK's zinc-containing denture adhesives Super Polygrip Original, Ultra Fresh and Extra Care. February 18, 2010. Available at: www.gsk.com/media/consumer-advisories/US.pdf.
  301. Health Canada / GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare. Association of long-term, excessive use of zinc-containing Poli-Grip products with myeloneuropathy and blood dyscrasias. February 18, 2010. Available at: http://hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/alt_formats/pdf/medeff/advisories-avis/prof/2010/poligrip_hpc-cps-eng.pdf.
  302. Alexander TH, Davidson TM. Intranasal zinc and anosmia: the zinc-induced anosmia syndrome. Laryngoscope 2006;116:217-20. View abstract.
  303. Dooren JC. FDA warns against use of Zicam. The Wall Street Journal, June 16, 2009. Available at: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124516778692319231.html#mod=djemHL?mg=com-wsj (Accessed 16 June 2009).
  304. Public Health Advisory. Loss of sense of smell with intranasal cold remedies containing zinc. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, June 16, 2009. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/PublicHealthAdvisories/ucm166059.htm (Accessed 16 June 2009).
  305. Lawson KA, Wright ME, Subar A, et al. Multivitamin use and risk of prostate cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;99:754-64. View abstract.
  306. Aggarwal R, Sentz J, Miller MA. Role of zinc administration in prevention of childhood diarrhea and respiratory illnesses: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2007;119:1120-30. View abstract.
  307. Hyun TH, Barrett-Connor E, Milne DB. Zinc intakes and plasma concentrations in men with osteoporosis: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:715-21. View abstract.
  308. van Leeuwen R, Boekhoorn S, Vingerling JR, et al. Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of age-related macular degeneration. JAMA 2005;294:3101-7. View abstract.
  309. Meyer F, Galan P, Douville P, et al. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplementation and prostate cancer prevention in the SU.VI.MAX trial. Int J Cancer 2005;116:182-6. View abstract.
  310. Nechifor M, Vaideanu C, Palamaru I, et al. The influence of some antipsychotics on erythrocyte magnesium and plasma magnesium, calcium, copper and zinc in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23:549S-51S. View abstract.
  311. Nielsen FH, Milne DB. A moderately high intake compared to a low intake of zinc depresses magnesium balance and alters indices of bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004;58:703-10. View abstract.
  312. Akhondzadeh S, Mohammadi MR, Khademi M. Zinc sulfate as an adjunct to methylphenidate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children :a double blind and randomized trial. BMC Psychiatry 2004;4:9. View abstract.
  313. Tisdall FF, Brown A, Defries RD. Persistent anosmia following zinc sulfate nasal spraying. JPed 1938;18:60-2.
  314. DeCook CA, Hirsch AR. Anosmia due to inhalational zinc: a case report (abstract). Chem Senses 2000;25:659.
  315. Mayer AD, Rosenblatt JS. Peripheral olfactory deafferentation of the primary olfactory system in rats using ZnSO4 nasal spray with special reference to maternal behavior. Physiol Behav 1993;53:587-92. View abstract.
  316. Ducray A, Bondier JR, Michel G, et al. Recovery following peripheral destruction of olfactory neurons in young and adult mice. Eur J Neurosci 2002;15:1907-17. View abstract.
  317. Burd GD. Morphological study of the effects of intranasal zinc sulfate irrigation on the mouse olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb. Microsc Res Tech 1993;24:195-213. View abstract.
  318. McBride K, Slotnick B, Margolis FL. Does intranasal application of zinc sulfate produce anosmia in the mouse? An olfactometric and anatomical study. Chem Senses 2003;28:659-70. View abstract.
  319. Oberleas D, Prasad AS. Factors affecting zinc homeostasis. In: Prasad AS (ed). Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease. Vol 1, zinc and copper. Academic Press, New York, 1976.
  320. Mills CF. Dietary interactions involving the trace elements. Ann Rev Nutr 1985;5:173-93. View abstract.
  321. Hunt JR. Moving toward a plant-based diet; are iron and zinc at risk? Nutr Rev 2002;60:127-34. View abstract.
  322. Sandstrom B, Almgren A, Kivisto B, Cederblad A. Effect of protein level and protein source on zinc absorption in humans. J Nutr 1989;119:48-53. View abstract.
  323. Lonnerdal B. Dietary factors influencing zinc absorption. J Nutr 2000;130:1378s-83s. View abstract.
  324. Gibson RS, Yeudall F, Drost N, et al. Dietary interventions to prevent zinc deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:484s-7s. View abstract.
  325. Guldager B, Jorgensen PJ, Grandjean P. Metal excretion and magnesium retention in patients with intermittent claudication treated with intravenous disodium EDTA. Clin Chem 1996;42:1938-42. View abstract.
  326. Allain P, Mauras Y, Premel-Cabic A, et al. Effects of an EDTA infusion on the urinary elimination of several elements in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1991;31:347. View abstract.
  327. Palm R, Hallmans G. Zinc and copper metabolism in phenytoin therapy. Epilepsia 1982;23:453-61. View abstract.
  328. Higgins TL, Murray M, Kett DH, et al. Trace element homeostasis during continuous sedation with propofol containing EDTA versus other sedatives in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med 2000;26:s413-21. View abstract.
  329. Personal communication: Pantoprazole IV - safety and tolerability of EDTA. Medical Information Department, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc., Philadelphia, PA. February 24, 2005.
  330. Pecoud A, Donzel P, Schelling JL. Effect of foodstuffs on the absorption of zinc sulfate. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1975;17:469-74. View abstract.
  331. Liu CS, Wu HM, Kao SH, Wei YH. Serum trace elements, glutathione, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, and lipid peroxidation in epileptic patients with phenytoin or carbamazepine monotherapy. Clin Neuropharmacol 1998;21:62. View abstract.
  332. Yuen WC, Whiteoak R, Thompson RP. Zinc concentrations in leucocytes of patients receiving antiepileptic drugs. J Clin Pathol 1998;41:553-5. View abstract.
  333. Kaji M, Ito M, Okuno T, et al. Serum copper and zinc levels in epileptic children with valproate treatment. Epilepsia 1992;33:555-7. View abstract.
  334. Ilhan A, Uz E, Kali S, et al. Serum and hair trace element levels in patients with epilepsy and healthy subjects: does the antiepileptic therapy affect the element concentrations of hair? Eur J Neurol 1999;6:705-9. View abstract.
  335. Akram M, Sullivan C, Mack G, Buchannan N. What is the clinical significance of reduced manganese and zinc levels in treated epileptic patients? Med J Australia 1989;15:113. View abstract.
  336. Verrotti A, Basciani F, Trotta D, et al. Serum copper, zinc, selenium, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels in epileptic children before and after 1 year of sodium valproate and carbamazepine therapy. Epilepsy Res 2002;48:71-5. View abstract.
  337. Hurd RW, Wilder BJ, Van Rinsvelt HA. Valproate, birth defects, and zinc (letter). Lancet 1983;1:181. View abstract.
  338. Lerman-Sagie T, Statter M, Szabo G, Lerman P. Effect of valproic acid therapy on zinc metabolism in children with primary epilepsy. Clin Neuropharmacol 1987;10:80-6. View abstract.
  339. Altunbasak S, Biatmakoui F, Baytok V, et al. Serum and hair zinc levels in epileptic children taking valproic acid. Biol Trace Element Res 1997;58;117-25. View abstract.
  340. Lewis-Jones MS, Evans S, Culshaw MA. Cutaneous manifestations of zinc deficiency during treatment with anticonvulsants. BMJ 1985;290:603-4. View abstract.
