URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/767.html

Alpha-Lipoic Acid

What is it?

Alpha-lipoic acid is a vitamin-like chemical called an antioxidant. Yeast, liver, kidney, spinach, broccoli, and potatoes are good sources of alpha-lipoic acid. It is also made in the laboratory for use as medicine.

Alpha-lipoic acid is most commonly used for nerve pain in people with diabetes (diabetic neuropathy). High doses of alpha-lipoic acid are approved in Germany for the treatment of these nerve-related symptoms. It is also used for high levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia) and obesity.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for ALPHA-LIPOIC ACID are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Nerve pain in people with diabetes (diabetic neuropathy). Taking 600-1800 mg of alpha-lipoic acid by mouth or by IV seems to improve symptoms such as burning, pain, and numbness in the legs and arms of people with diabetes. It may take 3 to 5 weeks of treatment for symptoms to improve. Lower doses of alpha-lipoic acid don't seem to work.
  • High levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia). Taking alpha-lipoic acid for up to 4 years seems to lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol in people with or without hyperlipidemia.
  • Obesity. Some research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid for 2-48 weeks can slightly reduce body weight in adults who are overweight. Some research also shows that alpha-lipoic acid improves body weight in children who are overweight.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Liver disease in people who drink alcohol. Taking alpha-lipoic acid daily for up to 6 months does not improve liver function or reduce liver damage in people with alcohol-related liver disease.
  • Altitude sickness. Taking alpha-lipoic acid along with vitamin C and vitamin E does not seem to prevent altitude sickness.
  • Nerve damage in the hands and feet caused by cancer drug treatment. Taking alpha-lipoic acid by mouth during chemotherapy with cisplatin or oxaliplatin doesn't seem to reduce nerve damage in the arms and legs caused by the chemotherapy. On the other hand, some early research shows that taking a product containing alpha-lipoic acid and other ingredients reduces nerve damage caused by chemotherapy. The other ingredients in this product might be responsible for this benefit.
  • Kidney damage caused by contrast dyes (contrast induced nephropathy). Adding alpha-lipoic acid to standard hydration therapy used before and after a coronary angiography doesn't seem to help prevent kidney damage caused by contrast agents.
  • Diabetes. Most research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid by mouth or intravenously does not improve blood sugar levels in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. But not all research agrees. These differences could be at least partly due to people using antidiabetes drugs or the purity of the alpha-lipoic acid product used.
  • Vision problems in people with diabetes (diabetic retinopathy). Taking alpha-lipoic acid by mouth daily for 24 months does not improve damage to the retina associated with diabetes.
  • Dementia in people with advanced HIV/AIDS. Taking alpha-lipoic acid by mouth has no effect on cognition problems in people with HIV.
  • High levels of fats called triglycerides in the blood (hypertriglyceridemia). Taking alpha-lipoic acid does not seem to reduce triglyceride levels in most people.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • An eye disease that leads to vision loss in older adults (age-related macular degeneration or AMD). Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid does not slow down the loss of vision in people with advanced AMD.
  • Aging skin. Early research shows that applying cream containing 5% alpha-lipoic acid might reduce fine lines and skin roughness caused by sun damage.
  • Alzheimer disease. Some early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid in combination with a class of drugs called cholinesterase inhibitors might slow mental decline in people with Alzheimer disease better than taking cholinesterase inhibitors alone. However, higher quality research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid with vitamin E and vitamin C doesn't improve mental function in people with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease.
  • Mushroom poisoning. The use of alpha-lipoic acid in treating mushroom poisoning is controversial. Some reports suggest it might help, but these reports are unreliable. Some researchers recommend against using alpha-lipoic acid for this purpose.
  • Irregular heartbeat (atrial fibrillation). Some people with a type of irregular heartbeat called atrial fibrillation get surgery. However, after surgery, the irregular heartbeat can start again. Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid does not help to prevent this recurrence. But bigger studies are needed.
  • Bipolar disorder. Taking alpha-lipoic acid along with acetyl-L-carnitine doesn't seem to improve depression in people with bipolar disorder. The effects of alpha-lipoic acid when taken alone are unclear.
  • Burning pain in the mouth. The effect of alpha-lipoic acid in people with burning mouth syndrome is unclear. Some early research suggests that taking 600 mg of alpha-lipoic acid per day for 2 months improves pain in people with this condition. However, other research suggests that taking 800 mg of alpha-lipoic acid by mouth daily for 2 months doesn't help. Reason for the conflicting results is not entirely clear. However, the cause of burning mouth syndrome might influence whether alpha-lipoic acid is beneficial. There is some early evidence that alpha-lipoic acid might help reduce symptoms of burning mouth syndrome caused by stress but not depression or drug-induced dry mouth. Higher-quality research is needed to confirm these results.
