Skip navigation

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

URL of this page:


What is it?

Honey is a thick, sweet fluid produced by bees from plant nectars. It is commonly used as a sweetener in food, but should be avoided in infants.

Some chemicals in honey might kill certain bacteria and fungus. When applied to the skin, honey might serve as a barrier to moisture and keep skin from sticking to wound dressings. It might also provide nutrients and chemicals that speed wound healing. But honey can become contaminated with germs during production. Although rare, some infants have gotten botulism from taking honey by mouth.

People commonly use honey for burns, wound healing, swelling and sores inside the mouth, and cough. It is also used for many other conditions but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these other uses. There is also no good evidence to support using honey for COVID-19.

Don't confuse honey with bee pollen, bee venom, or royal jelly, which are other types of bee products.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for HONEY are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Burns. Applying honey preparations directly to burns seems to improve healing.
  • Cough. Taking a small amount of honey by mouth at bedtime appears to reduce coughing spells in children aged 2 years and older. Honey appears to be at least as effective as the cough medicine dextromethorphan. But it is not clear if honey reduces cough in adults.
  • Foot sores in people with diabetes. Applying dressings containing honey to diabetic foot ulcers seems to reduce healing time and prevent the need for antibiotics.
  • Dry eye. Using specific honey eye drops or eye gel in the eyes (Optimel Manuka plus eye drops or Optimel Antibacterial Manuka Eye Gel) helps to make dry eyes feel better. These products can be used along with regular dry eye treatment such as lubricant drops and warm cloths on the eyes.
  • Cold sores (herpes labialis). Applying honey to cold sores seems to improve healing time.
  • Sores and ulcers of the mouth and gums caused by herpes virus (herpetic gingivostomatitis). Rinsing the mouth and then slowly swallowing honey helps these sores and ulcers heal faster in children who are taking a medication called acyclovir.
  • Swelling (inflammation) and sores inside the mouth (oral mucositis). Rinsing the mouth and then slowly swallowing honey before and after chemotherapy or radiation therapy sessions seems to reduce the risk of developing mouth sores.
  • A skin condition that causes redness on the face (rosacea). Applying a topical honey product to the skin might improve symptoms of rosacea.
  • Wound healing. Applying honey preparations directly to wounds or using dressings containing honey seems to improve healing. Honey seems to reduce odors and pus, help clean the wound, reduce infection, reduce pain, and decrease time to healing.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Acne. Applying honey to the face doesn't help treat acne.
  • High levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia). Taking honey by mouth does not seem to reduce lipid levels in people with high cholesterol.
  • Swelling (inflammation) of the nasal cavity and sinuses (rhinosinusitis). Using honey in a nasal spray doesn't help improve symptoms in people who have frequent sinus infections.
There is interest in using honey for a number of other purposes, but there isn't enough reliable information to say whether it might be helpful.

Is it safe?

When taken by mouth: Honey is likely safe for most adults. But when honey is produced from the nectar of rhododendrons, it is likely unsafe. This type of honey contains a toxin that may cause heart problems, low blood pressure, and chest pain.

When applied to the skin or on the inside of the mouth: Honey is likely safe for most adults.

When applied into the eye: It is possibly safe to use specific eye drops containing manuka honey (Optimel Manuka Plus Eye Drops; Melcare, Biomedical Pty Ltd). These eye drops are usually applied into the eyes 2-3 times daily for up to 4 weeks.

When applied into the nose: Diluted manuka honey solution is possibly safe for most adults when sprayed into the nose for up to 2 weeks.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Honey is likely safe when taken in food amounts. But there isn't enough reliable information to know if it is safe to use honey in medicinal amounts when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and stick to the amounts found in foods.

Children: Honey is likely safe when taken by mouth in children who are at least one year old. Honey is possibly unsafe when taken by mouth by children less than 12 months old. Do not use honey in infants under 12 months old. Botulism poisoning is a risk at this age. But this is not a danger for older children or adults.

Diabetes: Using large amounts of honey might increase blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Honey contains sugar and should be used in moderation.

Pollen allergies: Avoid honey if you are allergic to pollen. Honey, which is made from pollen, may cause allergic reactions.

Are there interactions with medications?

Be cautious with this combination.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Honey might slow blood clotting. Taking honey along with medications that also slow blood clotting might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding.
Phenytoin (Dilantin)
Honey might increase how much phenytoin the body absorbs. Taking honey along with phenytoin might increase the effects and side effects of phenytoin.
Be watchful with this combination.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Honey might change how quickly the liver breaks down these medications. This could change the effects and side effects of these medications.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
Honey might slow blood clotting and increase the risk of bleeding. Taking it with other supplements with similar effects might increase the risk of bleeding in some people. Examples of supplements with this effect include garlic, ginger, ginkgo, nattokinase, and Panax ginseng.

Are there interactions with foods?

There are no known interactions with foods.

How is it typically used?

Honey has most often been used by adults in doses of 35-75 grams by mouth daily for 1-4 weeks. It's been applied to the skin directly and in creams, dressings, and gauzes. Honey has also been applied to the eye in the form of eye creams, gels, and drops. Speak with a healthcare provider to find out what type of product and dose might be best for a specific condition.

Other names

Beri honey, Apis mellifera, Blossom Honey, Buckwheat Honey, Chestnut Honey, Clarified Honey, Honeydew Honey, Honig, Jellybush Honey, Langnese Honey, Madhu, Manuka Honey, Medihoney, Mel, Miel, Miel Blanc, Miel Clarifié, Miel de Châtaignier, Miel de Manuka, Miel de Sarrasin, Miel Filtré, Purified Honey, Strained Honey, Tualang Honey, Wildflower and Thyme Honey.


To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.


  1. Nishimura T, Muta H, Hosaka T, Ueda M, Kishida K; Honey and Coughs Study Group of the Society of Ambulatory and General Paediatrics of Japan. Multicentre, randomised study found that honey had no pharmacological effect on nocturnal coughs and sleep quality at 1-5 years of age. Acta Paediatr. 2022;111:2157-64. View abstract.
  2. Anggraeni DT, Hayati AT, Nur'aeni A. The effect of oral care using honey as an additional topical agent on oral health status of intubated patients in the intensive care unit. Enferm Intensiva (Engl Ed). 2022;33:225-32. View abstract.
  3. Mirzaei H, Gharehgozlou R, Heydarirad G, et al. Efficacy and safety of Jollab (a saffron-based beverage) on cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Complement Med Res. 2022;29:437-45. View abstract.
  4. Afshar F, Abdolahi N, Amin G, et al. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled phase I clinical study on safety and efficacy of the G-Rup® syrup (a mixture of ginger extract and honey) in symptomatic treatment of knee osteoarthritis. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2022;47:2295-301. View abstract.
  5. Mahyar A, Ayazi P, Shaftaroni MR, Oveisi S, Dalirani R, Esmaeili S. The effect of adding honey to zinc in the treatment of diarrhea in children. Korean J Fam Med 2022;43:188-192. View abstract.
  6. Gholami Z, Sohrabi Z, Zare M, Pourrajab B, Nasimi N. The effect of honey on lipid profiles: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Br J Nutr 2022;127:1482-1496. View abstract.
  7. Di Costanzo M, De Paulis N, Peveri S, Montagni M, Berni Canani R, Biasucci G. