Skip navigation

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

URL of this page:

Chondroitin Sulfate

What is it?

Chondroitin sulfate is a chemical found in human and animal cartilage. It is commonly used by mouth with glucosamine or other ingredients for osteoarthritis.

Chondroitin sulfate is one of the building blocks of cartilage. In osteoarthritis, the cartilage in the joints breaks down. Taking chondroitin sulfate might slow this breakdown. It is usually manufactured from animal sources, such as shark and cow cartilage. It can also be made in a lab.

Chondroitin sulfate is used for osteoarthritis and cataracts. It is often used together with other ingredients, including manganese ascorbate, hyaluronic acid, collagen peptides, or glucosamine. Chondroitin sulfate is also used for many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for CHONDROITIN SULFATE are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Cataracts. An injectable solution containing chondroitin sulfate and sodium hyaluronate is approved by the FDA to protect the eye during cataract surgery. It is not clear if using it in a different form will help.
  • Osteoarthritis. Taking chondroitin sulfate by mouth seems to provide some relief from osteoarthritis pain and improve function. High quality, pharmaceutical-grade products have shown the most benefit. Chondrosulf (IBSA Institut Biochimique SA), Chondrosan (Bioiberica, S.A.) and Structum (Laboratoires Pierre Fabre) are examples of these products.
There is interest in using chondroitin sulfate for a number of other purposes, but there isn't enough reliable information to say whether it might be helpful.

Is it safe?

When taken by mouth: Chondroitin sulfate is likely safe when used for up to 6 years. It can cause some mild stomach pain and nausea. Other possible side effects include bloating, diarrhea, and constipation.

When placed into the eye: Chondroitin sulfate is possibly safe when used together with other ingredients in an eye drop.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if chondroitin sulfate is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Asthma: There is some concern that chondroitin sulfate might make asthma worse. If you have asthma, use chondroitin sulfate cautiously.

Prostate cancer: Early research suggests that chondroitin might cause the spread or recurrence of prostate cancer. This effect has not been shown with chondroitin sulfate supplements. However, until more is known, do not take chondroitin sulfate if you have prostate cancer or are at high risk for developing it (you have a brother or father with prostate cancer).

Are there interactions with medications?

Be cautious with this combination.
Warfarin (Coumadin)
Warfarin is used to slow blood clotting. There are several reports showing that taking chondroitin with glucosamine increases the effects of warfarin. This can cause bruising and bleeding that can be serious. Don't take chondroitin if you are taking warfarin.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Taking chondroitin sulfate together with glucosamine hydrochloride might reduce blood levels of glucosamine. But it's not clear if this will change the effects of glucosamine hydrochloride. It's also not clear if this interaction occurs with other forms of glucosamine, such as glucosamine sulfate.

Are there interactions with foods?

There are no known interactions with foods.

How is it typically used?

Chondroitin sulfate is most commonly used by adults in doses of 800-1200 mg per day, for up to 2 years.

There is concern that some chondroitin sulfate products are not labeled accurately. Some products might contain no chondroitin, while other products might contain more than the amount stated on the product's label. Because of these issues, the effects of different chondroitin products may vary. Speak with a healthcare provider to find out what dose or product might be best.

Other names

Calcium Chondroitin Sulfate, CDS, Chondroitin, Chondroitin Polysulfate, Chondroitin Polysulphate, Chondroitin Sulfate A, Chondroitin Sulfates, Chondroitin Sulfate B, Chondroitin Sulfate C, Chondroitin Sulphates, Chondroitin Sulphate A Sodium, Chondroïtine, Chondroïtine Sulfate A, Chondroïtine Sulfate B, Chondroïtine Sulfate C, Chondroïtine 4-Sulfate, Chondroïtine 4- et 6- Sulfate, Condroitin, CPS, CS, CSA, CSC, GAG, Galactosaminoglucuronoglycan Sulfate, Chondroitin 4-Sulfate, Chondroitin 4- and 6-Sulfate, Poly-(1->3)-N-Aceltyl-2-Amino-2-Deoxy-3-O-Beta-D-Glucopyranurosyl-4-(or 6-), Polysulfate de Chondroïtine, Sulfate de Chondroïtine, Sulfate de Galactosaminoglucuronoglycane, Sulfates de Chondroïtine, Sulfato de Condroitina.


To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.