  341. Fatemi SH, Calabrese JR. Treatment of valproate-induced alopecia (letter). Ann Pharmacother 1995;29;1302. View abstract.
  342. Hurd RW, Van Rinsvelt HA, Wilder BJ, et al. Selenium, zinc, and copper changes with valproic acid: possible relation to drug side effects. Neurology 1984;34:1393-5. View abstract.
  343. Liukko P, Erkkola R, Pakarinen P, et al. Trace elements during 2 years' oral contraception with low-estrogen preparations. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1988;25:113-7. View abstract.
  344. Powell-Beard L, Lei KY, Shenker L. Effect of long-term oral contraceptive therapy before pregnancy on maternal and fetal zinc and copper status. Obstet Gynecol 1987;69:26-32. View abstract.
  345. Chilvers DC, Jones MM, Selby PL, et al. Effects of oral ethinyl oestradiol and norethisterone on plasma copper and zinc complexes in post-menopausal women. Hormone Metab Res 1985;17:532-5. View abstract.
  346. Hinks LJ, Clayton BE, Lloyd RS. Zinc and copper concentrations in leukocytes and erythrocytes in healthy adults and the effect of oral contraceptives. J Clin Pathol 1983;36:1016-21. View abstract.
  347. Vir SC, Love AH. Zinc and copper nutriture of women taking oral contraceptive agents. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:1479-83. View abstract.
  348. Webb JL. Nutritional effects of oral contraceptive use: A review. J Reprod Med 1080;25:150. View abstract.
  349. Prema K, Ramalakshmi Ba, Babu S. Serum copper and zinc in hormonal contraceptive users. Fertil Steril 1980;33;267-71. View abstract.
  350. Prasad AS, Oberleas D, Lei KY, et al. Effect of oral contraceptive agents on nutrients: I. Minerals. Am J Clin Nutr 1975;28:377-84. View abstract.
  351. Smith JC, Brown ED. Effects of oral contraceptive agents on trace element metabolism - a review. In: Prasad AS (ed). Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease. Vol.II, Essential and Toxic Elements. New York: Academic Press, 1976. 315-45.
  352. King JC. Do women using oral contraceptive agents require extra zinc? J Nutr 1987;117:217-9. View abstract.
  353. Solecki TJ, Aviv A, Bogden JG. Effect of a chelating drug on balance and tissue distribution of four essential metals. Toxicology 1984;31:207-16. View abstract.
  354. De Palma P, Franco F, Bragliani G, et al. The incidence of optic neuropathy in 84 patients treated with ethambutol. Metab Pediatr Syst Ophthalmol 1989;12:80-2. View abstract.
  355. King AB, Schwartz R. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diets marginal and adequate in zinc. J Nutr 1987;117:704-8. View abstract.
  356. Serfaty-Lacrosniere C, Wood RJ, Voytko D, et al. Hypochlorhydria from short-term omeprazole treatment does not inhibit intestinal absorption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, or zinc from food in humans. J Am Coll Nutr 1995;14:364-8. View abstract.
  357. Ozutemiz AO, Aydin HH, Isler M, et al. Effect of omeprazole on plasma zinc levels after oral zinc administration. Ind J Gastroenterol 2002;21:216-8. View abstract.
  358. Sturniolo GC, Montino MC, Rossetto L, et al. Inhibition of gastric acid secretion reduces zinc absorption in man. J Am Coll Nutr 1991;10:372. View abstract.
  359. Sorensen JA, Andersen O. Effects of diethyldithiocarbamate and tetrathylthiuram disulfide on zinc metabolism in mice. Pharmacol Toxicol 1989;65:209-13. View abstract.
  360. Leary WP, Reyes AJ, Van der Byl K. Urinary magnesium and zinc excretion after two different single doses of amiloride in healthy adults. Curr Ther Res 1983;34:205-16.
  361. Hasinoff BB. Chemistry of dexrazoxane and analogues. Semin Oncol 1998;24:3-9. View abstract.
  362. Von Hoff DD. Phase I trials of dexrazoxane and other potential applications for the agent. Semin Oncol 1998;25:31-6. View abstract.
  363. Schiliro G, Russo A, Azzia N, et al. Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase (LAP). A useful marker of zinc status in beta-thalassemic patients. Am J Ped Hematol Oncol 1987;9:149-52. View abstract.
  364. Silliman CC, Peterson VM, Mellman DL, et al. Iron chelation by deferoxamine in sickle cell patients with severe transfusion-induced hemosiderosis: a randomized, double-blind study of the dose-response relationship. J Lab Clin Med 1993;122:48-54. View abstract.
  365. Canatan D, Temimhan N, Dincer N, et al. Continuous desferrioxamine infusion by an infusor in thalassemia major. Acta Paediatrica 1999;88:550-2. View abstract.
  366. Pinna A, Corda L, Carta F. Rapid recovery with oral zinc sulphate in deferoxamine-induced presumed optic neuropathy and hearing loss. J Neuroophthalmol 2001;21:32-3. View abstract.
  367. Golik A, Modai D, Weissgarten J, et al. Hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride causes excessive urinary zinc excretion. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1987;42:42-4. View abstract.
  368. Wester PO. Urinary zinc excretion during treatment with different diuretics. Acta Med Scand 1980;208:209-12. View abstract.
  369. Doz F, Berens ME, Deschepper CF, et al. Experimental basis for increasing the therapeutic index of cis-diamminedicarboxylatocyclobutaneplatinum(II) in brain tumor therapy by a high-zinc diet. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1992;29:219-26. View abstract.
  370. Kondo Y, Yamagata K, Satoh M, et al. Optimal administration schedule of cisplatin for bladder tumor with minimal induction of metallothionein. J Urol 2003;170:2467-70. View abstract.
  371. Zumkley H, Bertram HP, Preusser P, et al. Renal excretion and magnesium and trace elements during cisplatin treatment. Clin Nephrol 1982;17:254. View abstract.
  372. Sweeney JD, Ziegler P, Pruet C, Spaulding MB. Hyperzincuria and hypozincemia in patients treated with cisplatin. Clin Nephrol 1982;17:254-7. View abstract.
  373. O'Connor DT, Strause L, Saltman P, et al. Serum zinc is unaffected by effective captopril treatment of hypertension. J Clin Hypertens 1987;3:405-8. View abstract.
  374. Zumkley H, Bertram HP, Vetter H, et al. Zinc metabolism during captopril treatment. Horm Metab Res 1985;17;256-8. View abstract.
  375. Smit AJ, Hoorntje SJ, Donker AJ. Zinc deficiency during captopril treatment. Nephron 1983;34:196-7. View abstract.
  376. McNeil JJ, Anderson A, Christophidis N, et al. Taste loss associated with oral captopril treatment. BMJ 1979;448:1555-6. View abstract.
  377. Wise A. Phytate and zinc bioavailability. Int J Food Sci Nutr 1995;46:53-63. View abstract.
  378. Penttila O, Hurme H, Neuvonen PJ. Effect of zinc sulfate on the absorption of tetracycline and doxycycline in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1975;9:131-4. View abstract.
  379. Kingberg WG, Prasad AS, Oberleas D. Zinc deficiency following penicillamine therapy. In: Prasad AS (ed). Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease. Vol.I, Zinc and Copper. Academic Press, New York, 1976. pp51-65.
  380. Weismann K. Chelating drugs and zinc. Dan Med Bull 1986;33:208-11. View abstract.
  381. McCall JT, Goldstein NP, Randall RV, Gross JB. Comparative metabolism of copper and zinc in patients with Wilson's Disease (hepatollenticular degeneration). Am J Med Sci 1967;254:13-23. View abstract.
  382. Flynn A, Pories WJ, Strain WH, et al. Rapid serum zinc depletion associated with corticosteroid therapy. Lancet 1971;2:1169-72. View abstract.
  383. Ellul-Micallef R, Galdes A, Fenech FF. Serum zinc levels in corticosteroid-treated asthmatic patients. Postgrad Med J 1976;52:148-50. View abstract.
  384. Henkin RI, Foster DM, Aamodt RL, Berman M. Zinc metabolism in adrenal cortical insufficiency: effects of carbohydrate-active steroids. Metabolism 1984;33:491-501. View abstract.
  385. Scott R, Ferrie B, McLelland A, Fell GS. The effect of steroid therapy on serum trace metal levels in sub-fertile males. Urol Res 1984;12:213-5. View abstract.
  386. Weismann K, Hoyer H. Serum zinc levels during oral glucocorticoid therapy. J Invest Dermatol 1986;86:715-6. View abstract.
  387. Yunice AA, Czerwinski AW, Lindeman RD. Influence of synthetic corticosteroids on plasma zinc and copper levels in humans. Am J Med Sci 1981;282:68-74. View abstract.
  388. Mery C, Delrieu F, Ghozlan R, et al. Controlled trial of D-penicillamine in rheumatoid arthritis. Dose effect and the role of zinc. Scand J Rheumatol 1976;5:241-7. View abstract.
  389. Abu-Hamdan DK, Mahajan SK, Migdal S, et al. Zinc tolerance test in uremia: effect of calcitriol supplementation. J Am Coll Nutr 1988;7:235-40. View abstract.
  390. Antoniou LD, Shalhoub RJ, Elliot S. Zinc tolerance tests in chronic aremia. Clin Nephrol 1981;16:181-7. View abstract.
  391. Fleet JC, Turnbull AJ, Bourcier M, Wood RJ. Vitamin D-sensitive and quinacrine-sensitive zinc transport in human intestinal cell line Caco-2. Am J Physiol 1993;264:G1037-45. View abstract.
  392. Agte VV, Chiplonkar SA, Gokhale MK. Interaction of riboflavin with zinc bioavailability. Ann NY Acad Sci 1992;669:314-6. View abstract.
  393. Polk RE, Healy DP, Sahai J, et al. Effect of ferrous sulfate and multivitamins with zinc on absorption of ciprofloxacin in normal volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1989;33:1841-4. View abstract.
  394. Botash AS, Nasca J, Dubowy R, et al. Zinc-induced copper deficiency in an infant. Am J Dis Child 1992;146:709-11. View abstract.
  395. Wood RJ, Zheng JJ. High dietary calcium intakes reduce zinc absorption and balance in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:1803-9. View abstract.
  396. Higashi A, Ikeda T, Matsukura M, Matsuda I. Serum zinc and vitamin E concentrations in handicapped children treated with anticonvulsants. Devel Pharmacol Ther 1982;5:109-13. View abstract.
  397. Bilici M, Yildirim F, Kandil S, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of zinc sulfate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2004;28:181-90.. View abstract.
  398. Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. Potential public health impact of age-related eye disease study results: AREDS report no. 11. Arch Ophthalmol 2003;121:1621-4. View abstract.
  399. Barrett S. Zicam Marketers Sued. United States District Court Western District of Michigan Southern Division, Filed October 14, 2003, Case No. 4:03CV0146.
  400. Uebayashi H, Hatanaka T, Kanemura F, Tonosaki K. Acute anosmia in the mouse: behavioral discrimination among the four basic taste substances. Physiol Behav 2001;72:291-6.. View abstract.
  401. Jafek BW, Linschoten M, Murrow BW. Zicam Induced Anosmia. American Rhinologic Society 49th Annual Fall Scientific Meeting abstract. Orlando, Florida. September 20, 2003. http://app.american-rhinologic.org/programs/2003ARSFallProgram071503.pdf (Accessed 24 November 2003).
  402. OTC Ingredient List. FDA Office of Nonprescription Products. March 2006. Available at: www.fda.gov/cder/Offices/OTC/Ingredient_List_P-Z.pdf.
  403. Fawzi WW, Villamor E, Msamanga GI, et al. Trial of zinc supplements in relation to pregnancy outcomes, hematologic indicators, and T cell counts among HIV-1-infected women in Tanzania. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:161-7. View abstract.
  404. Berger MM, Shenkin A, Revelly JP, et al. Copper, selenium, zinc, and thiamine balances during continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration in critically ill patients. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:410-6. View abstract.
  405. Brooks WA, Yunus M, Santosham M, et al. Zinc for severe pneumonia in very young children: double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2004;363:1683-8. View abstract.
  406. Singh BB, Udani J, Vinjamury Sp, et al. Safety and effectiveness of an L-lysine, zinc, and herbal-based product on the treatment of facial and circumoral herpes. Altern Med Rev 2005;10:123-7. View abstract.
  407. Turk S, Bozfakioglu S, Ecder ST, et al. Effects of zinc supplementation on the immune system and on antibody response to multivalent influenza vaccine in hemodialysis patients. Int J Artif Organs 1998;21:274-278.. View abstract.
  408. McElroy BH, Miller SP. Effectiveness of zinc gluconate glycine lozenges (Cold-Eeze) against the common cold in school-aged subjects: a retrospective chart review. Am J Ther 2002;9:472-5.. View abstract.
  409. Bonham M, O'Connor JM, Alexander HD, et al. Zinc supplementation has no effect on circulating levels of peripheral blood leucocytes and lymphocyte subsets in healthy adult men. Br J Nutr 2003;89:695-703.. View abstract.
  410. Turner RB, Cetnarowski WE. Effect of treatment with zinc gluconate or zinc acetate on experimental and natural colds. Clin Infect Dis 2000;31:1202-8.. View abstract.
  411. Turner RB. The treatment of rhinovirus infections: progress and potential. Antiviral Res 2001;49:1-14.. View abstract.
  412. Takkouche B, Regueira-Mendez C, Garcia-Closas R, et al. Intake of vitamin C and zinc and risk of common cold: a cohort study. Epidemiology 2002;13:38-44.. View abstract.
  413. Krone CA, Wyse EJ, Ely JT. Cadmium in zinc-containing mineral supplements. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2001;52:379-82.. View abstract.
  414. Lopez de Romana D, Lonnerdal B, Brown KH. Absorption of zinc from wheat products fortified with iron and either zinc sulfate or zinc oxide. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:279-83.. View abstract.
  415. Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Wu K, et al. Zinc supplement use and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003;95:1004-7.. View abstract.
  416. Baqui AH, Black RE, El Arifeen S, et al. Effect of zinc supplementation started during diarrhoea on morbidity and mortality in Bangladeshi children: community randomised trial. BMJ 2002;325:1059-62.. View abstract.
  417. Mossad SB. Effect of zincum gluconicum nasal gel on the duration and symptom severity of the common cold in otherwise healthy adults. QJM 2003;96:35-43. View abstract.
  418. Anon. Zinc Against Plasmodium Study Group. Effect of zinc on the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:805-12.. View abstract.
  419. Arnold LE, Votolato NA, Kleykamp D, et al. Does hair zinc predict amphetamine improvement of ADD/hyperactivity? Int J Neurosci 1990;50:103-7.. View abstract.
  420. Toren P, Eldar S, Sela BA, et al. Zinc deficiency in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 1996;40:1308-10. View abstract.
  421. Bekaroglu M, Aslan Y, Gedik Y, et al. Relationships between serum free fatty acids and zinc, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a research note. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1996;37:225-7.. View abstract.
  422. Cantilena LR, Klaassen CD. The effect of chelating agents on the excretion of endogenous metals. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1982;63:344-50. View abstract.
  423. Spencer H, Norris C, Williams D. Inhibitory effects of zinc on magnesium balance and magnesium absorption in man. J Am Coll Nutr 1994;13:479-84.. View abstract.
  424. Solomons NW, Jacob RA. Studies on the bioavailability of zinc in humans: effects of heme and nonheme iron on the absorption of zinc. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:475-82.. View abstract.
  425. Donangelo CM, Woodhouse LR, King SM, et al. Supplemental zinc lowers measures of iron status in young women with low iron reserves. J Nutr 2002;132:1860-4.. View abstract.
  426. O'Brien KO, Zavaleta N, Caulfield LE, et al. Influence of prenatal iron and zinc supplements on supplemental iron absorption, red blood cell iron incorporation, and iron status in pregnant Peruvian women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:509-15.. View abstract.
  427. Rossander-Hulten L, Brune M, Sandstrom B, et al. Competitive inhibition of iron absorption by manganese and zinc in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:152-6.. View abstract.
  428. Crofton RW, Gvozdanovic D, Gvozdanovic S, et al. Inorganic zinc and the intestinal absorption of ferrous iron. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50:141-4.. View abstract.
  429. Valberg LS, Flanagan PR, Chamberlain MJ. Effects of iron, tin, and copper on zinc absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;40:536-41.. View abstract.
  430. Watkins DW, Khalafi R, Cassidy MM, Vahouny GV. Alterations in calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc metabolism by dietary cholestyramine. Dig Dis Sci 1985;30:477-82.. View abstract.
  431. Tyrer LB. Nutrition and the pill. J Reprod Med 1984;29:547-50.. View abstract.
  432. Keating JN, Wada L, Stokstad ELR, King JC. Folic acid: effect on zinc absorption in humans and in the rat. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;46:835-9. View abstract.
  433. Kauwell GPA, Baily LB, Gregory JF, et al. Zinc status is not adversely affected by folic acid supplementation and zinc intake does not impair folate utilization in human subjects. J Nutr 1995;125:66-72. View abstract.
  434. Fuller NJ, Bates CJ, Evans PH, Lucas A. High folate intakes related to zinc status in preterm infants. Eur J Pediatr 1992;151:51-3. View abstract.
  435. Butterworth CE, Hatch K, Cole P, et al. Zinc concentration in plasma and erythrocytes of subjects receiving folic acid supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;47:484-6. View abstract.
  436. Kakar F, Henderson MM. Potential toxic side effects of folic acid (letter). J Natl Cancer Inst 1985;74:263. View abstract.
  437. Milne DB, Canfield WK, Mahalko JR, Sandstead HH. Effect of oral folic acid supplements on zinc, copper, and iron absorption and excretion. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;39:535-9. View abstract.
  438. Wong WY, Merkus HM, Thomas CM, et al. Effects of folic acid and zinc sulfate on male factor subfertility: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril 2002;77:491-8.. View abstract.
  439. Girodon F, Lombard M, Galan P, et al. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on infection in institutionalized elderly subjects: a controlled trial. Ann Nutr Metab 1997;41:98-107. View abstract.
  440. Sazawal S, Black RE, Menon VP, et al. Zinc supplementation in infants born small for gestational age reduces mortality: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2001;108:1280-6. View abstract.
  441. Davidsson L, Almgren A, Sandstrom B, Hurrell RF. Zinc absorption in adult humans: the effect of iron fortification. Br J Nutr 1995;74:417-25.. View abstract.
  442. O'Brien KO, Zavaleta N, Caulfield LE, et al. Prenatal iron supplements impair zinc absorption in pregnant Peruvian women. J Nutr 2000 130:2251-5.. View abstract.
  443. Muller O, Becher H, van Zweeden AB, et al. Effect of zinc supplementation on malaria and other causes of morbidity in west African children: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2001;322:1567. View abstract.
  444. Bhandari N, Bahl R, Taneja S, et al. Effect of routine zinc supplementation on pneumonia in children aged 6 months to 3 years: randomised controlled trial in an urban slum. BMJ 2002;324:1358. View abstract.
  445. Rahman MM, Wahed MA, Fuchs GJ, et al. Synergistic effect of zinc and vitamin A on the biochemical indexes of vitamin A nutrition in children. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:92-8. View abstract.
  446. Bhutta ZA, Bird SM, Black RE, et al. Therapeutic effects of oral zinc in acute and persistent diarrhea in children in developing countries: pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:1516-22. View abstract.
  447. King JC. Enhanced zinc utilization during lactation may reduce maternal and infant zinc depletion. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:2-3. View abstract.
  448. Sian L, Krebs NF, Westcott JE, et al. Zinc homeostasis during lactation in a population with a low zinc intake. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:99-103. View abstract.
  449. Christian P, Khatry SK, Yamini S, et al. Zinc supplementation might potentiate the effect of vitamin A in restoring night vision in pregnant Nepalese women. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:1045-51. View abstract.
  450. Belongia EA, Berg R, Liu K. A randomized trial of zinc nasal spray for the treatment of upper respiratory illness in adults. Am J Med 2001;111:103-8. View abstract.
  451. Turner RB. Ineffectiveness of intranasal zinc gluconate for prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds. Clin Infect Dis 2001;33:1865-70. View abstract.
  452. Prasad AS. Zinc deficiency in patients with sickle cell disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:181-2. View abstract.
  453. Zemel BS, Kawchak DA, Fung EB, et al. Effect of zinc supplementation on growth and body composition in children with sickle cell disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:300-7. View abstract.
  454. Siberry GK, Ruff AJ, Black R. Zinc and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Nutr Res 2002;22:527-38.
  455. Bianchi GP, Marchesini G, Brizi M, et al. Nutritional effects of oral zinc supplementation in cirrhosis. Nutr Res 2000;20:1079-89.
  456. Godfrey HR, Godfrey NJ, Godfrey JC, Riley D. A randomized clinical trial on the treatment of oral herpes with topical zinc oxide/glycine. Altern Ther Health Med 2001;7:49-56. View abstract.
  457. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) Research Group. The effect of five-year zinc supplementation on serum zinc, serum cholesterol and hematocrit in persons randomly assigned to treatment group in the age-related eye disease study: AREDS Report No. 7. J Nutr 2002;132:697-702. View abstract.
  458. Grahn BH, Paterson PG, Gottschall-Pass KT, Zhang Z. Zinc and the eye. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:106-18. View abstract.
  459. Tang X, Shay NF. Zinc has an insulin-like effect on glucose transport mediated by phosphoinositol-3-kinase and Akt in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and adipocytes. J Nutr 2001;131:1414-20. View abstract.
  460. Freake HC, Govoni KE, Guda K, et al. Actions and interactions of thyroid hormone and zinc status in growing rats. J Nutr 2001;4:1135-41.. View abstract.
  461. Greenberg JE, Lynn M, Kirsner RS, et al. Mucocutaneous pigmented macule as a result of zinc deposition. J Cutan Pathol 2002;29:613-5. View abstract.
  462. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999. Available at: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309063507/html/index.html.
  463. Whittaker P. Iron and zinc interactions in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:442S-6S. View abstract.
  464. Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E and beta carotene for age-related cataract and vision loss: AREDS report no. 9. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119:1439-52. View abstract.
  465. Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss. AREDS report no. 8. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119:1417-36. View abstract.
  466. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. Available at: www.nap.edu/books/0309072794/html/.
  467. Camacho FM, Garcia-Hernandez MJ. Zinc aspartate, biotin, and clobetasol propionate in the treatment of alopecia areata in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol 1999;16:336-8. View abstract.
  468. Ead RD. Oral zinc sulphate in alopacia areata- a double-blind trial. Br J Dermatol 1981;104:483-4. View abstract.
  469. Atik OS. Zinc and senile osteoporosis. J Am Geriatr Soc 1983;31:790-1. View abstract.
  470. Relea P, Revilla M, Ripoll E, et al. Zinc, biochemical markers of nutrition, and type I osteoporosis. Age Ageing 1995;24:303-7. View abstract.
  471. Dronfield MW, Malone JD, Langman MJ. Zinc in ulcerative colitis: a therapeutic trial and report on plasma levels. Gut 1977;18:33-6. View abstract.
  472. van de Wal Y, van der Sluys Veer A, Verspaget HW, et al. Effect of zinc therapy on natural killer cell activity in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1993;7:281-6. View abstract.
  473. Mulder TP, van der Sluys Veer A, Verspaget HW, et al. Effect of oral zinc supplementation on metallothionein and superoxide dismutase concentrations in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1994;9:472-7. View abstract.
  474. David TJ, Wells FE, Sharpe TC, et al. Serum levels of trace metals in children with atopic eczema. Br J Dermatol 1990;122:485-9. View abstract.
  475. Ewing CI, Gibbs AC, Ashcroft C, David TJ. Failure of oral zinc supplementation in atopic eczema. Eur J Clin Nutr 1991;45:507-10. View abstract.
  476. Zaichick VY, Sviridova TV, Zaichick SV. Zinc concentration in human prostatic fluid: normal, chronic prostatitis, adenoma and cancer. Int Urol Nephrol 1996;28:687-94. View abstract.
  477. Zaichick VYe, Sviridova TV, Zaichick SV. Zinc in the human prostate gland: normal, hyperplastic and cancerous. Int Urol Nephrol 1997;29:565-74. View abstract.
  478. Lagiou P, Wuu J, Trichopoulou A, et al. Diet and benign prostatic hyperplasia: a study in Greece. Urology 1999;54:284-90. View abstract.
  479. Katz RL, Keen CL, Litt IF, et al. Zinc deficiency in anorexia nervosa. J Adolesc Health Care 1987;8:400-6. View abstract.
  480. Birmingham CL, Goldner EM, Bakan R. Controlled trial of zinc supplementation in anorexia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord 1994;15:251-5. View abstract.
  481. Sandstrom B, Kivisto B, Cederblad A. Absorption of zinc from soy protein meals in humans. J Nutr 1987;117:321-7. View abstract.
  482. Stromberg HE, Agren MS. Topical zinc oxide treatment improves arterial and venous leg ulcers. Br J Dermatol 1984;111:461-8. View abstract.
  483. Antoniou LD, Shalhoub RJ, Sudhakar T, Smith JC Jr. Reversal of uraemic impotence by zinc. Lancet 1977;2:895-8. View abstract.
  484. Desbiens NA. Lessons learned from attempts to establish the blind in placebo-controlled trials of zinc for the common cold. Ann Intern Med 2000;133:302-3. View abstract.
  485. Petrus EJ, Lawson KA, Bucci LR, Blum K. Randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical study of the effectiveness of zinc acetate lozenges on common cold symptoms in allergy-tested subjects. Curr Ther Res 1998;59:595-607.
  486. Prasad AS, Fitzgerald JT, Bao B, et al. Duration of symptoms and plasma cytokine levels in patients with the common cold treated with zinc acetate. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2000;133:245-52. View abstract.
  487. Douglas RM, Miles HB, Moore BW, et al. Failure of effervescent zinc acetate lozenges to alter the course of upper respiratory tract infections in Australian adults. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1987;31:1263-5. View abstract.
  488. Benso L, Gambotto S, Pastorin L, et al. Growth velocity monitoring of the efficacy of different therapeutic protocols in a group of thalassaemic children. Eur J Pediatr 1995;154:205-8. View abstract.
  489. Uysal Z, Akar N, Kemahli S, et al. Desferrioxamine and urinary zinc excretion in beta-thalassemia major. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1993;10:257-60. View abstract.
  490. Aydinok Y, Coker C, Kavakli K, et al. Urinary zinc excretion and zinc status of patients with beta-thalassemia major. Biol Trace Elem Res 1999;70:165-72. View abstract.
  491. Prasad AS, Beck FW, Kaplan J, et al. Effect of zinc supplementation on incidence of infections and hospital admissions in sickle cell disease (SCD). Am J Hematol 1999;61:194-202. View abstract.
  492. Leonard MB, Zemel BS, Kawchak DA, et al. Plasma zinc status, growth, and maturation in children with sickle cell disease. J Pediatr 1998;132:467-71. View abstract.
  493. Gupta VL, Chaubey BS. Efficacy of zinc therapy in prevention of crisis in sickle cell anemia: a double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. J Assoc Physicians India 1995;43:467-9. View abstract.
  494. Wray D. A double-blind trial of systemic zinc sulfate in recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1982;53:469-72. View abstract.
  495. Frommer DJ. The healing of gastric ulcers by zinc sulphate. Med J Aust 1975;2:793-6. View abstract.
  496. Garcia-Plaza A, Arenas JI, Belda O, Diago A, et al. [A multicenter, clinical trial. Zinc acexamate vs famotidine in the treatment of acute duodenal ulcer. Study group of zinc acexamate]. Rev Esp Enferm Dig 1996;88:757-62. View abstract.
  497. Jimenez E, Bosch F, Galmes JL, Banos JE. Meta-analysis of efficacy of zinc acexamate in peptic ulcer. Digestion 1992;51:18-26. View abstract.
  498. Rodriguez de la Serna A, Diaz-Rubio M. Multicenter clinical trial of zinc acexamate in the prevention of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug induced gastroenteropathy. Spanish Study Group on NSAID Induced Gastroenteropathy Prevention. J Rheumatol 1994;21:927-33. View abstract.
  499. Sharquie KE, Najim RA, Farjou IB. A comparative controlled trial of intralesionally-administered zinc sulphate, hypertonic sodium chloride and pentavalent antimony compound against acute cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clin Exp Dermatol 1997;22:169-73. View abstract.
  500. Grazioso CF, Isalgue M, de Ramirez I, et al. The effect of zinc supplementation on parasitic reinfestation of Guatemalan schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:673-8. View abstract.
  501. Stur M, Tittl M, Reitner A, Meisinger V. Oral zinc and the second eye in age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1996;37:1225-35. View abstract.
  502. Newsome DA, Swartz M, Leone NC, et al. Oral zinc in macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol 1988;106:192-8. View abstract.
  503. Smith W, Mitchell P, Webb K, Leeder SR. Dietary antioxidants and age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 1999;106:761-77. View abstract.
  504. Mares-Perlman JA, Klein R, Klein BE, et al. Association of zinc and antioxidant nutrients with age-related maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 1996;114:991-7. View abstract.
  505. Omu AE, Dashti H, Al-Othman S. Treatment of asthenozoospermia with zinc sulphate: andrological, immunological and obstetric outcome. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1998;79:179-84. View abstract.
  506. Mohan H, Verma J, Singh I, et al. Inter-relationship of zinc levels in serum and semen in oligospermic infertile patients and fertile males. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 1997;40:451-5. View abstract.
  507. Hunt CD, Johnson PE, Herbel J, Mullen LK. Effects of dietary zinc depletion on seminal volume and zinc loss, serum testosterone concentrations, and sperm morphology in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:148-57. View abstract.
  508. Chia SE, Ong CN, Chua LH, et al. Comparison of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma and the various sperm parameters between fertile and infertile men. J Androl 2000;21:53-7. View abstract.
  509. Henkel R, Bittner J, Weber R, et al. Relevance of zinc in human sperm flagella and its relation to motility. Fertil Steril 1999;71:1138-43. View abstract.
  510. Fuse H, Kazama T, Ohta S, Fujiuchi Y. Relationship between zinc concentrations in seminal plasma and various sperm parameters. Int Urol Nephrol 1999;31:401-8. View abstract.
  511. Khedun SM, Naicker T, Maharaj B. Zinc, hydrochlorothiazide and sexual dysfunction. Cent Afr J Med 1995;41:312-5. View abstract.
  512. Goldiner WH, Hamilton BP, Hyman PD, Russell RM. Effect of the administration of zinc sulfate on hypogonadism and impotence in patients with chronic stable hepatic cirrhosis. J Am Coll Nutr 1983;2:157-62. View abstract.
  513. Brook AC, Johnston DG, Ward MK, et al. Absence of a therapeutic effect of zinc in the sexual dysfunction of haemodialysed patients Lancet 1980;2:618-20. View abstract.
  514. Mocchegiani E, Veccia S, Ancarani F, et al. Benefit of oral zinc supplementation as an adjunct to zidovudine (AZT) therapy against opportunistic infections in AIDS. Int J Immunopharmacol 1995;17:719-27. View abstract.
  515. Kelly P, Musonda R, Kafwembe E, et al. Micronutrient supplementation in the AIDS diarrhea-wasting syndrome in Zambia: a randomized controlled trial. AIDS 1999;13:495-500. View abstract.
  516. Provinciali M, Montenovo A, Di Stefano G, et al. Effect of zinc or zinc plus arginine supplementation on antibody titre and lymphocyte subsets after influenza vaccination in elderly subjects: a randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing 1998;27:715-22. View abstract.
  517. Maes M, De Vos N, Demedts P, et al. Lower serum zinc in major depression in relation to changes in serum acute phase proteins. J Affect Disord 1999;56:189-94. View abstract.
  518. Licastro F, Chiricolo M, Mocchegiani E, et al. Oral zinc supplementation in Down's syndrome subjects decreased infections and normalized some humoral and cellular immune parameters. J Intellect Disabil Res 1994;38:149-62. View abstract.
  519. Girodon F, Galan P, Monget AL, et al. Impact of trace elements and vitamin supplementation on immunity and infections in institutionalized elderly patients: a randomized, controlled trial. MIN. VIT. AOX. geriatric network. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:748-54. View abstract.
  520. Prasad AS. Zinc and immunity. Mol Cell Biochem 1998;188:63-9. View abstract.
  521. Shankar AH, Prasad AS. Zinc and immune function: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:447S-63S. View abstract.
  522. Henkin RI, Martin BM, Agarwal RP. Efficacy of exogenous oral zinc in treatment of patients with carbonic anhydrase VI deficiency. Am J Med Sci 1999;318:392-405. View abstract.
  523. Abu-Hamdan DK, Desai H, Sondheimer J, et al. Taste acuity and zinc metabolism in captopril-treated hypertensive male patients. Am J Hypertens 1988;1:303S-8S. View abstract.
  524. Heyneman CA. Zinc deficiency and taste disorders. Ann Pharmacother 1996;30:186-7. View abstract.
  525. Arens M, Travis S. Zinc salts inactivate clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus in vitro. J Clin Microbiol 2000;38:1758-62. View abstract.
  526. Eby GA, Halcomb WW. Use of topical zinc to prevent recurrent herpes simplex infection: review of literature and suggested protocols. Med Hypotheses 1985;17:157-65. View abstract.
  527. Brody I. Topical treatment of recurrent herpes simplex and post-herpetic erythema multiforme with low concentrations of zinc sulphate solution. Br J Dermatol 1981;104:191-4. View abstract.
  528. George J, Bhatia VN, Balakrishnan S, Ramu G. Serum zinc/copper ratio in subtypes of leprosy and effect of oral zinc therapy on reactional states. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis 1991;59:20-4. View abstract.
  529. Mathur NK, Bumb RA, Mangal HN, Sharma ML. Oral zinc as an adjunct to dapsone in lepromatous leprosy. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis 1984;52:331-8. View abstract.
  530. Mathur NK, Bumb RA, Mangal HN. Oral zinc in recurrent Erythema Nodosum Leprosum reaction. Lepr India 1983;55:547-52. View abstract.
  531. Mahajan PM, Jadhav VH, Patki AH, et al. Oral zinc therapy in recurrent erythema nodosum leprosum: a clinical study. Indian J Lepr 1994;66:51-7. View abstract.
  532. Faure P, Benhamou PY, Perard A, et al. Lipid peroxidation in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with early retina degenerative lesions: effects of an oral zinc supplementation. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995;49:282-8. View abstract.
  533. Blostein-Fujii A, DiSilvestro RA, Frid D, et al. Short-term zinc supplementation in women with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: effects on plasma 5'-nucleotidase activities, insulin-like growth factor I concentrations, and lipoprotein oxidation rates in vitro. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:639-42. View abstract.
  534. Rauscher AM, Fairweather-Tait SJ, Wilson PD, et al. Zinc metabolism in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Trace Elem Med Biol 1997;11:65-70. View abstract.
  535. Polenik P. Zinc in etiology of periodontal disease. Med Hypotheses 1993;40:182-5. View abstract.
  536. Williams C, McBride S, Mostler K, et al. Efficacy of a dentifrice containing zinc citrate for the control of plaque and gingivitis: a 6-month clinical study in adults. Compend Contin Educ Dent 1998;19:4-15. View abstract.
  537. Svatun B, Saxton CA, Huntington E, Cummins D. The effects of a silica dentifrice containing Triclosan and zinc citrate on supragingival plaque and calculus formation and the control of gingivitis. Int Dent J 1993;43:431-9. View abstract.
  538. Svatun B, Saxton CA, Rolla G. Six-month study of the effect of a dentifrice containing zinc citrate and triclosan on plaque, gingival health, and calculus. Scand J Dent Res 1990;98:301-4. View abstract.
  539. Stephen KW, Saxton CA, Jones CL, et al. Control of gingivitis and calculus by a dentifrice containing a zinc salt and triclosan. J Periodontol 1990;61:674-9. View abstract.
  540. Schaeken MJ, van der Hoeven JS, Saxton CA, Cummins D. The effect of mouthrinses containing zinc and triclosan on plaque accumulation, development of gingivitis and formation of calculus in a 28-week clinical test. J Clin Periodontol 1996;23:465-70. View abstract.
  541. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services. 2nd ed. Natl Institute of Health, 1996. Available at: http://hstat2.nlm.nih.gov/download/409812772438.html.
  542. Jackson JL, Lesho E, Peterson C. Zinc and the common cold: a meta-analysis revisited. J Nutr 2000;130:1512S-5S. View abstract.
  543. Marshall I. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;:CD001364. View abstract.
  544. Berger MM, Spertini F, Shenkin A, et al. Trace element supplementation modulates pulmonary infection rates after major burns: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:365-71. View abstract.
  545. Simkin PA. Oral zinc sulphate in rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 1976;2:539-42. View abstract.
  546. Zoli A, Altomonte L, Caricchio R, et al. Serum zinc and copper in active rheumatoid arthritis: correlation with interleukin 1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha. Clin Rheumatol 1998;17:378-82. View abstract.
  547. Rasker JJ, Kardaun SH. Lack of beneficial effect of zinc sulphate in rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 1982;11:168-70. View abstract.
  548. Clemmensen OJ, Siggaard-Andersen J, Worm AM, et al. Psoriatic arthritis treated with oral zinc sulphate. Br J Dermatol 1980;103:411-5. View abstract.
  549. Leibovici V, Statter M, Weinrauch L, et al. Effect of zinc therapy on neutrophil chemotaxis in psoriasis. Isr J Med Sci 1990;26:306-9. View abstract.
  550. Burrows NP, Turnbull AJ, Punchard NA, et al. A trial of oral zinc supplementation in psoriasis. Cutis 1994;54:117-8. View abstract.
  551. Lovell MA, Xie C, Markesbery WR. Protection against amyloid beta peptide toxicity by zinc. Brain Res 1999;823:88-95. View abstract.
  552. Lovell MA, Robertson JD, Teesdale WJ, et al. Copper, iron and zinc in Alzheimer's disease senile plaques. J Neurol Sci 1998;158:47-52. View abstract.
  553. Huang X, Cuajungco MP, Atwood CS, et al. Alzheimer's disease, beta-amyloid protein and zinc. J Nutr 2000;130:1488S-92S. View abstract.
  554. Michaelsson G, Ljunghall K. Patients with dermatitis herpetiformis, acne, psoriasis and Darier's disease have low epidermal zinc concentrations. Acta Derm Venereol 1990;70:304-8. View abstract.
  555. Michaelsson G, Juhlin L, Ljunghall K. A double-blind study of the effect of zinc and oxytetracycline in acne vulgaris. Br J Dermatol 1977;97:561-6. View abstract.
  556. Cunliffe WJ, Burke B, Dodman B, Gould DJ. A double-blind trial of a zinc sulphate/citrate complex and tetracycline in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Br J Dermatol 1979;101:321-5. View abstract.
  557. Dreno B, Amblard P, Agache P, et al. Low doses of zinc gluconate for inflammatory acne. Acta Derm Venereol 1989;69:541-3. View abstract.
  558. Michaelsson G, Juhlin L, Vahlquist A. Effects of oral zinc and vitamin A in acne. Arch Dermatol 1977;113:31-6. View abstract.
  559. Hirt M, Nobel S, Barron E. Zinc nasal gel for the treatment of common cold symptoms: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ear Nose Throat J 2000;79:778-82.. View abstract.
  560. Meynadier J. Efficacy and safety study of two zinc gluconate regimens in the treatment of inflammatory acne. Eur J Dermatol 2000 May;10:269-73. View abstract.
  561. Hillstrom L, Pettersson L, Hellbe L, et al. Comparison of oral treatment with zinc sulphate and placebo in acne vulgaris. Br J Dermatol 1977;97:681-4. View abstract.
  562. Goransson K, Liden S, Odsell L. Oral zinc in acne vulgaris: a clinical and methodological study. Acta Derm Venereol 1978;58:443-8. View abstract.
  563. Khanna VJ, Shieh S, Benjamin J, et al. Necrolytic acral erythema associated with hepatitis C effective treatment with interferon alfa and zinc. Arch Dermatol 2000;136:755-7. View abstract.
  564. Umeta M, West CE, Haidar J, et al. Zinc supplementation and stunted infants in Ethiopia: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2000;355:2021-6. View abstract.
  565. Traikovich SS. Use of topical ascorbic acid and its effects on photodamaged skin topography. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999;125:1091-8. View abstract.
  566. Green S. Chelation therapy: unproven claims and unsound theories. Quackwatch 2000. Available at: http://www.quackwatch.org (Accessed 17 November 2000).
  567. Neuvonen PJ. Interactions with the absorption of tetracyclines. Drugs 1976;11:45-54.. View abstract.
  568. Seelig MS. Auto-immune complications of D-penicillamine - A possible result of zinc and magnesium depletion and of pyridoxine inactivation. J Am Coll Nutr 1982;1:207-14. View abstract.
  569. Segal S, Kaminski S. Drug-nutrient interactions. American Druggist 1996 Jul;42-8.
  570. Campbell IA, Elmes PC. Ethambutol and the eye: zinc and copper (letter). Lancet 1975;2:711. View abstract.
  571. Mountokalakis T, Dourakis S, Karatzas N, et al. Zinc deficiency in mild hypertensive patients treated with diuretics. J Hypertens Suppl 1984;2:S571-2. View abstract.
  572. Peirce A. The American Pharmaceutical Association Practical Guide to Natural Medicines. New York, NY: William Morrow and Co., 1999.
  573. Bhutta ZA, Black RE, Brown KH, et al. Prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia by zinc supplementation in children in developing countries: pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Pediatr 1999;135:689-97. View abstract.
  574. Penny ME, Peerson JM, Marin RM, et al. Randomized, community-based trial of the effect of zinc supplementation, with and without other micronutrients, on the duration of persistent childhood diarrhea in Lima, Peru. J Pediatr 1999;135:208-17. View abstract.
  575. Hansten PD, Horn JR. Drug Interactions Analysis and Management. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics Inc., 1997 and updates.
  576. Henderson LM, Brewer GJ, Dressman JB, et al. Effect of intragastric pH on the absorption of oral zinc acetate and zinc oxide in young healthy volunteers. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1995;19:393-7. View abstract.
  577. Duisterwinkel FJ, Wolthers BG, Koopman BJ, et al. Bioavailability of orally administered zinc, using Taurizine. Pharm Weekbl Sci 1986;8:85-8. View abstract.
  578. Beutler KT, Pankewycz O, Brautigan DL. Equivalent uptake of organic and inorganic zinc by monkey kidney fibroblasts, human intestinal epithelial cells, or perfused mouse intestine. Biol Trace Elem Res 1998;61:19-31. View abstract.
  579. Agren MS. Studies on zinc in wound healing. Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh) 1990;154:1-36. View abstract.
  580. Young B, Ott L, Kasarskis E, et al. Zinc supplementation is associated with improved neurologic recovery rate and visceral protein levels of patients with severe closed head injury. J Neurotrauma 1996;13:25-34. View abstract.
  581. Rittenhouse T. The management of lower-extremity ulcers with zinc-saline wet dressings versus normal saline wet dressings. Adv Ther 1996;13:88-94. View abstract.
  582. Brewer GJ, Dick RD, Johnson VD, et al. Treatment of Wilson's disease with zinc: XV long-term follow-up studies. J Lab Clin Med 1998;132:264-78. View abstract.
  583. Sturniolo GC, Mestriner C, Irato P, et al. Zinc therapy increases duodenal concentrations of metallothionein and iron in Wilson's disease patients. Am J Gastroenterol 1999;94:334-8. View abstract.
  584. Borroni G, Brazzelli V, Vignati G, et al. Bullous lesions in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Histopathologic findings regarding two patients. Am J Dermatopathol 1992;14:304-9. View abstract.
