What is it?
Ashwagandha is commonly used for stress. It is also used as an "adaptogen" for many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these other uses.
Don't confuse ashwagandha with Physalis alkekengi. Both are known as winter cherry. Also, don't confuse ashwagandha with American ginseng, Panax ginseng, or eleuthero.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): There is no good evidence to support using ashwagandha for COVID-19. Follow healthy lifestyle choices and proven prevention methods instead.
How effective is it?
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.
The effectiveness ratings for ASHWAGANDHA are as follows:
Possibly effective for...
- Stress. Some research shows that taking a specific ashwagandha root extract (KSM66, Ixoreal Biomed) 300 mg twice daily after food or another specific extract (Shoden, Arjuna Natural Ltd.) 240 mg daily for 60 days appears to improve symptoms of stress.
Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...
- Aging. Early research shows that taking ashwagandha root extract helps to improve well-being, sleep quality, and mental alertness by small to moderate amounts in people aged 65-80 years.
- Metabolic side effects caused by antipsychotic drugs. Antipsychotics are used to treat schizophrenia but they can cause levels of fat and sugar in the blood to increase. Taking a specific ashwagandha extract (Cap Strelaxin, M/s Pharmanza Herbal Pvt. Ltd.) 400 mg three times daily for one month might reduce levels of fat and sugar in the blood in people using these medications.
- Anxiety. Some early research shows that taking ashwagandha can reduce some symptoms of anxious mood.
- Athletic performance. Some research shows that taking ashwagandha helps with how much oxygen the body can use during exercise. But it isn't known if this helps to improve performance.
- Bipolar disorder. Taking a specific ashwagandha extract (Sensoril, Natreon, Inc.) for 8 weeks might improve brain function in people being treated for bipolar disorder.
- Tiredness in people treated with cancer drugs. Early research suggests taking a specific ashwagandha extract 2000 mg (Himalaya Drug Co, New Delhi, India) during chemotherapy treatment might reduce feelings of tiredness.
- Diabetes. There is some evidence that ashwagandha might reduce blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.
- A type of persistent anxiety marked by exaggerated worry and tension (generalized anxiety disorder or GAD). Some early clinical research shows that taking ashwagandha can reduce some symptoms of anxiety.
- High cholesterol. There is some evidence that ashwagandha might reduce cholesterol levels in patients with high cholesterol.
- Underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). People with underactive thyroid have high blood levels of a hormone called thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). People with underactive thyroid can also have low levels of thyroid hormone. Taking ashwagandha seems to lower TSH and increase thyroid hormone levels in people with a mild form of underactive thyroid.
- Insomnia. Some research shows that taking ashwagandha might help people sleep better.
- Conditions in a man that prevent him from getting a woman pregnant within a year of trying to conceive (male infertility).Some early research shows that ashwagandha might improve sperm quality and sperm count in infertile men. But it isn't clear if ashwagandha can actually improve fertility.
- A type of anxiety marked by recurrent thoughts and repetitive behaviors (obsessive-compulsive disorder or OCD). Early research shows that ashwagandha root extract might reduce symptoms of OCD when taken with prescribed medications for 6 weeks.
- Sexual problems that prevent satisfaction during sexual activity. Early research shows that taking ashwagandha extract daily for 8 weeks along with receiving counseling increases interest in sex and sexual satisfaction in adult women with sexual dysfunction better than counseling alone.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
- Brain damage that affects muscle movement (cerebellar ataxia).
- Parkinson disease.
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
- Altering immune system function.
- Inducing vomiting.
- Liver problems.
- Swelling (inflammation).
- Ulcerations, when applied to the skin.
- Other conditions.
How does it work?
Are there safety concerns?
When applied to the skin: There isn't enough reliable information to know if ashwagandha is safe or what the side effects might be.
Special precautions & warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It is LIKELY UNSAFE to use ashwagandha when pregnant. There is some evidence that ashwagandha might cause miscarriages. There isn't enough reliable information to know if ashwagandha is safe to use when breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
"Auto-immune diseases" such as multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or other conditions: Ashwagandha might cause the immune system to become more active, and this could increase the symptoms of auto-immune diseases. If you have one of these conditions, it's best to avoid using ashwagandha.
Surgery: Ashwagandha may slow down the central nervous system. Healthcare providers worry that anesthesia and other medications during and after surgery might increase this effect. Stop taking ashwagandha at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Thyroid disorders: Ashwagandha might increase thyroid hormone levels. Ashwagandha should be used cautiously or avoided if you have a thyroid condition or take thyroid hormone medications.