  1. Lila AM, Alekseeva LI, Baranov AA, et al. Chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine combination in patients with knee and hip osteoarthritis: A long-term observational study in Russia. World J Orthop 2023;14:443-457. View abstract.
  2. Alhayek MN, Burhan AS, Hajeer MY, Nawaya FR, Sahtout GF. Evaluation of Local Application of Glucosamine Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate on Temporomandibular Joint Response and Alleviation of Pain and Tension During the Functional Treatment of Skeletal Class II Patients: A Randomized Control Clinical Trial. Cureus 2023;15:e34608. View abstract.
  3. Chu EC, Huang KHK, Cheung G, Ng G, Lin A. Delayed Skin Allergy to Glucosamine Chondroitin Supplement. Cureus 2023;15:e36310. View abstract.
  4. Bhimani J, O'Connell K, Kuk D, Du M, Navarro SL, Kantor ED. Glucosamine and Chondroitin Use and Mortality Among Adults in the United States from 1999 to 2014. J Integr Complement Med 2023. View abstract.
  5. Liu B, Yang W, Zhang K. Role of Glucosamine and Chondroitin in the Prevention of Cancer: A Meta-Analysis. Nutr Cancer 2023;75:785-794. View abstract.
  6. Rahnama'i MS, Javan Balegh Marand A, Röschmann-Doose K, Steffens L, Arendsen HJ. The efficacy and safety of intravesical chondroitin sulphate solution in recurrent urinary tract infections. BMC Urol 2022;22:188. View abstract.
  7. Pellegatta G, Mangiavillano B, Semeraro R, et al. The effect of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate-based medical device combined with acid suppression in the treatment of atypical symptoms in gastroesophageal reflux disease. J Clin Med 2022;11:1890. View abstract.
  8. Ruiz-Romero V, Toledano-Serrabona J, Gay-Escoda C. Efficacy of the use of chondroitin sulphate and glucosamine for the treatment of temporomandibular joint dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cranio 2022;1-10. View abstract.
  9. Mazzucchelli R, Rodríguez-Martín S, Crespí-Villarías N, et al. Risk of ischaemic stroke among new users of glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate: a nested case-control study. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis 2022;14:1759720X221113937. View abstract.
  10. Malvankar-Mehta MS, Fu A, Subramanian Y, Hutnik C. Impact of Ophthalmic Viscosurgical Devices in Cataract Surgery. Ophthalmol. 2020;2020:7801093. View abstract.
  11. Honvo G, Bruyère O, Geerinck A, Veronese N, Reginster JY. Efficacy of chondroitin sulfate in patients with knee osteoarthritis: A comprehensive meta-analysis exploring inconsistencies in randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Adv Ther. 2019;36:1085-1099. View abstract.
  12. King DE, Xiang J. Glucosamine/Chondroitin and Mortality in a US NHANES Cohort. J Am Board Fam Med. 2020;33:842-847. View abstract.
  13. Lee DH, Cao C, Zong X, et al. Glucosamine and Chondroitin Supplements and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma and Serrated Polyp. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2020;29:2693-2701. View abstract.
  14. Belalcázar-Rey S, Sánchez Huerta V, Ochoa-Tabares JC, et al. Efficacy and safety of sodium hyaluronate/chondroitin sulfate preservative-free ophthalmic solution in the treatment of dry eye: A clinical trial. Curr Eye Res. 2020:1-11. View abstract.
  15. Bruyere O, Honvo G, Veronese N, et al. An updated algorithm recommendation for the management of knee osteoarthritis from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis, and Musculoskeletal Disease (ESCEO). Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2019 Dec;49:337-50. View abstract.
  16. Navarro SL, Levy L, Curtis KR, Lampe JW, Hullar MAJ. Modulation of Gut Microbiota by Glucosamine and Chondroitin in a Randomized, Double-Blind Pilot Trial in Humans. Microorganisms. 2019 Nov 23;7. pii: E610. View abstract.
  17. Restaino OF, Finamore R, Stellavato A, et al. European chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine food supplements: A systematic quality and quantity assessment compared to pharmaceuticals. Carbohydr Polym. 2019 Oct 15;222:114984. View abstract.
  18. Kolasinski SL, Neogi T, Hochberg MC, et al. 2019 American College of Rheumatology/Arthritis Foundation guideline for the management of osteoarthritis of the hand, hip, and knee. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2020 Feb;72:220-33. View abstract.
  19. Savarino V, Pace F2, Scarpignato C; Esoxx Study Group. Randomised clinical trial: mucosal protection combined with acid suppression in the treatment of non-erosive reflux disease - efficacy of Esoxx, a hyaluronic acid-chondroitin sulphate based bioadhesive formulation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2017;45:631-642. View abstract.
  20. Goddard JC, Janssen DAW. Intravesical hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate for recurrent urinary tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis. Int Urogynecol J. 2018 Jul;29:933-942. Epub 2017 Nov 27. Review. View abstract.
  21. Iannitti T, Morales-Medina JC, Merighi A, et al. A hyaluronic acid- and chondroitin sulfate-based medical device improves gastritis pain, discomfort, and endoscopic features. Drug Deliv Transl Res. 2018 Oct;8:994-999. View abstract.
  22. Simental-Mendía M, Sánchez-García A, Vilchez-Cavazos F, Acosta-Olivo CA, Peña-Martínez VM, Simental-Mendía LE. Effect of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Rheumatol Int. 2018 Aug;38:1413-1428. Epub 2018 Jun 11. Review. View abstract.
  23. Ogata T, Ideno Y, Akai M, et al. Effects of glucosamine in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Rheumatol. 2018 Sep;37:2479-2487. Epub 2018 Apr 30. View abstract.
  24. Pyo JS, Cho WJ. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Intravesical Hyaluronic Acid and Hyaluronic Acid/Chondroitin Sulfate Instillation for Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;39:1618-25. View abstract.
  25. Lopez HL, Ziegenfuss TN, Park J. Evaluation of the Effects of BioCell Collagen, a Novel Cartilage Extract, on Connective Tissue Support and Functional Recovery From Exercise. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2015;14:30-8. View abstract.