  585. Koletzko B, Bretschneider A, Bremer HJ. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids in acrodermatitis enteropathica before and after zinc supplementation. Eur J Pediatr 1985;143:310-4. View abstract.
  586. Walldius G, Michaelsson G, Hardell LI, Aberg H. The effects of diet and zinc treatment on the fatty acid composition of serum lipids and adipose tissue and on serum lipoproteins in two adolescent patients with acrodermatitis enteropathica. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:512-22. View abstract.
  587. Habbema L, Koopmans B, Menke HE, et al. A 4% erythromycin and zinc combination (Zineryt) versus 2% erythromycin (Eryderm) in acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind comparative study. Br J Dermatol 1989;121:497-502. View abstract.
  588. Schachner L, Eaglstein W, Kittles C, Mertz P. Topical erythromycin and zinc therapy for acne. J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;22:253-60. View abstract.
  589. Dreno B, Trossaert M, Boiteau HL, Litoux P. Zinc salts effects on granulocyte zinc concentration and chemotaxis in acne patients. Acta Derm Venereol 1992;72:250-2. View abstract.
  590. Lomaestro BM, Bailie GR. Absorption interactions with fluoroquinolones. 1995 update. Drug Saf 1995;12:314-33. View abstract.
  591. Fosmire GJ. Zinc toxicity. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;51:225-7. View abstract.
  592. Brewer GJ, Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan V, Johnson V, et al. Treatment of Wilson's disease with zinc: XI. Interaction with other anticopper agents. J Am Coll Nutr 1993;12:26-30. View abstract.
  593. Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
  594. Chan S, Gerson B, Subramaniam S. The role of copper, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc in nutrition and health. Clin Lab Med 1998;18:673-85. View abstract.
  595. Hebel SK, ed. Drug Facts and Comparisons. 52nd ed. St. Louis: Facts and Comparisons, 1998.
  596. Freeland-Graves JH, Lin PH. Plasma uptake of manganese as affected by oral loads of manganese, calcium, milk, phosphorus, copper, and zinc. J Am Coll Nutr 1991;10:38-43. View abstract.
  597. Strause L, Saltman P, Smith KT, et al. Spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals. J Nutr 1994;124:1060-4. View abstract.
  598. Hahn CJ, Evans GW. Absorption of trace metals in the zinc-deficient rat. Am J Physiol 1975;228:1020-3. View abstract.
  599. Zhou JR, Erdman JW Jr. Phytic acid in health and disease. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1995;35:495-508. View abstract.
  600. Kugelmas M. Preliminary observation: oral zinc sulfate replacement is effective in treating muscle cramps in cirrhotic patients. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:13-5. View abstract.
  601. McKenna AA, Ilich JZ, Andon MB, et al. Zinc balance in adolescent females. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:1460-4. View abstract.
  602. Cohanim M, Yendt ER. The effects of thiazides on serum and urinary zinc in patients with renal calculi. Johns Hopkins Med J 1975;136:137-44. View abstract.
  603. Reyes AJ, Olhaberry JV, Leary WP, et al. Urinary zinc excretion, diuretics, zinc deficiency and some side-effects of diuretics. S Afr Med J 1983;64:936-41. View abstract.
  604. Blondeau JM. Expanded activity and utility of the new fluoroquinolones: a review. Clin Ther 1999;21:3-40. View abstract.
  605. Sazawal S, Black RE, Bhan MK, et al. Zinc supplementation in young children with acute diarrhea in India. N Engl J Med 1995;333:839-44. View abstract.
  606. Roy SK, Tomkins AM, Akramuzzaman SM, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of zinc supplementation in malnourished Bangladeshi children with acute diarrhea. Arch Dis Child 1997;77:196-200. View abstract.
  607. Faruque AS, Mahalanabis D, Haque SS, et al. Double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of zinc or vitamin A supplementation in young children with acute diarrhea. Acta Paediatr 1999;88:154-60. View abstract.
  608. Fortes C, Forastiere F, Agabiti N, et al. The effect of zinc and vitamin A supplementation on immune response in an older population. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998;46:19-26. View abstract.
  609. Mostafa WZ, al-Zayer AA. Acrodermatitis enteropathica in Saudi Arabia. Int J Dermatol 1990;29:134-8. View abstract.
  610. Feucht CL, Allen BS, Chalker DK, et al. Topical erythromycin with zinc in acne. A double-blind controlled study. J Am Acad Dermatol 1980;3:483-91. View abstract.
  611. Pierard-Franchimont C, Goffin V, Visser JN, et al. A double-blind controlled evaluation of the sebosuppressive activity of topical erythromycin-zinc complex. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1995;49:57-60. View abstract.
  612. Sandstead HH. Requirements and toxicity of essential trace elements, illustrated by zinc and copper. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:621S-4S. View abstract.
  613. Broun ER, Greist A, Tricot G, Hoffman R. Excessive zinc ingestion. A reversible cause of sideroblastic anemia and bone marrow depression. JAMA 1990;264:1441-3. View abstract.
  614. Burnham TH, ed. Drug Facts and Comparisons, Updated Monthly. Facts and Comparisons, St. Louis, MO.
  615. Whitney E, Cataldo CB, Rolfes SR, eds. Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1998.
  616. Macknin ML, Piedmonte M, Calendine C, et al. Zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold in children: a randomized, controlled trial. JAMA 1998;279:1962-7. View abstract.
  617. Eby GA. Zinc ion availability--the determinant of efficacy in zinc lozenge treatment of common colds. J Antimicrob Chemother 1997;40:483-93. View abstract.
  618. Weismann K, Jakobsen JP, Weismann JE, et al. Zinc gluconate lozenges for common cold. A double-blind clinical trial. Dan Med Bull 1990;37:279-81. View abstract.
  619. Smith DS, Helzner EC, Nuttall CE Jr, et al. Failure of zinc gluconate in treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1989;33:646-8. View abstract.
  620. Farr BM, Conner EM, Betts RF, et al. Two randomized controlled trials of zinc gluconate lozenge therapy of experimentally induced rhinovirus colds. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1987;31:1183-7. View abstract.
  621. Eby GA, Davis DR, Halcomb WW. Reduction in duration of common colds by zinc gluconate lozenges in a double-blind study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1984;25:20-4. View abstract.
  622. Al-Nakib W, Higgins PG, Barrow I, et al. Prophylaxis and treatment of rhinovirus colds with zinc gluconate lozenges. J Antimicrob Chemother 1987;20:893-901. View abstract.
  623. Godfrey JC, Conant Sloane B, Smith DS, et al. Zinc gluconate and the common cold: a controlled clinical study. J Int Med Res 1992;20:234-6. View abstract.
  624. Mossad SB, Macknin ML, Medendorp SV, Mason P. Zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Ann Intern Med 1996;125:81-8. View abstract.
  625. Barceloux DG. Zinc. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1999;37:279-92. View abstract.
  626. Zarembo JE, Godfrey JC, Godfrey NJ. Zinc(II) in saliva: determination of concentrations produced by different formulations of zinc gluconate lozenges containing common excipients. J Pharm Sci 1992;81:128-30.. View abstract.
  627. Golik A, Modai D, Averbukh Z, et al. Zinc metabolism in patients treated with captopril versus enalapril. Metabolism 1990;39:665-7. View abstract.
  628. Golik A, Zaidenstein R, Dishi V, et al. Effects of captopril and enalapril on zinc metabolism in hypertensive patients. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:75-8. View abstract.
  629. McEvoy GK, ed. AHFS Drug Information. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1998.
  630. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
Last reviewed - 04/16/2021