URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/790.html

Lactobacillus acidophilus

What is it?

Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) is a type of probiotic ("good" bacteria) found in the human gut, mouth, and vagina, and also in certain foods.

"Good" bacteria such as L. acidophilus can help break down food, absorb nutrients, and fight off "bad" organisms that might cause diseases. L. acidophilus is sometimes added to fermented foods like yogurt and is also found in probiotic supplements.

People commonly use L. acidophilus for diarrhea from antibiotics, as well as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina, and an infection caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). It is also used for acne, hay fever, eczema, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support many of these other uses. There is also no good evidence to support using L. acidophilus COVID-19.

Don't confuse L. acidophilus with other probiotics, or with fermented food products such as fermented milk, kefir, or yogurt. These are not the same. Also note that the Lactobacillus genus was split up into 25 different genera in April 2020. Some other species' names changed, but L. acidophilus remained the same.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Diarrhea in people taking antibiotics (antibiotic-associated diarrhea). Taking L. acidophilus by mouth, alone or with other probiotics, seems to reduce the risk of diarrhea while taking antibiotics.
  • Overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina. L. acidophilus vaginal suppositories and vaginal tablets might help treat this condition. But it's not clear if taking L. acidophilus by mouth helps.
  • A digestive tract infection that can lead to ulcers (Helicobacter pylori or H. pylori). Taking L. acidophilus by mouth along with most standard drug therapies helps treat stomach ulcers caused by H. pylori.
  • A long-term disorder of the large intestines that causes stomach pain (irritable bowel syndrome or IBS). Taking L. acidophilus by mouth with other probiotics seems to reduce symptoms of IBS.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Prone to allergies and allergic reactions (atopic disease). Taking L. acidophilus by mouth during pregnancy, while breastfeeding, or giving it to newborns doesn't seem to prevent allergies in children.
There is interest in using L. acidophilus for a number of other purposes, but there isn't enough reliable information to say whether it might be helpful.

Is it safe?

When taken by mouth: L. acidophilus is likely safe. It's been used safely together with other probiotics for up to 9 months. Some people might experience gas or bloating, but it's usually well-tolerated.

When applied to the vagina: L. acidophilus is likely safe. It's been used safely for up to 12 weeks.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy: L. acidophilus is possibly safe when taken by mouth during pregnancy. It's been used safely together with other probiotics for 6 weeks, starting at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy.

Breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if L. acidophilus is safe to use while breast-feeding. But there's no reason to expect safety concerns when used appropriately under medical supervision.

Children: L. acidophilus is likely safe when taken by mouth appropriately in children. It's been used safely alone and together with other probiotics.

Weakened immune system: Some probiotics have caused blood infections in a small number of people with weakened immune systems. If you have a weakened immune system, talk with your healthcare provider before taking probiotics, including L. acidophilus.

Damaged heart valves: Some probiotics have caused infections of the inner lining of the heart chambers and heart valve. This is extremely rare, but people with damaged heart valves should stop taking probiotics like Lactobacillus acidophilus before dental procedures or surgical procedures.

Are there interactions with medications?

Be cautious with this combination.
Antibiotic drugs
L. acidophilus is a type of friendly bacteria. Antibiotics are used to reduce harmful bacteria in the body. Taking antibiotics along with L. acidophilus can reduce the effects of L. acidophilus. To avoid this interaction, take L. acidophilus products at least 2 hours before or after antibiotics.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

There are no known interactions with herbs and supplements.

Are there interactions with foods?

There are no known interactions with foods.

How is it typically used?

L. acidophilus is sometimes added to fermented foods such as yogurt, but it's most commonly used in dietary supplements.

In adults, L. acidophilus has most often been taken by mouth, alone or together with other probiotics, in doses of up to 60 billion CFUs daily for up to 6 months. In children, L. acidophilus has most often been taken by mouth in doses of up to 30 billion CFUs daily, for up to 3 months. Speak with a healthcare provider to find out what dose might be best for a specific condition.

Other names

Acidophilus, Acidophilus Bifidus, Probiotic, Probiotique.


To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.