Are there interactions with medications?
- Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
- Ashwagandha might decrease blood sugar levels. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking ashwagandha along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, metformin (Glucophage), pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
- Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)
- Ashwagandha might lower blood pressure. Taking ashwagandha with medications used to treat high blood pressure might cause blood pressure levels to go to low.
Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.
- Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants)
- Ashwagandha seems to make the immune system more active. Taking ashwagandha along with medications that decrease the immune system might decrease the effectiveness of these medications.
Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.
- Sedative medications (Benzodiazepines)
- Ashwagandha might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Drugs that cause sleepiness and drowsiness are called sedatives. Taking ashwagandha along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.
Some of these sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), alprazolam (Xanax), flurazepam (Dalmane), midazolam (Versed), and others.
- Sedative medications (CNS depressants)
- Ashwagandha might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking ashwagandha along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.
Some sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), phenobarbital (Donnatal), zolpidem (Ambien), and others.
- Thyroid hormone
- The body naturally produces thyroid hormones. Ashwagandha might increase how much thyroid hormone the body produces. Taking ashwagandha with thyroid hormone pills might cause too much thyroid hormone in the body, and increase the effects and side effects of thyroid hormone.
Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?
- Herbs and supplements that might lower blood pressure
- Ashwagandha might lower blood pressure. Combining ashwagandha with other herbs and supplements that also lower blood pressure might cause blood pressure to go to low. Some herbs and supplements of this type include andrographis, casein peptides, cat's claw, coenzyme Q-10, fish oil, L-arginine, lyceum, stinging nettle, theanine, and others.
- Herbs and supplements with sedative properties
- Ashwagandha can act like a sedative. That is, it can cause sleepiness. Using it along with other herbs and supplements that also act like sedatives might cause too much sleepiness. Some of these include 5-HTP, calamus, California poppy, catnip, hops, Jamaican dogwood, kava, St. John's wort, skullcap, valerian, yerba mansa, and others.
Are there interactions with foods?
- There are no known interactions with foods.
What dose is used?
- For stress: Ashwagandha root extract 300 mg twice daily after food (KSM66, Ixoreal Biomed) or 240 mg daily (Shoden, Arjuna Natural Ltd.) for 60 days.
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.
- Deshpande A, Irani N, Balkrishnan R, Benny IR. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study to evaluate the effects of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extract on sleep quality in healthy adults. Sleep Med. 2020;72:28-36. View abstract.
- Fuladi S, Emami SA, Mohammadpour AH, Karimani A, Manteghi AA, Sahebkar A. Assessment of Withania somnifera root extract efficacy in patients with generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2020. View abstract.
- Björnsson HK, Björnsson ES, Avula B, et al. Ashwagandha-induced liver injury: A case series from Iceland and the US Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network. Liver Int. 2020;40:825-829. View abstract.
- Durg S, Bavage S, Shivaram SB. Withania somnifera (Indian ginseng) in diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of scientific evidence from experimental research to clinical application. Phytother Res. 2020;34:1041-1059. View abstract.
- Kelgane SB, Salve J, Sampara P, Debnath K. Efficacy and tolerability of ashwagandha root extract in the elderly for improvement of general well-being and sleep: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Cureus. 2020;12:e7083. View abstract.
- Pérez-Gómez J, Villafaina S, Adsuar JC, Merellano-Navarro E, Collado-Mateo D. Effects of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on VO2max: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients. 2020;12:1119. View abstract.
- Salve J, Pate S, Debnath K, Langade D. Adaptogenic and anxiolytic effects of ashwagandha root extract in healthy adults: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study. Cureus. 2019;11:e6466. View abstract.
- Lopresti AL, Smith SJ, Malvi H, Kodgule R. An investigation into the stress-relieving and pharmacological actions of an ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extract: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019;98:e17186. View abstract.
- Sharma AK, Basu I, Singh S. Efficacy and safety of Ashwagandha root extract in subclinical hypothyroid patients: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2018 Mar;24:243-248. View abstract.
- Kumar G, Srivastava A, Sharma SK, Rao TD, Gupta YK. Efficacy and safety evaluation of ayurvedic treatment (ashwagandha powder and sidh makardhwaj) in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a pilot perspective study. Indian J Med Res 2015 Jan;141:100-6. View abstract.
- Dongre S, Langade D, Bhattacharyya S. Efficacy and safety of ashwagandha (withania somnifera) root extract in improving sexual function in women: a pilot study. Biomed Res Int 2015;2015:284154.View abstract.