  26. Zeng C, Wei J, Li H, et al. Effectiveness and safety of Glucosamine, chondroitin, the two in combination, or celecoxib in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Sci Rep. 2015;5:16827. View abstract.
  27. Roman-Blas JA, Castañeda S, Sánchez-Pernaute O, et al. Combined Treatment With Chondroitin Sulfate and Glucosamine Sulfate Shows No Superiority Over Placebo for Reduction of Joint Pain and Functional Impairment in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Six-Month Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017;69:77-85. View abstract.
  28. Pelletier JP, Raynauld JP, Beaulieu AD, et al. Chondroitin sulfate efficacy versus celecoxib on knee osteoarthritis structural changes using magnetic resonance imaging: a 2-year multicentre exploratory study. Arthritis Res Ther. 2016;18:256. View abstract.
  29. Singh JA, Noorbaloochi S, MacDonald R, Maxwell LJ. Chondroitin for osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jan 28;1:CD005614. View abstract.
  30. Bruyère O, Cooper C, Pelletier JP, et al. A consensus statement on the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) algorithm for the management of knee osteoarthritis-From evidence-based medicine to the real-life setting. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2016;45(4 Suppl):S3-11. View abstract.
  31. Reginster JY, Dudler J, Blicharski T, Pavelka K. Pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin sulfate is as effective as celecoxib and superior to placebo in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: the ChONdroitin versus CElecoxib versus Placebo Trial (CONCEPT). Ann Rheum Dis. 2017 May 22. pii: annrheumdis-2016-210860. View abstract.
  32. Volpi N. Quality of different chondroitin sulfate preparations in relation to their therapeutic activity. J Pharm Pharmacol 2009;61:1271-80. View abstract.
  33. Lauder RM. Chondroitin sulphate: a complex molecule with potential impacts on a wide range of biological systems. Complement Ther Med 2009;17:56-62. View abstract.
  34. Barnhill JG, Fye CL, Williams DW, Reda DJ, Harris CL, Clegg DO. Chondroitin product selection for the glucosamine/chondroitin arthritis intervention trial. J Am Pharm Assoc 2006;46:14-24. View abstract.
  35. Zegels B, Crozes P, Uebelhart D, Bruyère O, Reginster JY. Equivalence of a single dose (1200 mg) compared to a three-time a day dose (400 mg) of chondroitin 4&6 sulfate in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Results of a randomized double blind placebo controlled study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2013;21:22-7. View abstract.
  36. Torella M, Schettino MT, Salvatore S, Serati M, De Franciscis P, Colacurci N. Intravesical therapy in recurrent cystitis: a multi-center experience. J Infect Chemother 2013;19:920-5. View abstract.
  37. Schneider H, Maheu E, Cucherat M. Symptom-modifying effect of chondroitin sulfate in knee osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials performed with structum(®). Open Rheumatol J. 2012;6:183-9. View abstract.
  38. Palmieri B, Merighi A, Corbascio D, Rottigni V, Fistetto G, Esposito A. Fixed combination of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin-sulphate oral formulation in a randomized double blind, placebo controlled study for the treatment of symptoms in patients with non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2013;17:3272-8. View abstract.
  39. Llamas-Moreno JF, Baiza-Durán LM, Saucedo-Rodríguez LR, Alaníz-De la O JF. Efficacy and safety of chondroitin sulfate/xanthan gum versus polyethylene glycol/propylene glycol/hydroxypropyl guar in patients with dry eye. Clin Ophthalmol 2013;7:995-9. View abstract.
  40. De Vita D, Antell H, Giordano S. Effectiveness of intravesical hyaluronic acid with or without chondroitin sulfate for recurrent bacterial cystitis in adult women: a meta-analysis. Int Urogynecol J 2013;24:545-52. View abstract.
  41. Greenlee H, Crew KD, Shao T, Kranwinkel G, Kalinsky K, Maurer M, Brafman L, Insel B, Tsai WY, Hershman DL. Phase II study of glucosamine with chondroitin on aromatase inhibitor-associated joint symptoms in women with breast cancer. Support Care Cancer 2013;21:1077-87. View abstract.
  42. Fransen M, Agaliotis M, Nairn L, Votrubec M, Bridgett L, Su S, Jan S, March L,Edmonds J, Norton R, Woodward M, Day R; LEGS study collaborative group. Glucosamine and chondroitin for knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluating single and combination regimens. Ann Rheum Dis 2015;74:851-8. View abstract.
  43. Ossendza RA, Grandval P, Chinoune F, Rocher F, Chapel F, Bernardini D. [Acute cholestatic hepatitis due to glucosamine forte]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2007 Apr;31:449-50. View abstract.
  44. Provenza JR, Shinjo SK, Silva JM, Peron CR, Rocha FA. Combined glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, once or three times daily, provides clinically relevant analgesia in knee osteoarthritis. Clin Rheumatol 2015;34:1455-62.View abstract.
  45. von Felden J, Montani M, Kessebohm K, Stickel F. Drug-induced acute liver injury mimicking autoimmune hepatitis after intake of dietary supplements containing glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2013;51:219-23. View abstract.
  46. Hochberg MC, Martel-Pelletier J, Monfort J, Möller I, Castillo JR, Arden N,Berenbaum F, Blanco FJ, Conaghan PG, Doménech G, Henrotin Y, Pap T, Richette P, Sawitzke A, du Souich P, Pelletier JP; on behalf of the MOVES Investigation Group. Combined chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine for painful knee osteoarthritis: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial versus celecoxib. Ann Rheum Dis 2016;75:37-44. View abstract.
  47. Cerda C, Bruguera M, Parés A. Hepatotoxicity associated with glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in patients with chronic liver disease. World J Gastroenterol 2013;19:5381-4. View abstract.
  48. FDA. Premarket Approval (PMA). Available at:
  49. FDA grants premarket approval for Viscoat. Biomed Safety Standards 1986;16:82.