  1. Velayati A, Kareem I, Sedaghat M, et al. Does symbiotic supplementation which contains Bacillus Coagulans Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and fructooligosaccharide has favourite effects in patients with type-2 diabetes? A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2021 Jun 2:1-8. View abstract.
  2. Wang L, Guo MJ, Gao Q, Yang JF, Yang L, Pang XL, Jiang XJ. The effects of probiotics on total cholesterol: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;97:e9679. View abstract.
  3. Martoni CJ, Srivastava S, Leyer GJ. Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 and Bifidobacterium lactis UABla-12 improve abdominal pain severity and symptomology in irritable bowel syndrome: Randomized controlled trial. Nutrients. 2020;12:363. View abstract.
  4. Chitapanarux I, Chitapanarux T, Traisathit P, Kudumpee S, Tharavichitkul E, Lorvidhaya V. Randomized controlled trial of live lactobacillus acidophilus plus bifidobacterium bifidum in prophylaxis of diarrhea during radiotherapy in cervical cancer patients. Radiat Oncol. 2010;5:31. View abstract.
  5. Cicero AFG, Fogacci F, Bove M, Giovannini M, Borghi C. Impact of a short-term synbiotic supplementation on metabolic syndrome and systemic inflammation in elderly patients: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Nutr. 2021;60:655-663. View abstract.
  6. Jafarnejad S, Saremi S, Jafarnejad F, Arab A. Effects of a multispecies probiotic mixture on glycemic control and inflammatory status in women with gestational diabetes: A randomized controlled clinical trial. J Nutr Metab. 2016;2016:5190846. View abstract.
  7. Rossi F, Amadoro C, Gasperi M, Colavita G. Lactobacilli infection case reports in the last three years and safety implications. Nutrients. 2022;14:1178. View abstract.
  8. McDonald LC, Gerding DN, Johnson S, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children: 2017 update by the infectious diseases society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). Clin Infect Dis. 2018;66:987-994. View abstract.
  9. Xiao SD, Zhang DZ, Lu H, et al. Multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus LB in patients with chronic diarrhea. Adv Ther. 2003;20:253-60. View abstract.
  10. Tarrerias AL, Costil V, Vicari F, et al. The effect of inactivated Lactobacillus LB fermented culture medium on symptom severity: observational investigation in 297 patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis. 2011;29:588-91. View abstract.
  11. Maziade PJ, Ship N, Sniffen JC, Goldstein EJC. Enhanced Clostridioides difficile infection prevention with a pharmacy-controlled policy that adds a 3-strain Lactobacillus probiotic concomitantly to antibiotic therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2021;73:1524-1527. View abstract.
  12. Tsilika M, Thoma G, Aidoni Z, et al. A four-probiotic preparation for ventilator-associated pneumonia in multi-trauma patients: results of a randomized clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2022;59:106471. View abstract.
  13. Mohamad Nor MH, Ayob N, Mokhtar NM, et al. The effect of probiotics (MCP(®) BCMC(®) Strains) on hepatic steatosis, small intestinal mucosal immune function, and intestinal barrier in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Nutrients 2021;13:3192. View abstract.
  14. Jiang H, Zhang Y, Xu D, Wang Q. Probiotics ameliorates glycemic control of patients with diabetic nephropathy: A randomized clinical study. J Clin Lab Anal 2021;35:e23650. View abstract.
  15. Shahriari A, Karimi E, Shahriari M, Aslani N, Khooshideh M, Arab A. The effect of probiotic supplementation on the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus among high-risk pregnant women: A parallel double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Biomed Pharmacother 2021;141:111915. View abstract.
  16. Skrzydlo-Radomanska B, Prozorow-Król B, Cichoz-Lach H, et al. The effectiveness and safety of multi-strain probiotic preparation in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized controlled study. Nutrients 2021;13:756. View abstract.
  17. Sun M, Luo J, Liu H, Xi Y, Lin Q. Can mixed strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium reduce eczema in infants under three years of age? A meta-analysis. Nutrients 2021;13:1461. View abstract.
  18. Moludi J, Khedmatgozar H, Saiedi S, Razmi H, Alizadeh M, Ebrahimi B. Probiotic supplementation improves clinical outcomes and quality of life indicators in patients with plaque psoriasis: A randomized double-blind clinical trial. Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021;46:33-39. View abstract.
  19. Kumar S, Kumar R, Rohilla L, Jacob N, Yadav J, Sachdeva N. A high potency multi-strain probiotic improves glycemic control in children with new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus: A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled pilot study. Pediatr Diabetes 2021;22:1014-1022. View abstract.
  20. Liu AT, Chen S, Jena PK, Sheng L, Hu Y, Wan YY. Probiotics improve gastrointestinal function and life quality in pregnancy. Nutrients 2021;13:3931. View abstract.
  21. Garaiova I, Paduchová Z, Nagyová Z, et al. Probiotics with vitamin C for the prevention of upper respiratory tract symptoms in children aged 3-10 years: randomised controlled trial. Benef Microbes 2021;12:431-440. View abstract.
  22. Morvaridzadeh M, Nachvak SM, Mohammadi R, et al. Probiotic yogurt fortified with vitamin D can improve glycemic status in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients: a randomized clinical trial. Clin Nutr Res. 2021;10:36-47. View abstract.
  23. Sharif S, Meader N, Oddie SJ, Rojas-Reyes MX, McGuire W. Probiotics to prevent necrotising enterocolitis in very preterm or very low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020;10:CD005496. View abstract.
  24. Chi C, Li C, Buys N, Wang W, Yin C, Sun J. Effects of probiotics in preterm infants: A network meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2021;147:e20200706. View abstract.
  25. Samimi M, Dadkhah A, Haddad Kashani H, Tajabadi-Ebrahimi M, Seyed Hosseini E, Asemi Z. The effects of synbiotic supplementation on metabolic status in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2019;11:1355-1361. View abstract.
  26. Famouri F, Shariat Z, Hashemipour M, Keikha M, Kelishadi R. Effects of probiotics on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children and adolescents. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017;64:413-417. View abstract.
  27. Cheng B, Zeng X, Liu S, Zou J, Wang Y. The efficacy of probiotics in management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Scientific reports. 2020;10:1-1.
  28. Ghidini M, Nicoletti M, Ratti M, et al. Lactobacillus kefiri LKF01 (Kefibios®) for prevention of diarrhoea in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy: A prospective study. Nutrients. 2021;13:385. View abstract.