- Jahanbakhsh SP, Manteghi AA, Emami SA, Mahyari S, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of withania somnifera (ashwagandha) root extract in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Complement Ther Med 2016 Aug;27:25-9.View abstract.
- Choudhary D, Bhattacharyya S, Joshi K. Body weight management in adults under chronic stress through treatment with ashwagandha root extract: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2017 Jan;22:96-106 View abstract.
- Sud Khyati S, Thaker B. A randomized double blind placebo controlled study of ashwagandha on generalized anxiety disorder. Int Ayurvedic Med J 2013;1:1-7.
- Chengappa KN, Bowie CR, Schlicht PJ, Fleet D, Brar JS, Jindal R. Randomized placebo-controlled adjunctive study of an extract of withania somnifera for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013;74:1076-83. View abstract.
- Chandrasekhar K, Kapoor J, Anishetty S. A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults. Indian J Psychol Med. 2012;34:255-62. View abstract.
- Biswal BM, Sulaiman SA, Ismail HC, Zakaria H, Musa KI. Effect of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) on the development of chemotherapy-induced fatigue and quality of life in breast cancer patients. Integr Cancer Ther. 2013;12:312-22. View abstract.
- Ambiye VR, Langade D, Dongre S, Aptikar P, Kulkarni M, Dongre A. Clinical Evaluation of the Spermatogenic Activity of the Root Extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in Oligospermic Males: A Pilot Study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:571420. View abstract.
- Agnihotri AP, Sontakke SD, Thawani VR, Saoji A, Goswami VS. Effects of Withania somnifera in patients of schizophrenia: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled pilot trial study. Indian J Pharmacol. 2013;45:417-8. View abstract.
- Anbalagan K and Sadique J. Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), a rejuvenating herbal drug which controls alpha-2 macroglobulin synthesis during inflammation. Int.J.Crude Drug Res. 1985;23:177-183.
- Venkataraghavan S, Seshadri C, Sundaresan TP, and et al. The comparative effect of milk fortified with Aswagandha, Aswagandha and Punarnava in children - a double-blind study. J Res Ayur Sid 1980;1:370-385.
- Ghosal S, Lal J, Srivastava R, and et al. Immunomodulatory and CNS effects of sitoindosides 9 and 10, two new glycowithanolides from Withania somnifera. Phytotherapy Research 1989;3:201-206.
- Upadhaya L and et al. Role of an indigenous drug Geriforte on blood levels of biogenic amines and its significance in the treatment of anxiety neurosis. Acta Nerv Super 1990;32:1-5.
- Ahumada F, Aspee F, Wikman G, and et al. Withania somnifera extract. Its effect on arterial blood pressure in anaesthetized dogs. Phytotherapy Research 1991;5:111-114.
- Kuppurajan K, Rajagopalan SS, Sitoraman R, and et al. Effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal) on the process of ageing on human volunteers. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha 1980;1:247-258.
- Dhuley, J. N. Effect of ashwagandha on lipid peroxidation in stress-induced animals. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;60:173-178. View abstract.
- Dhuley, J. N. Therapeutic efficacy of Ashwagandha against experimental aspergillosis in mice. Immunopharmacol.Immunotoxicol. 1998;20:191-198. View abstract.
- Sharada, A. C., Solomon, F. E., Devi, P. U., Udupa, N., and Srinivasan, K. K. Antitumor and radiosensitizing effects of withaferin A on mouse Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in vivo. Acta Oncol. 1996;35:95-100. View abstract.
- Devi, P. U., Sharada, A. C., and Solomon, F. E. Antitumor and radiosensitizing effects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) on a transplantable mouse tumor, Sarcoma-180. Indian J Exp Biol. 1993;31:607-611. View abstract.
- Praveenkumar, V., Kuttan, R., and Kuttan, G. Chemoprotective action of Rasayanas against cyclosphamide toxicity. Tumori 8-31-1994;80:306-308. View abstract.
- Devi, P. U., Sharada, A. C., and Solomon, F. E. In vivo growth inhibitory and radiosensitizing effects of withaferin A on mouse Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 8-16-1995;95(1-2):189-193. View abstract.
- Anbalagan, K. and Sadique, J. Influence of an Indian medicine (Ashwagandha) on acute-phase reactants in inflammation. Indian J Exp Biol. 1981;19:245-249. View abstract.