  50. Adebowale AO, Cox DS Liang Z Eddington ND. Analysis of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate content in marketed products and the caco-2 permeability of chondroitin sulfate raw materials. J Am Nutraceutical Assoc. 2000;3:37-44.
  51. Pavelka and et al. Double-blind, dose effect study of oral cs 4 & 6 1200mg, 800mg, 200mg against placebo in the treatment of femorotibial osteoarthritis. Wular Rheumatol Liter 1998;27(suppl 2):63.
  52. L'Hirondel JL. [Clinical double blind study with oral application of chondroitin sulfate vs. placebo for treatment of tibio femoral gonarthrosis in 125 patients]. Litera Rheumatologica 1992;14:77-84.
  53. Fleisch, AM, Merlin C, Imhoff A, and et al. A one-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with oral chondroitin sulfate in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 1997;5:70.
  54. Verbruggen, G., Goemaere, S., and Veys, E. M. Chondroitin sulfate: S/DMOAD (structure/disease modifying anti- osteoarthritis drug) in the treatment of finger joint OA. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998;6 Suppl A:37-38. View abstract.
  55. Nakazawa, K. and Murata, K. Comparative study of the effects of chondroitin sulfate isomers on atherosclerotic subjects. ZFA. 1979;34:153-159. View abstract.
  56. Thilo, G. [A study of 35 cases of arthrosis treated with chondrotiine sulphuric acid (author's transl)]. Schweizerische Rundschau fur Medizin Praxis 12-27-1977;66:1696-1699. View abstract.
  57. Embriano, P. J. Postoperative pressures after phacoemulsification: sodium hyaluronate vs. sodium chondroitin sulfate-sodium hyaluronate. Ann.Ophthalmol. 1989;21:85-88, 90. View abstract.
  58. Railhac, J. J., Zaim, M., Saurel, A. S., Vial, J., and Fournie, B. Effect of 12 months treatment with chondroitin sulfate on cartilage volume in knee osteoarthritis patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study using MRI. Clin.Rheumatol. 2012;31:1347-1357. View abstract.
  59. De, Vita D. and Giordano, S. Effectiveness of intravesical hyaluronic acid/chondroitin sulfate in recurrent bacterial cystitis: a randomized study. Int.Urogynecol.J. 2012;23:1707-1713. View abstract.
  60. Nickel, J. C., Hanno, P., Kumar, K., and Thomas, H. Second multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group evaluation of effectiveness and safety of intravesical sodium chondroitin sulfate compared with inactive vehicle control in subjects with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Urology 2012;79:1220-1224. View abstract.
  61. Yue, J., Yang, M., Yi, S., Dong, B., Li, W., Yang, Z., Lu, J., Zhang, R., and Yong, J. Chondroitin sulfate and/or glucosamine hydrochloride for Kashin-Beck disease: a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled study. Osteoarthritis.Cartilage. 2012;20:622-629. View abstract.
  62. Kanzaki, N., Saito, K., Maeda, A., Kitagawa, Y., Kiso, Y., Watanabe, K., Tomonaga, A., Nagaoka, I., and Yamaguchi, H. Effect of a dietary supplement containing glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate and quercetin glycosides on symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J.Sci.Food Agric. 3-15-2012;92:862-869. View abstract.
  63. Wildi, L. M., Raynauld, J. P., Martel-Pelletier, J., Beaulieu, A., Bessette, L., Morin, F., Abram, F., Dorais, M., and Pelletier, J. P. Chondroitin sulphate reduces both cartilage volume loss and bone marrow lesions in knee osteoarthritis patients starting as early as 6 months after initiation of therapy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study using MRI. Ann.Rheum.Dis. 2011;70:982-989. View abstract.
  64. Damiano, R., Quarto, G., Bava, I., Ucciero, G., De, Domenico R., Palumbo, M. I., and Autorino, R. Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections by intravesical administration of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate: a placebo-controlled randomised trial. Eur.Urol. 2011;59:645-651. View abstract.
  65. Zhou, Q., Chen, H., Qu, M., Wang, Q., Yang, L., and Xie, L. Development of a novel ex vivo model of corneal fungal adherence. Graefes Arch.Clin.Exp.Ophthalmol. 2011;249:693-700. View abstract.
  66. Liesegang, T. J. Viscoelastic substances in ophthalmology. Surv.Ophthalmol. 1990;34:268-293. View abstract.
  67. Furer, V., Wieczorek, R. L., and Pillinger, M. H. Bilateral pinna chondritis preceded by glucosamine chondroitin supplement initiation. Scand.J.Rheumatol. 2011;40:241-243. View abstract.
  68. Chen, W. C., Yao, C. L., Chu, I. M., and Wei, Y. H. Compare the effects of chondrogenesis by culture of human mesenchymal stem cells with various type of the chondroitin sulfate C. J.Biosci.Bioeng. 2011;111:226-231. View abstract.
  69. Kato, D., Era, S., Watanabe, I., Arihara, M., Sugiura, N., Kimata, K., Suzuki, Y., Morita, K., Hidari, K. I., and Suzuki, T. Antiviral activity of chondroitin sulphate E targeting dengue virus envelope protein. Antiviral Res. 2010;88:236-243. View abstract.
  70. Wandel, S., Juni, P., Tendal, B., Nuesch, E., Villiger, P. M., Welton, N. J., Reichenbach, S., and Trelle, S. Effects of glucosamine, chondroitin, or placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee: network meta-analysis. BMJ 2010;341:c4675. View abstract.
  71. Rentsch, C., Rentsch, B., Breier, A., Spekl, K., Jung, R., Manthey, S., Scharnweber, D., Zwipp, H., and Biewener, A. Long-bone critical-size defects treated with tissue-engineered polycaprolactone-co-lactide scaffolds: a pilot study on rats. J.Biomed.Mater.Res.A 12-1-2010;95:964-972. View abstract.
  72. Im, A. R., Park, Y., and Kim, Y. S. Isolation and characterization of chondroitin sulfates from sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) and their effects on growth of fibroblasts. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 2010;33:1268-1273. View abstract.
  73. Sawitzke, A. D., Shi, H., Finco, M. F., Dunlop, D. D., Harris, C. L., Singer, N. G., Bradley, J. D., Silver, D., Jackson, C. G., Lane, N. E., Oddis, C. V., Wolfe, F., Lisse, J., Furst, D. E., Bingham, C. O., Reda, D. J., Moskowitz, R. W., Williams, H. J., and Clegg, D. O. Clinical efficacy and safety of glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate, their combination, celecoxib or placebo taken to treat osteoarthritis of the knee: 2-year results from GAIT. Ann.Rheum.Dis. 2010;69:1459-1464. View abstract.