  29. Morgan RL, Preidis GA, Kashyap PC, et al. Probiotics reduce mortality and morbidity in preterm, low-birth-weight infants: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized trials. Gastroenterology 2020;159:467-80. View abstract.
  30. Okesene-Gafa KA, Moore AE, Jordan V, McCowan L, Crowther CA. Probiotic treatment for women with gestational diabetes to improve maternal and infant health and well-being. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020;6:CD012970. View abstract.
  31. Wu G, Chen X, Cui N, et al. Preventive effect of Bifidobacterium supplementation on neonatal cholestasis in preterm neonates with very low birth weight. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2020;2020:4625315. View abstract.
  32. Liu D, Shao L, Zhang Y, Kang W. Safety and efficacy of Lactobacillus for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Int J Surg. 2020;76:79-87. View abstract.
  33. Sendil S, Shrimanker I, Mansoora Q, Goldman J, Nookala VK. Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacteremia in an immunocompromised renal transplant patient. Cureus. 2020;12:e6887. View abstract.
  34. Michael DR, Jack AA, Masetti G, et al. A randomised controlled study shows supplementation of overweight and obese adults with lactobacilli and bifidobacteria reduces bodyweight and improves well-being. Sci Rep. 2020;10:4183. View abstract.
  35. Czajeczny D, Kabzińska K, Wójciak RW. Does probiotic supplementation aid weight loss? A randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study with Bifidobacterium lactis BS01 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA02 supplementation. Eat Weight Disord. 2020. View abstract.
  36. Jiao X, Fu MD, Wang YY, Xue J, Zhang Y. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis. World J Pediatr. 2020;16:135-142. View abstract.
  37. Sadeghi-Bojd S, Naghshizadian R, Mazaheri M, Ghane Sharbaf F, Assadi F. Efficacy of probiotic prophylaxis after the first febrile urinary tract infection in children with normal urinary tracts. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020;9:305-310. View abstract.
  38. Sharif A, Kashani HH, Nasri E, Soleimani Z, Sharif MR. The Role of Probiotics in the Treatment of Dysentery: a Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2017;9:380-385. View abstract.
  39. Zhang J, Ma S, Wu S, Guo C, Long S, Tan H. Effects of Probiotic Supplement in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Diabetes Res. 2019;2019:5364730. View abstract.
  40. Linn YH, Thu KK, Win NHH. Effect of Probiotics for the Prevention of Acute Radiation-Induced Diarrhoea Among Cervical Cancer Patients: a Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2019;11:638-647. View abstract.
  41. Zheng J, Wittouch S, Salvetti E, et al. A Taxonomic Note on the Genus Lactobacillus: Description of 23 Novel Genera, Emended Description of the Genus Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901, and Union of Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2020 Apr 15. doi:10.1099/ijsem.0.004107. View abstract.
  42. McFarland LV, Goh S. Are probiotics and prebiotics effective in the prevention of travellers' diarrhea: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2019 Jan - Feb;27:11-19. View abstract.
  43. Razmpoosh E, Javadi A, Ejtahed HS, Mirmiran P, Javadi M, Yousefinejad A. The effect of probiotic supplementation on glycemic control and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized placebo controlled trial. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2019;13:175-182. View abstract.
  44. Preston K, Krumian R, Hattner J, de Montigny D, Stewart M, Gaddam S. Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 improve quality-of-life and IBS symptoms: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study. Benef Microbes. 2018;9:697-706. View abstract.
  45. Clinical and metabolic response to probiotic administration in patients with major depressive disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Nutrition. 2016 Mar;32:315-20. View abstract.
  46. Guarino A, Ashkenazi S, Gendrel D, Lo Vecchio A, Shamir R, Szajewska H; European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition; European Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases. European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition/European Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute gastroenteritis in children in Europe: update 2014. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014 Jul;59:132-52. View abstract.
  47. Gerasimov SV, Ivantsiv VA, Bobryk LM, et al. Role of short-term use of L. acidophilus DDS-1 and B. lactis UABLA-12 in acute respiratory infections in children: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Apr;70:463-9. View abstract.
  48. Badehnoosh B, Karamali M, Zarrati M, et al. The effects of probiotic supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018 May;31:1128-1136. View abstract.
  49. Simpson MR, Dotterud CK, Storrø O, Johnsen R, Øien T. Perinatal probiotic supplementation in the prevention of allergy related disease: 6 year follow up of a randomised controlled trial. BMC Dermatol. 2015;15:13. View abstract.
  50. Dolatkhah N, Hajifaraji M, Abbasalizadeh F, Aghamohammadzadeh N, Mehrabi Y, Abbasi MM. Is there a value for probiotic supplements in gestational diabetes mellitus? A randomized clinical trial. J Health Popul Nutr. 2015;33:25. View abstract.
  51. Topcuoglu S, Gursoy T, Ovali F, Serce O, Karatekin G. A new risk factor for neonatal vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus colonisation: bacterial probiotics. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2015;28:1491-4. View abstract.
  52. Hong Chau TT, Minh Chau NN, Hoang Le NT, et al. Oxford-Vietnam Probiotics Study Group. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Lactobacillus acidophilus for the treatment of acute watery diarrhea in Vietnamese children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018;37:35-42. View abstract.
  53. Martinelli M, Ummarino D, Giugliano FP, et al. Efficacy of a standardized extract of Matricariae chamomilla L., Melissa officinalis L. and tyndallized Lactobacillus acidophilus (HA122) in infantile colic: an open randomized controlled trial. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2017 Dec;29:e13145. View abstract.
  54. Zamani B, Golkar HR, Farshbaf S, et al. Clinical and metabolic response to probiotic supplementation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Rheum Dis 2016;19:869-79. View abstract.
  55. Karamali M, Dadkhah F, Sadrkhanlou M, et al. Effects of probiotic supplementation on glycaemic control and lipid profiles in gestational diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Metab 2016;42:234-41. View abstract.
  56. Aaron JG, Sobieszczyk ME, Weiner SD, Whittier S, Lowy FD. Lactobacillus rhamnosus endocarditis after upper endoscopy. Open Forum Infect Dis 2017;4:ofx085. View abstract.
  57. Koning CJ, Jonkers DM, Stobberingh EE, et al. The effect of a multispecies probiotic on the intestinal microbiota and bowel movements in healthy volunteers taking the antibiotic amoxycillin. Am J Gastroenterol 2008;103:178-89. View abstract.
  58. Gao XW, Mubasher M, Fang CY, et al. Dose-response efficacy of a proprietary probiotic formula of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL 1285 and Lactobacillus casei LBC80R for antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea prophylaxis in adult patients. Am J Gastroenterol 2010;105;1636-41. View abstract.
  59. Sampalis J, Psaradellis E, Rampakakis E. Efficacy of Bio K+ CL1285 in the reduction of antibiotic-associated diarrhea - a placebo controlled double-blind randomized, multi-center study. Arch Med Sci 2010;6:56-64. View abstract.
  60. Safdar N, Barigala R, Said A, McKinley L. Feasibility and tolerability of probiotics for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in hospitalized US military veterans. J Clin Pharm Ther 2008;33:663-8. View abstract.
  61. Wu Y, Zhang Q, Ren Y, Ruan Z. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus on lipid profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. PLoS One 2017;12:e0178868. View abstract.
  62. Sun J, Buys N. Effects of probiotics consumption on lowering lipids and CVD risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Ann Med 2015;47:430-40. View abstract.
  63. Shimizu M, Hashiguchi M, Shiga T, Tamura HO, Mochizuki M. Meta-analysis: effects of probiotic supplementation on lipid profiles in normal to mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals. PLoS One 2015;10:e0139795. View abstract.
  64. Lü M, Yu S, Deng J, et al. Efficacy of probiotic supplementation therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One 2016;11:e0163743. View abstract.
  65. Kato K, Funabashi N, Takaoka H, et al. Lactobacillus paracasei endocarditis in a consumer of probiotics with advanced and severe bicuspid aortic valve stenosis complicated with diffuse left ventricular mid-layer fibrosis. Int J Cardiol 2016;224:157-61. View abstract.
  66. Shane AL, Mody RK, Crump JA, et al. 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Infectious Diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Oct 19. [Epub ahead of print]. View abstract.
  67. Tankanow RM, Ross MB, Ertel IJ, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of Lactinex in the prophylaxis of amoxicillin-induced diarrhea. DICP 1990;24:382-4. View abstract.
  68. Sinclair A, Xie X, Saab L, Dendukuri N. Lactobacillus probiotics in the prevention of diarrhea associated with Clostridium difficile: a systematic review and Bayesian hierarchical meta-analysis. CMAJ Open. 2016;4:E706-E718. View abstract.
  69. Lyra A, Hillilä M, Huttunen T, et al. Irritable bowel syndrome symptom severity improves equally with probiotic and placebo. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22:10631-42. View abstract.
  70. Chang HY, Chen JH, Chang JH, Lin HC, Lin CY, Peng CC. Multiple strains probiotics appear to be the most effective probiotics in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and mortality: An updated meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2017;12:e0171579. View abstract.
  71. Al Faleh K, Anabrees J. Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;:CD005496. View abstract.
  72. Wildt S, Nordgaard I, Hansen U, Brockmann E, Rumessen JJ. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial with Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis. J Crohns Colitis 2011;5:115-21. View abstract.
  73. Shen J, Zuo ZX, Mao AP. Effect of probiotics on inducing remission and maintaining therapy in ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and pouchitis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014;20:21-35. View abstract.
  74. Park MS, Kwon B, Ku S, Ji GE4. The Efficacy of Bifidobacterium longum BORI and Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031 Probiotic Treatment in Infants with Rotavirus Infection. Nutrients. 2017;9. pii: E887. View abstract.
  75. Søndergaard B, Olsson J, Ohlson K, Svensson U, Bytzer P, Ekesbo R. Effects of probiotic fermented milk on symptoms and intestinal flora in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Scand J Gastroenterol 2011;46:663-72. View abstract.
  76. Simrén M, Ohman L, Olsson J, et al. Clinical trial: the effects of a fermented milk containing three probiotic bacteria in patients with irritable bowel syndrome - a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010;31:218-27. View abstract.
  77. Allen SJ, Wareham K, Wang D, Bradley C, Hutchings H, Harris W, Dhar A, Brown H, Foden A, Gravenor MB, Mack D. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in older inpatients (PLACIDE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Lancet. 2013 Oct 12;382:1249-57. View abstract.
  78. Gaon D, Garmendia C, Murrielo NO, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus strains (L. casei and L. Acidophillus Strains cerela) on bacterial overgrowth-related chronic diarrhea. Medicina (B Aires). 2002;62:159-63. View abstract.
  79. McFarland LV. Probiotics for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of C. difficile Infections: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review. Antibiotics. 2015;4:160-178.
  80. Roberfroid MB. Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods? Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(6 Suppl):1682S-7S; discussion 1688S-90S. View abstract.
  81. Wang YH, Huang Y. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum supplementation to standard triple therapy on Helicobacter pylori eradication and dynamic changes in intestinal flora. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014;30:847-53. View abstract.
  82. Tomasz B, Zoran S, Jaroslaw W, Ryszard M, Marcin G, Robert B, Piotr K, Lukasz K, Jacek P, Piotr G, Przemyslaw P, Michal D. Long-term use of probiotics Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium has a prophylactic effect on the occurrence and severity of pouchitis: a randomized prospective study. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:208064. View abstract.
  83. Szajewska H, Ruszczynski M, Kolacek S. Meta-analysis shows limited evidence for using Lactobacillus acidophilus LB to treat acute gastroenteritis in children. Acta Paediatr. 2014;103:249-55. View abstract.
  84. Shavakhi A, Tabesh E, Yaghoutkar A, Hashemi H, Tabesh F, Khodadoostan M,Minakari M, Shavakhi S, Gholamrezaei A. The effects of multistrain probiotic compound on bismuth-containing quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: a randomized placebo-controlled triple-blind study. Helicobacter. 2013;18:280-4. View abstract.