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome. Taking alpha-lipoic acid might reduce pain by a moderate amount in people with this condition. When taken after surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome, taking alpha-lipoic acid doesn't seem to help the nerve recover. But it might prevent pain from developing on the sides of the incision.
  • Long-term kidney disease (chronic kidney disease or CKD). Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid might help to control blood sugar in people with a disease called polycystic kidney disease. But it doesn't seem to help prevent plaque build up in blood vessels.
  • Kidney damage in people with diabetes (diabetic nephropathy). Early research shows that giving alpha-lipoic acid by IV, along with IV alprostadil or oral valsartan, improves markers of kidney damage in people with diabetes and early kidney damage.
  • Menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea). Taking alpha-lipoic acid just before the start of menstruation might reduce period pain by a small amount. It might also help the medication mefenamic acid work better.
  • Erectile dysfunction (ED). Early research shows that giving alpha-lipoic acid with alprostadil by IV increases erections in men with erectile dysfunction (ED).
  • Fibromyalgia. Early research shows that giving alpha-lipoic acid with alprostadil by IV increases erections in men with erectile dysfunction (ED).
  • A group of eye disorders that can lead to vision loss (glaucoma). Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid daily for 1 month improves visual function in people with glaucoma.
  • Hemorrhoids. Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid daily for 12 weeks helps improve pain, itching, and bleeding caused by hemorrhoids.
  • HIV/AIDS. Early research suggests that taking alpha-lipoic acid daily for 6 months improves white blood cell counts in people with HIV who did not respond to antiretroviral therapy.
  • High blood pressure. Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid daily with the blood pressure-lowering medication quinapril does not decrease blood pressure compared to taking quinapril alone.
  • Prediabetes. Early research suggests that giving alpha-lipoic acid by IV once daily for 2 weeks improves post-meal blood sugar and insulin in people with prediabetes. Taking alpha-lipoic acid by mouth also seems to improve blood sugar control.
  • Migraine. Early research suggests that taking alpha-lipoic acid daily for 3 months improves the severity and frequency of migraines. But it doesn't reduce the number of monthly migraines.
  • Muscle strength. Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid while undergoing heavy training might help to maintain muscle strength.
  • Build up of fat in the liver in people who drink little or no alcohol (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD). Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid doesn't help break down liver fat in people with NAFLD.
  • Low blood pressure that occurs upon standing (orthostatic hypotension). Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid might help prevent blood pressure from dropping upon standing in some people.
  • Narrowing of blood vessels that causes poor blood flow to the limbs (peripheral arterial disease). Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid twice daily might reduce pain associated with exercise in people with peripheral arterial disease.
  • A hormonal disorder that causes enlarged ovaries with cysts (polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS). Taking alpha-lipoic acid might help with the control of blood sugar. But it doesn't seem to improve hormone levels, body weight, or excessive body hair.
  • Preterm birth. During premature labor, the cervix can shorten. This can increase the risk of preterm birth. Early research shows that inserting alpha-lipoic acid into the vagina can prevent the cervix from shortening after premature labor without delivery. But it's not clear if alpha-lipoic acid helps prevent premature birth.
  • Radiation exposure. Early research suggests that taking alpha-lipoic acid alone or together with vitamin E for 28 days might reduce symptoms of radiation exposure in children living near areas contaminated with radiation.
  • Pain due to pressure on the sciatic nerve (sciatica). Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid daily for 60 days improves leg pain and weakness in people with sciatica due to a herniated disc. But it does not seem to improve sleep quality.
  • A skin disorder that causes white patches to develop on the skin (vitiligo). Early research suggests that taking alpha-lipoic acid during phototherapy does not increase the effectiveness of phototherapy in people with skin discoloration characterized by white patches. However, other research suggests that taking alpha-lipoic acid with other ingredients starting 8 weeks before UV phototherapy and continuing during phototherapy treatment increases the effectiveness of phototherapy in these people.
  • Wound healing. Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid one hour before and one hour after hyperbaric oxygen therapy administered daily for 2 to 4 weeks reduces wound area compared to hyperbaric oxygen therapy alone.
  • An inherited disorder that causes copper to build up in many organs (Wilson disease).
  • Cancer.
  • Cataracts.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Conditions in a man that prevent him from getting a woman pregnant within a year of trying to conceive (male infertility).
  • Heart disease.
  • Heart failure.
  • Inability to become pregnant within a year of trying to conceive (infertility).
  • Lyme disease.
  • Neck pain.
  • Painful bladder syndrome (interstitial cystitis).
  • Schizophrenia.
  • Skin wrinkles from sun damage.
  • Surgery to improve blood flow to the heart (CABG surgery).
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid for these uses.

How does it work?

Alpha-lipoic acid seems to help prevent certain kinds of cell damage in the body, and also restores vitamin levels such as vitamin E and vitamin C. There is also evidence that alpha-lipoic acid can improve the function and conduction of neurons in diabetes.

Alpha-lipoic acid is used in the body to break down carbohydrates and to make energy for the other organs in the body.

Alpha-lipoic acid seems to work as an antioxidant, which means that it might provide protection to the brain under conditions of damage or injury. The antioxidant effects might also be helpful in certain liver diseases.

Are there safety concerns?

When taken by mouth: Alpha-lipoic acid is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when taken for up to 4 years. People taking alpha-lipoic acid by mouth might get a rash.

When applied to the skin: Alpha-lipoic acid is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when used as a cream for up to 12 weeks.

When given by IV: Alpha-lipoic acid is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when used intravenously (by IV) for up to 3 weeks.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy: When taken by mouth, alpha-lipoic acid during pregnancy is POSSIBLY SAFE. Alpha-lipoic acid has been safely used during pregnancy in doses of up to 600 mg daily for up to 4 weeks. Alpha-lipoic acid has been started as early as the 10th week of pregnancy and continued as late as the 37th week of pregnancy.

Breastfeeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if alpha-lipoic acid is safe to use when breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Children: When taken by mouth in appropriate amounts, alpha-lipoic acid is POSSIBLY SAFE in children aged 10-17 years. When taken by mouth in large amounts, alpha-lipoic acid is POSSIBLY UNSAFE in children. Seizures, vomiting, and unconsciousness has been reported for children aged 14 months to 16 years who took up to 2400 mg of alpha-lipoic acid in a single dose.

Surgery: Alpha-lipoic acid can decrease blood sugar levels. In theory, alpha-lipoic acid might interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop taking alpha-lipoic acid 2 weeks before elective surgical procedures.

Excessive use of alcohol/thiamine deficiency: Alcohol can lower the amount of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the body. Taking alpha-lipoic acid when there is a shortage of thiamine might cause serious health problems. If you drink a lot of alcohol and take alpha-lipoic acid, you should take a thiamine supplement.

Are there interactions with medications?

Be cautious with this combination.
Medications for cancer (Alkylating Agents)
Alpha-lipoic acid is an antioxidant. There is some concern that antioxidants might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for cancers. But it is too soon to know if this interaction occurs. Some medications for cancer include busulfan, carboplatin, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), dacarbazine, thiotepa, and many others.
Medications for cancer (Antitumor antibiotics)
Alpha-lipoic acid is an antioxidant. There is some concern that antioxidants might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for cancers. But it is too soon to know if this interaction occurs. Some antibiotics used for cancer include doxorubicin (Adriamycin), daunorubicin (DaunoXome), epirubicin (Ellence), mitomycin (Mutamycin), bleomycin (Blenoxane), and others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Using alpha-lipoic acid with medications that slow blood clotting might increase the risk of bleeding. Until more is known, be watchful if combining with medications that slow blood clotting.
Some of these drugs include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparin (Fragmin), dipyridamole (Persantine), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, ticlopidine (Ticlid), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Thyroid hormone
Taking alpha-lipoic acid seems to decrease how well thyroid hormone works in the body. Taking alpha-lipoic acid with thyroid hormone might decrease the effectiveness of the thyroid hormone.
Be watchful with this combination.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
Alpha-lipoic acid might lower blood sugar by a small amount. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking alpha-lipoic acid along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. But more evidence is needed to know if this interaction is a big concern. Monitor your blood sugar closely.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugar
Alpha-lipoic acid might lower blood sugar levels by a small amount. Taking it along with other herbs that lower blood sugar might lower blood sugar too much. Herbs that might lower blood sugar include devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, horse chestnut, Panax ginseng, psyllium, and Siberian ginseng.
Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
Alpha-lipoic acid might slow blood clotting. Until more is known, be watchful if combining with herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting. These herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, red clover, turmeric, willow, and others.
Thyroid extract
Taking alpha-lipoic acid seems to decrease how well thyroid hormone works in the body. Taking alpha-lipoic acid with thyroid hormone might decrease the effectiveness of the thyroid hormone.

Are there interactions with foods?

There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • For nerve pain in people with diabetes (diabetic neuropathy): 600-1800 mg of alpha-lipoic acid per day.
  • For high levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia): 300-1200 mg of alpha-lipoic acid per day for up to 16 weeks.
  • For obesity: 600-1800 mg of alpha-lipoic acid per day has been taken for 12-24 weeks.
  • For nerve pain in people with diabetes (diabetic neuropathy): 600-1200 mg of alpha-lipoic acid per day administered by a health care provider.

  • For obesity: 300 mg of alpha-lipoic acid has been taken twice daily in children aged 10-17 years.

Other names

A-Lipoic Acid, Acetate Replacing Factor, Acide Alpha-Lipoïque, Acide Alpha-Lipoïque R, Acide DL-Alpha-Lipoïque,Acide Lipoïque, Acide Thioctique, Acide 1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoïque, Acide 1,2-dithiolane-3-valérique, Acide 5 Valérique (1,2-dithiolan-3-yl), Acide 6,8-dithiooctanoïque, Acide 6,8-Thioctique, Acido Alfa Lipoico, ALA, Biletan, DHLA, Dihydrolipoic Acid, Extrait d'acide Alpha-Lipoïque, Lipoic Acid, Lipoicin, R-ALA, R-Alpha-Lipoic Acid, (+-)-1,2-Dithiolane-3-Pentanoic Acid, (R)-Dithiolane-3-Pentanoic Acid,R, S-Alpha Lipoic Acid, (R)-Lipoic Acid, R-Lipoic Acid, RS-Alpha-Lipoic Acid, S-Alpha-Lipoic Acid, S-Lipoic Acid, Sodium-R-Lipoate, Thioctacid, Thioctan,Thioctic Acid.


To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.


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Last reviewed - 04/06/2021