  74. Nickel, J. C., Egerdie, R. B., Steinhoff, G., Palmer, B., and Hanno, P. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel group pilot evaluation of the efficacy and safety of intravesical sodium chondroitin sulfate versus vehicle control in patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. Urology 2010;76:804-809. View abstract.
  75. Moller, I., Perez, M., Monfort, J., Benito, P., Cuevas, J., Perna, C., Domenech, G., Herrero, M., Montell, E., and Verges, J. Effectiveness of chondroitin sulphate in patients with concomitant knee osteoarthritis and psoriasis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Osteoarthritis.Cartilage. 2010;18 Suppl 1:S32-S40. View abstract.
  76. Egea, J., Garcia, A. G., Verges, J., Montell, E., and Lopez, M. G. Antioxidant, antiinflammatory and neuroprotective actions of chondroitin sulfate and proteoglycans. Osteoarthritis.Cartilage. 2010;18 Suppl 1:S24-S27. View abstract.
  77. Hochberg, M. C. Structure-modifying effects of chondroitin sulfate in knee osteoarthritis: an updated meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials of 2-year duration. Osteoarthritis.Cartilage. 2010;18 Suppl 1:S28-S31. View abstract.
  78. Imada, K., Oka, H., Kawasaki, D., Miura, N., Sato, T., and Ito, A. Anti-arthritic action mechanisms of natural chondroitin sulfate in human articular chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts. Biol.Pharm Bull. 2010;33:410-414. View abstract.
  79. Pavelka, K., Coste, P., Geher, P., and Krejci, G. Efficacy and safety of piascledine 300 versus chondroitin sulfate in a 6 months treatment plus 2 months observation in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Clin.Rheumatol. 2010;29:659-670. View abstract.
  80. Tat, S. K., Pelletier, J. P., Mineau, F., Duval, N., and Martel-Pelletier, J. Variable effects of 3 different chondroitin sulfate compounds on human osteoarthritic cartilage/chondrocytes: relevance of purity and production process. J.Rheumatol. 2010;37:656-664. View abstract.
  81. Lane, S. S., Naylor, D. W., Kullerstrand, L. J., Knauth, K., and Lindstrom, R. L. Prospective comparison of the effects of Occucoat, Viscoat, and Healon on intraocular pressure and endothelial cell loss. J Cataract Refract.Surg. 1991;17:21-26. View abstract.
  82. Jackson, C. G., Plaas, A. H., Sandy, J. D., Hua, C., Kim-Rolands, S., Barnhill, J. G., Harris, C. L., and Clegg, D. O. The human pharmacokinetics of oral ingestion of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate taken separately or in combination. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2010;18:297-302. View abstract.
  83. Crowley, D. C., Lau, F. C., Sharma, P., Evans, M., Guthrie, N., Bagchi, M., Bagchi, D., Dey, D. K., and Raychaudhuri, S. P. Safety and efficacy of undenatured type II collagen in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a clinical trial. Int.J.Med.Sci. 2009;6:312-321. View abstract.
  84. Rainsford, K. D. Importance of pharmaceutical composition and evidence from clinical trials and pharmacological studies in determining effectiveness of chondroitin sulphate and other glycosaminoglycans: a critique. J.Pharm.Pharmacol. 2009;61:1263-1270. View abstract.
  85. Hauser, P. J., Buethe, D. A., Califano, J., Sofinowski, T. M., Culkin, D. J., and Hurst, R. E. Restoring barrier function to acid damaged bladder by intravesical chondroitin sulfate. J.Urol. 2009;182:2477-2482. View abstract.
  86. Kubo, M., Ando, K., Mimura, T., Matsusue, Y., and Mori, K. Chondroitin sulfate for the treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis: current status and future trends. Life Sci. 9-23-2009;85(13-14):477-483. View abstract.
  87. Lee, Y. H., Woo, J. H., Choi, S. J., Ji, J. D., and Song, G. G. Effect of glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate on the osteoarthritis progression: a meta-analysis. Rheumatol Int 2010;30:357-363. View abstract.
  88. du Souich, P., Garcia, A. G., Verges, J., and Montell, E. Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of chondroitin sulphate. J.Cell Mol.Med. 2009;13(8A):1451-1463. View abstract.
  89. Fthenou, E., Zong, F., Zafiropoulos, A., Dobra, K., Hjerpe, A., and Tzanakakis, G. N. Chondroitin sulfate A regulates fibrosarcoma cell adhesion, motility and migration through JNK and tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. In Vivo 2009;23:69-76. View abstract.
  90. Bhattacharyya, S., Solakyildirim, K., Zhang, Z., Chen, M. L., Linhardt, R. J., and Tobacman, J. K. Cell-bound IL-8 increases in bronchial epithelial cells after arylsulfatase B silencing due to sequestration with chondroitin-4-sulfate. Am.J.Respir.Cell Mol.Biol. 2010;42:51-61. View abstract.
  91. David-Raoudi, M., Deschrevel, B., Leclercq, S., Galera, P., Boumediene, K., and Pujol, J. P. Chondroitin sulfate increases hyaluronan production by human synoviocytes through differential regulation of hyaluronan synthases: Role of p38 and Akt. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:760-770. View abstract.
  92. Matsuno, H., Nakamura, H., Katayama, K., Hayashi, S., Kano, S., Yudoh, K., and Kiso, Y. Effects of an oral administration of glucosamine-chondroitin-quercetin glucoside on the synovial fluid properties in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2009;73:288-292. View abstract.
  93. Kahan, A., Uebelhart, D., De, Vathaire F., Delmas, P. D., and Reginster, J. Y. Long-term effects of chondroitins 4 and 6 sulfate on knee osteoarthritis: the study on osteoarthritis progression prevention, a two-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:524-533. View abstract.
  94. Rovetta, G. Galactosaminoglycuronoglycan sulfate (matrix) in therapy of tibiofibular osteoarthritis of the knee. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1991;17:53-57. View abstract.
  95. Oliviero, U., Sorrentino, G. P., De Paola, P., Tranfaglia, E., D'Alessandro, A., Carifi, S., Porfido, F. A., Cerio, R., Grasso, A. M., Policicchio, D., and . Effects of the treatment with matrix on elderly people with chronic articular degeneration. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1991;17:45-51. View abstract.
  96. Theoharides, T. C., Kempuraj, D., Vakali, S., and Sant, G. R. Treatment of refractory interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome with CystoProtek--an oral multi-agent natural supplement. Can J Urol 2008;15:4410-4414. View abstract.
  97. Hochberg, M. C., Zhan, M., and Langenberg, P. The rate of decline of joint space width in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials of chondroitin sulfate. Curr.Med.Res.Opin. 2008;24:3029-3035. View abstract.
  98. Sawitzke, A. D., Shi, H., Finco, M. F., Dunlop, D. D., Bingham, C. O., III, Harris, C. L., Singer, N. G., Bradley, J. D., Silver, D., Jackson, C. G., Lane, N. E., Oddis, C. V., Wolfe, F., Lisse, J., Furst, D. E., Reda, D. J., Moskowitz, R. W., Williams, H. J., and Clegg, D. O. The effect of glucosamine and/or chondroitin sulfate on the progression of knee osteoarthritis: a report from the glucosamine/chondroitin arthritis intervention trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:3183-3191. View abstract.
  99. Nickel, J. C., Egerdie, B., Downey, J., Singh, R., Skehan, A., Carr, L., and Irvine-Bird, K. A real-life multicentre clinical practice study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravesical chondroitin sulphate for the treatment of interstitial cystitis. BJU.Int. 2009;103:56-60. View abstract.
  100. Nordling, J. and van, Ophoven A. Intravesical glycosaminoglycan replenishment with chondroitin sulphate in chronic forms of cystitis. A multi-national, multi-centre, prospective observational clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung. 2008;58:328-335. View abstract.
  101. Theocharis, D. A., Skandalis, S. S., Noulas, A. V., Papageorgakopoulou, N., Theocharis, A. D., and Karamanos, N. K. Hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the supramolecular organization of the mammalian vitreous body. Connect.Tissue Res. 2008;49:124-128. View abstract.
  102. Fosang, A. J. and Little, C. B. Drug insight: aggrecanases as therapeutic targets for osteoarthritis. Nat.Clin.Pract.Rheumatol. 2008;4:420-427. View abstract.
  103. Praveen, M. R., Koul, A., Vasavada, A. R., Pandita, D., Dixit, N. V., and Dahodwala, F. F. DisCoVisc versus the soft-shell technique using Viscoat and Provisc in phacoemulsification: randomized clinical trial. J.Cataract Refract.Surg. 2008;34:1145-1151. View abstract.
  104. Dudics, V., Kunstar, A., Kovacs, J., Lakatos, T., Geher, P., Gomor, B., Monostori, E., and Uher, F. Chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: measurements in a microculture system. Cells Tissues.Organs 2009;189:307-316. View abstract.
  105. Porru, D., Cervigni, M., Nasta, L., Natale, F., Lo, Voi R., Tinelli, C., Gardella, B., Anghileri, A., Spinillo, A., and Rovereto, B. Results of endovesical hyaluronic acid/chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome. Rev.Recent Clin.Trials 2008;3:126-129. View abstract.
  106. Cervigni, M., Natale, F., Nasta, L., Padoa, A., Voi, R. L., and Porru, D. A combined intravesical therapy with hyaluronic acid and chondroitin for refractory painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Int.Urogynecol.J.Pelvic.Floor.Dysfunct. 2008;19:943-947. View abstract.
  107. Rainer, G., Stifter, E., Luksch, A., and Menapace, R. Comparison of the effect of Viscoat and DuoVisc on postoperative intraocular pressure after small-incision cataract surgery. J.Cataract Refract.Surg. 2008;34:253-257. View abstract.
  108. Laroche, L., Arrata, M., Brasseur, G., Lagoutte, F., Le Mer, Y., Lumbroso, P., Mercante, M., Normand, F., Rigal, D., Roncin, S., and . [Treatment of dry eye syndrome with lacrimal gel: a randomized multicenter study]. J Fr.Ophtalmol. 1991;14:321-326. View abstract.
  109. Conte, A., de Bernardi, M., Palmieri, L., Lualdi, P., Mautone, G., and Ronca, G. Metabolic fate of exogenous chondroitin sulfate in man. Arzneimittelforschung. 1991;41:768-772. View abstract.
  110. Bana, G., Jamard, B., Verrouil, E., and Mazieres, B. Chondroitin sulfate in the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis: an overview. Adv.Pharmacol. 2006;53:507-522. View abstract.
  111. Mazieres, B., Hucher, M., Zaim, M., and Garnero, P. Effect of chondroitin sulphate in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis 2007;66:639-645. View abstract.
  112. Braun, W. A., Flynn, M. G., Armstrong, W. J., and Jacks, D. D. The effects of chondroitin sulfate supplementation on indices of muscle damage induced by eccentric arm exercise. J.Sports Med.Phys.Fitness 2005;45:553-560. View abstract.
  113. Michel, B. A., Stucki, G., Frey, D., De, Vathaire F., Vignon, E., Bruehlmann, P., and Uebelhart, D. Chondroitins 4 and 6 sulfate in osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52:779-786. View abstract.
  114. Rovetta, G., Monteforte, P., Molfetta, G., and Balestra, V. A two-year study of chondroitin sulfate in erosive osteoarthritis of the hands: behavior of erosions, osteophytes, pain and hand dysfunction. Drugs Exp Clin Res 2004;30:11-16. View abstract.
  115. Mathieu, P. [Radiological progression of internal femoro-tibial osteoarthritis in gonarthrosis. Chondro-protective effect of chondroitin sulfates ACS4-ACS6]. Presse Med 9-14-2002;31:1386-1390. View abstract.
  116. Volpi, N. Oral bioavailability of chondroitin sulfate (Condrosulf) and its constituents in healthy male volunteers. Osteoarthritis.Cartilage. 2002;10:768-777. View abstract.
  117. Rovetta, G., Monteforte, P., Molfetta, G., and Balestra, V. Chondroitin sulfate in erosive osteoarthritis of the hands. Int J Tissue React. 2002;24:29-32. View abstract.
  118. Steinhoff, G., Ittah, B., and Rowan, S. The efficacy of chondroitin sulfate 0.2% in treating interstitial cystitis. Can J Urol 2002;9:1454-1458. View abstract.
  119. O'Rourke, M. Determining the efficacy of glucosamine and chondroitin for osteoarthritis. Nurse Pract 2001;26:44-52. View abstract.
  120. [Beneficial effects of Chondrosulf 400 on pain and articular function in arthrosis: a meta-analysis]. Presse Med 2000;29(27 Suppl):19-20. View abstract.