  85. Ringel-Kulka T, Goldsmith JR, Carroll IM, Barros SP, Palsson O, Jobin C, Ringel Y. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects colonic mucosal opioid receptor expression in patients with functional abdominal pain - a randomised clinical study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014;40:200-7. View abstract.
  86. Rerksuppaphol S, Rerksuppaphol L. Randomized controlled trial of probiotics to reduce common cold in schoolchildren. Pediatr Int. 2012;54:682-7. View abstract.
  87. Navarro-Rodriguez T, Silva FM, Barbuti RC, Mattar R, Moraes-Filho JP, de Oliveira MN, Bogsan CS, Chinzon D, Eisig JN. Association of a probiotic to a Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen does not increase efficacy or decreases the adverse effects of the treatment: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. BMC Gastroenterol. 2013 26;13:56. View abstract.
  88. Jung GW, Tse JE, Guiha I, Rao J. Prospective, randomized, open-label trial comparing the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of an acne treatment regimen with and without a probiotic supplement and minocycline in subjects with mild to moderate acne. J Cutan Med Surg. 2013;17:114-22. View abstract.
  89. Jayasimhan S, Yap NY, Roest Y, Rajandram R, Chin KF. Efficacy of microbial cell preparation in improving chronic constipation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Nutr. 2013;32:928-34. View abstract.
  90. Jaisamrarn U, Triratanachat S, Chaikittisilpa S, Grob P, Prasauskas V, Taechakraichana N. Ultra-low-dose estriol and lactobacilli in the local treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. Climacteric. 2013;16:347-55. View abstract.
  91. Hegar B, Hutapea EI, Advani N, Vandenplas Y. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial on probiotics in small bowel bacterial overgrowth in children treated with omeprazole. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2013;89:381-7. View abstract.
  92. Franko B, Vaillant M, Recule C, Vautrin E, Brion JP, Pavese P. Lactobacillus paracasei endocarditis in a consumer of probiotics. Med Mal Infect 2013;43:171-3. View abstract.
  93. Elazab N, Mendy A, Gasana J, Vieira ER, Quizon A, Forno E. Probiotic administration in early life, atopy, and asthma: a meta-analysis of clinical trials. Pediatrics 2013;132:e666-76. View abstract.
  94. Du YQ, Su T, Fan JG, Lu YX, Zheng P, Li XH, Guo CY, Xu P, Gong YF, Li ZS. Adjuvant probiotics improve the eradication effect of triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection. World J Gastroenterol 2012;18:6302-7. View abstract.
  95. Chatterjee S, Kar P, Das T, Ray S, Gangulyt S, Rajendiran C, Mitra M. Randomised placebo-controlled double blind multicentric trial on efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. J Assoc Physicians India 2013;61:708-12. View abstract.
  96. Bradshaw CS, Pirotta M, De Guingand D, Hocking JS, Morton AN, Garland SM,Fehler G, Morrow A, Walker S, Vodstrcil LA, Fairley CK. Efficacy of oral metronidazole with vaginal clindamycin or vaginal probiotic for bacterial vaginosis: randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial. PLoS One 2012;7:e34540. View abstract.
  97. Begtrup LM, de Muckadell OB, Kjeldsen J, Christensen RD, Jarbøl DE. Long-term treatment with probiotics in primary care patients with irritable bowel syndrome--a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Scand J Gastroenterol 2013;48:1127-35. View abstract.
  98. Allen SJ, Wareham K, Wang D, Bradley C, Sewell B, Hutchings H, Harris W, Dhar A, Brown H, Foden A, Gravenor MB, Mack D, Phillips CJ. A high-dose preparation of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the prevention of antibiotic-associated and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in older people admitted to hospital: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm trial (PLACIDE). Health Technol Assess 2013;17:1-140. View abstract.
  99. Beausoleil, M., Fortier, N., Guenette, S., L'ecuyer, A., Savoie, M., Franco, M., Lachaine, J., and Weiss, K. Effect of a fermented milk combining Lactobacillus acidophilus Cl1285 and Lactobacillus casei in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Can J Gastroenterol 2007;21:732-736. View abstract.
  100. Savino F, Pelle E, Palumeri E, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri (American Type Culture Collection Strain 55730) versus simethicone in the treatment of infantile colic: a prospective randomized study. Pediatrics 2007;119:e124-30. View abstract.
  101. Luoto R, Matomäki J, Isolauri E, Lehtonen L. Incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in very-low-birth-weight infants related to the use of Lactobacillus GG. Acta Paediatr 2010;99:1135-8. View abstract.
  102. Romano C, Ferrau' V, Cavataio F, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri in children with functional abdominal pain (FAP). J Paediatr Child Health 2010 Jul 8. [Epub ahead of print]. View abstract.
  103. Berggren A, Lazou Ahrén I, Larsson N, Onning G. Randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled study using new probiotic lactobacilli for strengthening the body immune defence against viral infections. Eur J Nutr 2011;50:203-10. View abstract.
  104. Savino F, Cordisco L, Tarasco V, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in infantile colic: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatrics 2010;126:e526-33. View abstract.
  105. Woo SI, Kim JY, Lee YJ, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus sakei supplementation in children with atopic eczema-dermatitis syndrome. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2010;104:343-8. View abstract.
  106. Morrow LE, Kollef MH, Casale TB. Probiotic prophylaxis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010;182:1058-64. View abstract.
  107. Leyer GJ, Li S, Mubasher ME, et al. Probiotic effects on cold and influenza-like symptom incidence and duration in children. Pediatrics 2009;124:e172-e179. View abstract.
  108. Miele E, Pascarella F, Giannetti E. et al. Effect of a probiotic preparation (VSL#3) on induction and maintenance of remission in children with ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2009;104:437-43. View abstract.
  109. Niedzielin K, Kordecki H, Birkenfeld B. A controlled, double-blind, randomized study on the efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum 299V in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001;13:1143-7. View abstract.
  110. Larsson PG, Stray-Pedersen B, Ryttig KR, Larsen S. Human lactobacilli as supplementation of clindamycin to patients with bacterial vaginosis reduce the recurrence rate; a 6-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. BMC Womens Health 2008;8:3. View abstract.
  111. Abrahamsson TR, Jakobsson T, Bottcher MF, et al. Probiotics in prevention of IgE-associated eczema: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;119:1174-80.. View abstract.
  112. Hickson M, D'Souza AL, Muthu N, et al. Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2007;335:80. View abstract.
  113. Mustapha A, Jiang T, Savaiano DA. Improvement of lactose digestion by humans following ingestion of unfermented acidophilus milk: influence of bile sensitivity, lactose transport, and acid tolerance of Lactobacillus acidophilus. J Dairy Sci 1997;80:1537-45. View abstract.
  114. Lin MY, Yen CL, Chen SH. Management of lactose maldigestion by consuming milk containing lactobacilli. Dig Dis Sci 1998;43:133-7. View abstract.
  115. Osterlund P, Ruotsalainen T, Korpela R, et al. Lactobacillus supplementation for diarrhoea related to chemotherapy of colorectal cancer: a randomised study. Br J Cancer 2007;97:1028-34. View abstract.
  116. Kuhbacher T, Ott SJ, Helwig U, et al. Bacterial and fungal microbiota in relation to probiotic therapy (VSL#3) in pouchitis. Gut 2006;55:833-41. View abstract.
  117. Pedone CA, Arnaud CC, Postaire ER, et al. Multicentric study of the effect of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei on the incidence of diarrhoea. Int J Clin Pract 2000;54:589-71. View abstract.
  118. Pedone CA, Bernabeu AO, Postaire ER, et al. The effect of supplementation with milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei (strain DN-114 001) on acute diarrhoea in children attending day care centres. Int J Clin Pract 1999;53:179-84. View abstract.
  119. Bibiloni R, Fedorak RN, Tannock GW, et al. VSL#3 probiotic-mixture induces remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:1539-46. View abstract.
  120. Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Giorgetti GM, et al. Low-dose balsalazide plus a high-potency probiotic preparation is more effective than balsalazide alone or mesalazine in the treatment of acute mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis. Med Sci Monit 2004;10:PI126-31. View abstract.
  121. Yli-Knuuttila H, Snall J, Kari K, Meurman JH. Colonization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in the oral cavity. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2006;21:129-31. View abstract.
  122. Hallen A, Jarstrand C, Pahlson C. Treatment of bacterial vaginosis with lactobacilli. Sex Transm Dis 1992;19:146-8.. View abstract.
  123. Parent D, Bossens M, Bayot D, et al. Therapy of bacterial vaginosis using exogenously-applied Lactobacilli acidophili and a low dose of estriol: a placebo-controlled multicentric clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung 1996;46:68-73. . View abstract.
  124. De Groote MA, Frank DN, Dowell E, et al. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG bacteremia associated with probiotic use in a child with short gut syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005;24:278-80. View abstract.
  125. Land MH, Rouster-Stevens K, Woods CR, et al. Lactobacillus sepsis associated with probiotic therapy. Pediatrics 2005;115:178-81. View abstract.
  126. Ishikawa H, Akedo I, Umesaki Y, et al. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of bifidobacteria-fermented milk on ulcerative colitis. J Am Coll Nutr 2003;22:56-63. View abstract.
  127. Sen S, Mullan MM, Parker TJ, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on colonic fermentation and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci 2002;47:2615-20. View abstract.
  128. Mimura T, Rizzello F, Helwig U, et al. Once daily high dose probiotic therapy (VSL#3) for maintaining remission in recurrent or refractory pouchitis. Gut 2004;53:108-14. View abstract.
  129. Wendakoon CN, Thomson AB, Ozimek L. Lack of therapeutic effect of a specially designed yogurt for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. Digestion 2002;65:16-20. View abstract.
  130. Vanderhoof JA, Young RJ. Current and potential uses of probiotics. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2004;93:S33-7. View abstract.
  131. Pirotta M, Gunn J, Chondros P, et al. Effect of lactobacillus in preventing post-antibiotic vulvovaginal candidiasis: a randomized, controlled trial. BMJ 2004;329:548. View abstract.
  132. Majamaa H, Isolauri E. Probiotics: a novel approach in the management of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:179-85. . View abstract.
  133. Sullivan A, Barkholt L, Nord CE. Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus F19 prevent antibiotic-associated ecological disturbances of Bacteroides fragilis in the intestine. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003;52:308-11. View abstract.
  134. Wei H, Loimaranta V, Tenovuo J, et al. Stability and activity of specific antibodies against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in bovine milk fermented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG or treated at ultra-high temperature. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2002;17:9-15. View abstract.
  135. Kim HJ, Camilleri M, McKinzie S, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a probiotic, VSL#3, on gut transit and symptoms in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;17:895-904. . View abstract.
  136. Oksanen PJ, Salminen S, Saxelin M, et al. Prevention of travellers' diarrhoea by Lactobacillus GG. Ann Med 1990;22:53-6.. View abstract.
  137. Van Niel CW, Feudtner C, Garrison MM, Christakis DA. Lactobacillus therapy for acute infectious diarrhea in children: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2002;109:678-84. View abstract.
  138. Rosenfeldt V, Michaelsen KF, Jakobsen M, et al. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21:411-6. View abstract.
  139. Rosenfeldt V, Michaelsen KF, Jakobsen M, et al. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains on acute diarrhea in a cohort of nonhospitalized children attending day-care centers. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21:417-9. View abstract.
  140. Hatakka K, Savilahti E, Ponka A, et al. Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial. BMJ 2001;322:1327. View abstract.
  141. Friend BA, Shahani KM. Nutritional and therapeutic aspects of lactobacilli. J Appl Nut 1984;36:125-153.
  142. Losada MA, Olleros T. Towards a healthier diet for the colon: the influence of fructooligosaccharides and lactobacilli on intestinal health. Nutr Res 2002;22:71-84.
  143. Canducci F, Armuzzi A, Cremonini F, et al. A lyophilized and inactivated culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus increases Helicobacter pylori eradication rates. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000;14:1625-9. View abstract.
  144. MacGregor G, Smith AJ, Thakker B, Kinsella J. Yoghurt biotherapy: contraindicated in immunosuppressed patients? Postgrad Med J 2002;78:366-7. View abstract.