- Malhotra, C. L., Mehta, V. L., Prasad, K., and Das, P. K. Studies on Withania ashwagandha, Kaul. IV. The effect of total alkaloids on the smooth muscles. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1965;9:9-15. View abstract.
- Malhotra, C. L., Mehta, V. L., Das, P. K., and Dhalla, N. S. Studies on Withania-ashwagandha, Kaul. V. The effect of total alkaloids (ashwagandholine) on the central nervous system. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1965;9:127-136. View abstract.
- Begum, V. H. and Sadique, J. Long term effect of herbal drug Withania somnifera on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1988;26:877-882. View abstract.
- Vaishnavi, K., Saxena, N., Shah, N., Singh, R., Manjunath, K., Uthayakumar, M., Kanaujia, S. P., Kaul, S. C., Sekar, K., and Wadhwa, R. Differential activities of the two closely related withanolides, Withaferin A and Withanone: bioinformatics and experimental evidences. PLoS.One. 2012;7:e44419. View abstract.
- Sehgal, V. N., Verma, P., and Bhattacharya, S. N. Fixed-drug eruption caused by ashwagandha (Withania somnifera): a widely used Ayurvedic drug. Skinmed. 2012;10:48-49. View abstract.
- Malviya, N., Jain, S., Gupta, V. B., and Vyas, S. Recent studies on aphrodisiac herbs for the management of male sexual dysfunction--a review. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2011;68:3-8. View abstract.
- Ven Murthy, M. R., Ranjekar, P. K., Ramassamy, C., and Deshpande, M. Scientific basis for the use of Indian ayurvedic medicinal plants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders: ashwagandha. Cent.Nerv.Syst.Agents Med.Chem. 9-1-2010;10:238-246. View abstract.
- Bhat, J., Damle, A., Vaishnav, P. P., Albers, R., Joshi, M., and Banerjee, G. In vivo enhancement of natural killer cell activity through tea fortified with Ayurvedic herbs. Phytother.Res 2010;24:129-135. View abstract.
- Mikolai, J., Erlandsen, A., Murison, A., Brown, K. A., Gregory, W. L., Raman-Caplan, P., and Zwickey, H. L. In vivo effects of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extract on the activation of lymphocytes. J.Altern.Complement Med. 2009;15:423-430. View abstract.
- Lu, L., Liu, Y., Zhu, W., Shi, J., Liu, Y., Ling, W., and Kosten, T. R. Traditional medicine in the treatment of drug addiction. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2009;35:1-11. View abstract.
- Singh, R. H., Narsimhamurthy, K., and Singh, G. Neuronutrient impact of Ayurvedic Rasayana therapy in brain aging. Biogerontology. 2008;9:369-374. View abstract.
- Tohda, C. [Overcoming several neurodegenerative diseases by traditional medicines: the development of therapeutic medicines and unraveling pathophysiological mechanisms]. Yakugaku Zasshi 2008;128:1159-1167. View abstract.
- Deocaris, C. C., Widodo, N., Wadhwa, R., and Kaul, S. C. Merger of ayurveda and tissue culture-based functional genomics: inspirations from systems biology. J.Transl.Med. 2008;6:14. View abstract.
- Kulkarni, S. K. and Dhir, A. Withania somnifera: an Indian ginseng. Prog.Neuropsychopharmacol.Biol.Psychiatry 7-1-2008;32:1093-1105. View abstract.
- Choudhary, M. I., Nawaz, S. A., ul-Haq, Z., Lodhi, M. A., Ghayur, M. N., Jalil, S., Riaz, N., Yousuf, S., Malik, A., Gilani, A. H., and ur-Rahman, A. Withanolides, a new class of natural cholinesterase inhibitors with calcium antagonistic properties. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 8-19-2005;334:276-287. View abstract.
- Khattak, S., Saeed, Ur Rehman, Shah, H. U., Khan, T., and Ahmad, M. In vitro enzyme inhibition activities of crude ethanolic extracts derived from medicinal plants of Pakistan. Nat.Prod.Res 2005;19:567-571. View abstract.
- Kaur, K., Rani, G., Widodo, N., Nagpal, A., Taira, K., Kaul, S. C., and Wadhwa, R. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative and anti-oxidative activities of leaf extract from in vivo and in vitro raised Ashwagandha. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2004;42:2015-2020. View abstract.
- Devi, P. U., Sharada, A. C., Solomon, F. E., and Kamath, M. S. In vivo growth inhibitory effect of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) on a transplantable mouse tumor, Sarcoma 180. Indian J Exp Biol. 1992;30:169-172. View abstract.