  121. [European multicenter study on effectiveness of chondroitin sulfate in gonarthrosis: a new look at biochemical and radiologic results]. Presse Med 2000;29(27 Suppl):15-18. View abstract.
  122. Alekseeva, L. I., Benevolenskaia, L. I., Nasonov, E. L., Chichasova, N. V., and Kariakin, A. N. [Structum (chondroitin sulfate)--a new agent for the treatment of osteoarthrosis]. Ter.Arkh. 1999;71:51-53. View abstract.
  123. Schwartz SR, Park J. Ingestion of BioCell Collagen, a novel hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage extract; enhanced blood microcirculation and reduced facial aging signs. Clin Interv Aging. 2012;7:267-273. View abstract.
  124. Schauss AG, Stenehjem J, Park J, Endres JR, Clewell A. Effect of the novel low molecular weight hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage extract, BioCell Collagen, on improving osteoarthritis-related symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:4096-4101. View abstract.
  125. Kalman DS, Schwartz HI, Pachon J, Sheldon E, Almada AL. A randomized double blind clinical pilot trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of hydrolyzed collagen type II in adults with osteoarthritis. FASEB Experimental Biology 2004 Abstracts, Washington DC, April 17-21, 2004; A90.
  126. Verges J, Montell E, Herrero M, et al. Clinical and histopathological improvements in psoriasis with oral chondroitin sulfate: a serendipitous finding. Dermatol Online J 2005;11:31. View abstract.
  127. Burke S, Sugar J, Farber MD. Comparison of the effects of two viscoelastic agents, Healon and Viscoat on postoperative intraocular pressure after penetrating keratoplasty. Ophthalmic Surg 1990;21:821-6. View abstract.
  128. Zhang YX, Dong W, Liu H, et al. Effects of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine in adult patients with Kashin-Beck disease. Clin Rheumatol 2010;29:357-62. View abstract.
  129. Uebelhart D, Knussel O, Theiler R. Efficacy and tolerability of an oral avian chondroitin sulfate in painful knee osteoarthritis [abstract]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1999;129:1174.
  130. Leeb BF, Petera P, Neumann K. Results of a multicenter study on chondroitin sulfate (Condrosulf) use in arthrosis of the finger, knee and hip joints. Wien Med Wochenschr 1996;146:609-14. View abstract.
  131. Gabay C, Medinger-Sadowski C, Gascon D, et al. Symptomatic effect of chondroitin 4 and chondroitin 6 sulfate on hand osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial at a single center. Arthritis Rheum 2011;63:3383-91. View abstract.
  132. Yue QY, Strandell J, Myrberg O. Concomitant use of glucosamine potentiates the effect of warfarin. Jan 2006. Drug Safety 29:911-1010.
  133. Knudsen J, Sokol GH. Potential glucosamine-warfarin interaction resulting in increased international normalized ratio: Case report and review of the literature and MedWatch database. Pharmacotherapy 2008;28:540-8. View abstract.
  134. Reichenbach S, Sterchi R, Scherer M, et al. Meta-analysis: chondroitin for osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. Ann Intern Med 2007;146:580-90. View abstract.
  135. Messier SP, Mihalko S, Loeser RF, et al. Glucosamine/chondroitin combined with exercise for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a preliminary study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2007;15:1256-66. View abstract.
  136. Kahan A. STOPP (STudy on Osteoarthritis Progression Prevention): a new two-year trial with chondroitin 4&6 sulfate (CS). Available at: (Accessed 25 April 2007).
  137. Huang J, Olivenstein R, Taha R, et al. Enhanced proteoglycan deposition in the airway wall of atopic asthmatics. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:725-9. View abstract.
  138. Clegg DO, Reda DJ, Harris CL, et al. Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis. N Engl J Med 2006;354:795-808. View abstract.
  139. Uebelhart D, Malaise M, Marcolongo R, et al. Intermittent treatment of knee osteoarthritis with oral chondroitin sulfate: A one-year, randomize, double-blind, multicenter study versus placebo. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004;12:269-76. View abstract.
  140. Sakko AJ, Ricciardelli C, Mayne K, et al. Modulation of prostate cancer cell attachment to matrix by versican. Cancer Res 2003;63:4786-91. View abstract.
  141. Rozenfeld V, Crain JL, Callahan AK. Possible augmentation of warfarin effect by glucosamine-chondroitin. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2004;61:306-307. View abstract.
  142. Di Caro A, Perola E, Bartolini B, et al. Fractions of chemically oversulphated galactosaminoglycan sulphates inhibit three enveloped viruses: human immunodeficiency virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 1 and human cytomegalovirus. Antivir Chem Chemother 1999;10:33-8.. View abstract.
  143. Danao-Camara T. Potential side effects of treatment with glucosamine and chondroitin. Arthritis Rheum 2000;43:2853. View abstract.
  144. Cohen M, Wolfe R, Mai T, Lewis D. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial of a topical cream containing glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and camphor for osteoarthritis of the knee. J Rheumatol 2003;30:523-8.. View abstract.
  145. Baici A, Horler D, Moser B, et al. Analysis of glycosaminoglycans in human serum after oral administration of chondroitin sulfate. Rheumatol Int 1992;12:81-8.. View abstract.
  146. Richy F, Bruyere O, Ethgen O, et al. Structural and symptomatic efficacy of glucosamine and chondroitin in knee osteoarthritis: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:1514-22. View abstract.
  147. Henry-Launois B. Evaluation of the use of financial impact of Chondrosulf 400 in current medical practice. Part of the Proceedings of a Scientific Symposium held at the XIth EULAR Symposium: New approaches in OA: Chondroitin sulfate (CS 4&6) not just a symptomatic treatment. Geneva, 1998.
  148. Verbruggen G, Goemaere S, Veys EM. Systems to assess the progression of finger joint osteoarthritis and the effects of disease modifying osteoarthritis drugs. Clin Rheumatol 2002;21:231-43. View abstract.