  145. Cadieux P, Burton J, Gardiner G, et al. Lactobacillus strains and vaginal ecology. JAMA 2002;287:1940-1. View abstract.
  146. St-Onge MP, Farnworth ER, Jones PJ. Consumption of fermented and nonfermented dairy products: effects on cholesterol concentrations and metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:674-81. View abstract.
  147. Lu L, Walker WA. Pathologic and physiologic interactions of bacteria with the gastrointestinal epithelium. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73;1124S-1130S. View abstract.
  148. Kalliomaki M, Salminen S, Arvilommi H et al. Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;357:1076-1079. View abstract.
  149. Reid G. Probiotic agents to protect the urogenital tract against infection. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:437S-443S. View abstract.
  150. Isolauri E, Sutas Y, Kankaanpaa P, et al. Probiotics: effects on immunity. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:444S-450S. View abstract.
  151. Fujisawa T, Benno Y, Yaeshima T, Mitsuoka T. Taxonomic study of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group, with recognition of Lactobacillus gallinarum sp. nov. and Lactobacillus johnsonii sp. nov. and synonymy of Lactobacillus acidophilus group A3 (Johnson et al. 1980) with the type strain of Lactobacillus amylovorus (Nakamura 1981). Int J Syst Bacteriol 1992;42:487-91. View abstract.
  152. Doncheva NI, Antov GP, Softove EB, Nyagolov YP. Experimental and clinical study on the hypolipidemic and antisclerotic effect of Lactobacillus bulgaricus strain GB N 1 . Nutr Res 2002;22:393-403.
  153. Kishi A, Uno K, Matsubara Y, et al. Effect of the oral administration of Lactobacillus brevis subsp. coagulans on interferon-alpha producing capacity in humans. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15:408-12. View abstract.
  154. Sheih YH, Chiang BL, Wang LH, et al. Systemic immunity-enhancing effects in healthy subjects following dietary consumption of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:149-56. View abstract.
  155. Gill HS, Rutherfurd KJ. Probiotic supplementation to enhance natural immunity in the elderly: effects of a newly characterized immunostimulatory strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20) on leucocyte phagocytosis. Nutr Res 2001;21:183-9.
  156. Casas IA, Dobrogosz WJ. Validation of the probiotic concept: Lactobacillus reuteri confers broad-spectrum protection against disease in humans and animals. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 2000;12:247-85.
  157. Madsen KL, Doyle JS, Jewell LD, et al. Lactobacillus species prevents colitis in interleukin 10 gene-deficient mice. Gastroenterology 1999;116:1107-14. View abstract.
  158. Shornikova AV, Casas IA, Mykkanen H, et al. Bacteriotherapy with Lactobacillus reuteri in rotavirus gastroenteritis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1997;16:1103-7. View abstract.
  159. Wolf BW, Wheeler KB, Ataya DG, Garleb KA. Safety and tolerance of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation to a population infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Food Chem Toxicol 1998;36:1085-94 . View abstract.
  160. Shornikova AV, Casas IA, Isolauri E, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri as a therapeutic agent in acute diarrhea in young children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1997;24:399-404. View abstract.
  161. Kasravi FB, Adawi D, Molin G, et al. Effect of oral supplementation of lactobacilli on bacterial translocation in acute liver injury induced by D-galactosamine. J Hepatol 1997;26:417-24. View abstract.
  162. Alak JI, Wolf BW, Mdurvwa EG, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on intestinal resistance to Cryptosporidium parvum infection in a murine model of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Infect Dis 1997;175:218-21. View abstract.
  163. Palmfeldt J, Hahn-Hagerdal B. Influence of culture pH on survival of Lactobacillus reuteri subjected to freeze-drying. Int J Food Microbiol 2000;55:235-8. View abstract.
  164. Mao Y, Nobaek S, Kasravi B, et al. The effects of Lactobacillus strains and oat fiber on methotrexate-induced enterocolitis in rats. Gastroenterology 1996;111:334-44. View abstract.
  165. Wagner RD, Pierson C, Warner T, et al. Biotherapeutic effects of probiotic bacteria on candidiasis in immunodeficient mice. Infect Immun 1997;65:4165-4172. View abstract.
  166. Maggi L, Mastromarino P, Macchia S, et al. Technological and biological evaluation of tablets containing different strains of lactobacilli for vaginal administration. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2000;50:389-95. View abstract.
  167. Halpern GM, Prindiville T, Blankenburg M, et al. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with Lacteol Fort: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial. Am J Gastroenterol 1996;91:1579-85. View abstract.
  168. Rautava S, Kalliomaki M, Isolauri E. Probiotics during pregnancy and breast-feeding might confer immunomodulatory protection against atopic disease in the infant. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;109:119-21. View abstract.
  169. Chandra RK. Effect of Lactobacillus on the incidence and severity of acute rotavirus diarrhoea in infants. A prospective placebo-controlled double-blind study. Nutr Res 2001;22:65-9.
  170. Szajewska H, Kotowska M, Mrukowicz JZ, et al. Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG in prevention of nosocomial diarrhea in infants. J Pediatr 2001;138:361-5. View abstract.
  171. Roberfroid MB. Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods? Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1682S-7S. View abstract.
  172. Gupta K, Stapleton AE, Hooton TM, et al. Inverse association of H2O2-producing Lactobacilli and vaginal Escherichia coli colonization in women with recurrent urinary tract infections. J Infect Dis 1998;178:446-50. View abstract.
  173. Reid G, Bruce AW, Taylor M. Influence of three-day antimicrobial therapy and lactobacillus vaginal suppositories on recurrence of urinary tract infections. Clin Ther 1992;14:11-6. View abstract.
  174. Bruce AW, Reid G. Intravaginal instillation of Lactobacilli for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections. Can J Microbiol 1988;34:339-43. View abstract.
  175. Herthelius M, Gorbach SL, Mollby R, et al. Elimination of vaginal colonization with Escherichia coli by administration of indigenous flora. Infect Immun 1989;57:2447-51. View abstract.
  176. Chan RCY, Reid G, Irvin RT, et al. Competitive exclusion of uropathogens from human uroepithelial cells by Lactobacillus whole cells and cell wall fragments. Infect Immun 1985;47:84-9. View abstract.