- Gupta, S. K., Dua, A., and Vohra, B. P. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) attenuates antioxidant defense in aged spinal cord and inhibits copper induced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidative modifications. Drug Metabol.Drug Interact. 2003;19:211-222. View abstract.
- Bhattacharya, S. K. and Muruganandam, A. V. Adaptogenic activity of Withania somnifera: an experimental study using a rat model of chronic stress. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav 2003;75:547-555. View abstract.
- Davis, L. and Kuttan, G. Effect of Withania somnifera on DMBA induced carcinogenesis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;75(2-3):165-168. View abstract.
- Bhattacharya, S. K., Bhattacharya, A., Sairam, K., and Ghosal, S. Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides: an experimental study. Phytomedicine 2000;7:463-469. View abstract.
- Panda S, Kar A. Changes in thyroid hormone concentrations after administration of ashwagandha root extract to adult male mice. J Pharm Pharmacol 1998;50:1065-68. View abstract.
- Panda S, Kar A. Withania somnifera and Bauhinia purpurea in the regulation of circulating thyroid hormone concentrations in female mice. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;67:233-39. View abstract.
- Agarwal R, Diwanay S, Patki P, Patwardhan B. Studies on immunomodulatory activity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) extracts in experimental immune inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;67:27-35. View abstract.
- Ahumada F, Aspee F, Wikman G, Hancke J. Withania somnifera exract. Its effects on arterial blood pressure in anaesthetized dogs. Phytother Res 1991;5:111-14.
- Kulkarni RR, Patki PS, Jog VP, et al. Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. J Ethnopharmacol 1991;33:91-5. View abstract.
- Ahmad MK, Mahdi AA, Shukla KK, et al. Withania somnifera improves semen quality by regulating reproductive hormone levels and oxidative stress in seminal plasma of infertile males. Fertil Steril 2010;94:989-96. View abstract.
- Andallu B, Radhika B. Hypoglycemic, diuretic and hypocholesterolemic effect of winter cherry (Withania somnifera, Dunal) root. Indian J Exp Biol 2000;38:607-9. View abstract.
- Sriranjini SJ, Pal PK, Devidas KV, Ganpathy S. Improvement of balance in progressive degenerative cerebellar ataxias after Ayurvedic therapy: a preliminary report. Neurol India 2009;57:166-71. View abstract.
- Katz M, Levine AA, Kol-Degani H, Kav-Venaki L. A compound herbal preparation (CHP) in the treatment of children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial. J Atten Disord 2010;14:281-91. View abstract.
- Cooley K, Szczurko O, Perri D, et al. Naturopathic care for anxiety: a randomized controlled trial ISRC TN78958974. PLoS One 2009;4:e6628. View abstract.
- Dasgupta A, Tso G, Wells A. Effect of Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, and Indian ayurvedic medicine Ashwagandha on serum digoxin measurement by Digoxin III, a new digoxin immunoassay. J Clin Lab Anal 2008;22:295-301. View abstract.
- Dasgupta A, Peterson A, Wells A, Actor JK. Effect of Indian Ayurvedic medicine Ashwagandha on measurement of serum digoxin and 11 commonly monitored drugs using immunoassays: study of protein binding and interaction with Digibind. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2007;131:1298-303. View abstract.
- Mishra LC, Singh BB, Dagenais S. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): a review. Altern Med Rev 2000;5:334-46. View abstract.
- Nagashayana N, Sankarankutty P, Nampoothiri MRV, et al. Association of l-DOPA with recovery following Ayurveda medication in Parkinson's Disease. J Neurol Sci 2000;176:124-7. View abstract.
- Bhattacharya SK, Satyan KS, Ghosal S. Antioxidant activity of glycowithanolides from Withania somnifera. Indian J Exp Biol 1997;35:236-9. View abstract.
- Davis L, Kuttan G. Suppressive effect of cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity by Withania somnifera extract in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;62:209-14. View abstract.
- Archana R, Namasivayam A. Antistressor effect of Withania somnifera. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;64:91-3. View abstract.
- Davis L, Kuttan G. Effect of Withania somnifera on cyclophosphamide-induced urotoxicity. Cancer Lett 2000;148:9-17. View abstract.
- Upton R, ed. Ashwagandha Root (Withania somnifera): Analytical, quality control, and therapuetic monograph. Santa Cruz, CA: American Herbal Pharmacopoeia 2000:1-25.
- McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, eds. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, LLC 1997.