  149. Tallia AF, Cardone DA. Asthma exacerbation associated with glucosamine-chondroitin supplement. J Am Board Fam Pract 2002;15:481-4.. View abstract.
  150. Ricciardelli C, Quinn DI, Raymond WA, et al. Elevated levels of peritumoral chondroitin sulfate are predictive of poor prognosis in patients treated by radical prostatectomy for early-stage prostate cancer. Cancer Res 1999;59:2324-8. View abstract.
  151. Ylisastigui L, Bakri Y, Amzazi S, et al. Soluble glycosaminoglycans Do not potentiate RANTES antiviral activity on the infection of primary macrophages by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Virology 2000;278:412-22. View abstract.
  152. Adebowale AO, Cox DS, Liang Z, et al. Analysis of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate content in marketed products and the Caco-2 permeability of chondroitin sulfate raw materials. JANA 2000;3:37-44.
  153. Cao LC, Boeve ER, de Bruijn WC, et al. Glycosaminoglycans and semisynthetic sulfated polysaccharides: an overview of their potential application in treatment of patients with urolithiasis. Urology 1997;50:173-83. View abstract.
  154. Morrison LM. Treatment of coronary arteriosclerotic heart disease with chondroitin sulfate-A: preliminary report. J Am Geriatr Soc 1968;16:779-85. View abstract.
  155. Morrison LM, Bajwa GS, Alfin-Slater RB, Ershoff BH. Prevention of vascular lesions by chondroitin sulfate A in the coronary artery and aorta of rats induced by a hypervitaminosis D, cholesterol-containing diet. Atherosclerosis 1972;16:105-18. View abstract.
  156. Mazieres B, Combe B, Phan Van A, et al. Chondroitin sulfate in osteoarthritis of the knee: a prospective, double blind, placebo controlled multicenter clinical study. J Rheumatol 2001;28:173-81. View abstract.
  157. Das A Jr, Hammad TA. Efficacy of a combination of FCHG49 glucosamine hydrochloride, TRH122 low molecular weight sodium chondroitin sulfate and manganese ascorbate in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2000;8:343-50. View abstract.
  158. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. Available at:
  159. Pipitone VR. Chondroprotection with chondroitin sulfate. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1991;17:3-7 . View abstract.
  160. Leffler CT, Philippi AF, Leffler SG, et al. Glucosamine, chondroitin, and manganese ascorbate for degenerative joint disease of the knee or low back: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Mil Med 1999;164:85-91. View abstract.
  161. Silvestro L, Lanzarotti E, Marchi E, et al. Human pharmacokinetics of glycosaminoglycans using deuterium-labeled and unlabeled substances: evidence for oral absorption. Semin Thromb Hemost 1994;20:281-92. View abstract.
  162. Ronca F, Palmieri L, Panicucci P, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of chondroitin sulfate. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998;6 Suppl A:14-21. View abstract.
  163. Andermann G, Dietz M. The influence of the route of administration on the bioavailability of an endogenous macromolecule: chondroitin sulphate (CSA). Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 1982;7:11-6. View abstract.
  164. Conte A, de Bernardi M, Palmieri L, et al. Metabolic fate of exogenous chondroitin sulfate in man. Arzneimittelforschung 1991; 41:768-72. View abstract.
  165. McAlindon TE, LaValley MP, Gulin JP, Felson DT. Glucosamine and chondroitin for treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic quality assessment and meta-analysis. JAMA 2000;283:1469-75. View abstract.
  166. Limberg MB, McCaa C, Kissling GE, Kaufman HE. Topical application of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of dry eyes. Am J Ophthalmol 1987;103:194-7. View abstract.
  167. Kelly GS. The role of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfates in the treatment of degenerative joint disease. Altern Med Rev 1998;3:27-39. View abstract.
  168. Bucsi L, Poor G. Efficacy and tolerability of oral chondroitin sulfate as a symptomatic slow-acting drug for osteoarthritis (SYSADOA) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998;6 Suppl A:31-6. View abstract.
  169. Bourgeois P, Chales G, Dehais J, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of chondroitin sulfate 1200 mg/day vs chondroitin sulfate 3 x 400 mg/day vs placebo. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998;6:25-30. View abstract.
  170. Uebelhart D, Thonar EJ, Delmas PD, et al. Effects of oral chondroitin sulfate on the progression of knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998;6:39-46. View abstract.
  171. Morrison LM, Enrick N. Coronary heart disease: reduction of death rate by chondroitin sulfate A. Angiology 1973;24:269-87. View abstract.
  172. Lewis CJ. Letter to reiterate certain public health and safety concerns to firms manufacturing or importing dietary supplements that contain specific bovine tissues. FDA. Available at:
  173. Leeb BF, Schweitzer H, Montag K, Smolen JS. A meta-analysis of chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 2000;27:205-11. View abstract.
  174. Bagasra O, Whittle P, Heins B, Pomerantz RJ. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity of sulfated monosaccharides: comparison with sulfated polysaccharides and other polyions. J Infect Dis 1991;164:1082-90. View abstract.
  175. Jurkiewicz E, Panse P, Jentsch KD, et al. In vitro anti-HIV-1 activity of chondroitin polysulphate. AIDS 1989;3:423-7. View abstract.
  176. Chavez ML. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfates. Hosp Pharm 1997;32:1275-85.
  177. Mazieres B, Loyau G, Menkes CJ, et al. [Chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of gonarthrosis and coxarthrosis. 5-months result of a multicenter double-blind controlled prospective study using placebo]. Rev Rhum Mal Osteoartic 1992;59:466-72. View abstract.
  178. Conrozier T. [Anti-arthrosis treatments: efficacy and tolerance of chondroitin sulfates]. Presse Med 1998;27:1862-5. View abstract.
  179. Morreale P, Manopulo R, Galati M, et al. Comparison of the anti-inflammatory efficacy of chondroitin sulfate and diclofenac sodium in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 1996;23:1385-91. View abstract.
Last reviewed - 02/21/2024