  177. Reid G, Cook RL, Bruce AW. Examination of strains of lactobacilli for properties that may influence bacterial interference in the urinary tract. J Urol 1987;138:330-5. View abstract.
  178. Velraeds MM, van der Mei HC, Reid G, Busscher HJ. Inhibition of initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis by biosurfactants from Lactobacillus isolates. Appl Environ Microbiol 1996;62:1958-63. View abstract.
  179. McGroarty JA. Probiotic use of lactobacilli in the human female urogenital tract. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1993;6:251-64. View abstract.
  180. Reid G, Bruce AW, Cook RL, et al. Effect on urogenital flora of antibiotic therapy for urinary tract infection. Scand J Infect Dis 1990;22:43-7. View abstract.
  181. Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, Venturi A, et al. Oral bacteriotherapy as maintenance treatment in patients with chronic pouchitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterology 2000;119:305-9. View abstract.
  182. Darouiche RO, Hull RA. Bacterial interference for prevention of urinary tract infection: an overview. J Spinal Cord Med 2000;23:136-41. View abstract.
  183. Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Professional's Handbook of Complementary & Alternative Medicines. 1st ed. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp., 1999.
  184. Alander M, Satokari R, Korpela R, et al. Persistence of colonization of human colonic mucosa by a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, after oral consumption. Appl Environ Microbiol 1999;65:351-4. View abstract.
  185. Pelto L, Ioslauri E, Lilius EM, et al. Probiotic bacteria down-regulate the milk-induced inflammatory response in milk-hypersensitive subjects but have an immunostimulatory effect in healthy subjects. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28:1474-9. View abstract.
  186. Rautio M, Jousimies-Somer H, Kauma H, et al. Liver abscess due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain indistinguishable from L. rhamnosus strain GG. Clin Infect Dis 1999;28:1159-60. View abstract.
  187. Hilton E, Rindos P, Isenberg HD. Lactobacillus GG Vaginal Suppositories and Vaginitis. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33:1433. View abstract.
  188. Biller JA, Katz AJ, Flores AF, et al. Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1995;21:224-6. View abstract.
  189. Goldin BR. Health Benefits of probiotics. Br J Nutr 1998;80:S203-7. View abstract.
  190. Kalima P, Masterton RG, Roddie PH, et al. Lactobacillus rhamnosus infection in a child following bone marrow transplant. J Infect 1996;32:165-7. View abstract.
  191. Klein G, Zill E, Schindler R, et al. Peritonitis associated with vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus rhamnosus in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient; organism identification, antibiotic therapy, and case report. J Clin Microbiol 1998;36:1781-3. View abstract.
  192. Tynkkynen S, Singh KV, Varmanen P. Vancomycin resistance factor of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in relation to enterococcal vancomycin resistance (van) genes. Int J Food Microbiol 1998;41:195-204. View abstract.
  193. Mack DR, Michail S, Shu W, et al. Probiotics inhibit enteropathogenic E. coli adherence in vitro by inducing intestinal mucin gene expression. Am J Physiol 1999;276(4 Pt 1):G941-50. View abstract.
  194. McIntosh GH, Royle PJ, Playne MJ. A probiotic strain of L. acidophilus reduces DMH-induced large intestinal tumors in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Nutr Cancer 1999;35:153-9. View abstract.
  195. Goldin BR, Gualtieri LJ, Moore RP. The effect of Lactobacillus GG on the initiation and promotion of DMH-induced intestinal tumors in the rat. Nutr Cancer 1996;25:197-204. View abstract.
  196. Saxelin M, Chuang NH, Chassy B, et al. Lactobacilli and bacteremia in southern Finland 1989-1992. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:564-6. View abstract.
  197. Sutas Y, Hurme M, Isolauri E. Down-regulations of anti-CD3 antibody-induced IL-4 production by bovine caseins hydrolyzed with Lactobacillus GG-derived enzymes. Scand J Immunol 1996;43:687-9. View abstract.
  198. Hudault S, Lievin V, Bernet-Camard MF, Servin AL. Antagonistic activity exerted in vitro and in vivo by Lactobacillus casei (strain GG) against Salmonella typhimurium C5 infection. Appl Environ Microbiol 1997;63:513-8. View abstract.
  199. El-Nezami H, Kankaanpaa P, Salminen S, et al. Ability of dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria to bind a common food carcinogen, aflatoxin B1. Food Chem Toxicol 1998;36:321-6. View abstract.
  200. Oberhelman RA, Gilman RH, Sheen P, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG to prevent diarrhea in undernourished Peruvian children. J Pediatr 1999;134:15-20. View abstract.
  201. Arvola T, Laiho K, Torkkeli S, et al. Prophylactic Lactobacillus GG reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children with respiratory infections: a randomized study. Pediatrics 1999;104:e64. View abstract.
  202. Vanderhoof JA, Whitney DB, Antonson DL, et al. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. J Pediatr 1999;135:564-8. View abstract.
  203. Guandalini S, Pensabene L, Zikri MA, et al. Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: a multicenter European trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2000;30:54. View abstract.
  204. de Roos NM, Katan MB. Effects of probiotic bacteria on diarrhea, lipid metabolism, and carcinogenesis: a review of papers published between 1988 and 1998. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:405-11. View abstract.
  205. Schultz M, Sartor RB. Probiotics and inflammatory bowel diseases. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:S19-21. View abstract.
  206. Meydani SN, Ha WK. Immunologic effects of yogurt. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:861-72. View abstract.
  207. Venturi A, Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, et al. Impact on the composition of the faecal flora by a new probiotic preparation: preliminary data on maintenance treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999;13:1103-8. View abstract.
  208. Pierce A. The American Pharmaceutical Association Practical Guide to Natural Medicines. New York: The Stonesong Press, 1999:19.
  209. Chen RM, Wu JJ, Lee SC, et al. Increase of intestinal Bifidobacterium and suppression of coliform bacteria with short-term yogurt ingestion. J Dairy Sci 1999:82:2308-14. View abstract.
  210. Shalev E, Battino S, Weiner E, et al. Ingestion of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus compared with pasteurized yogurt as prophylaxis for recurrent candidal vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis. Arch Fam Med 1996;5:593-6. View abstract.
Last reviewed - 06/23/2022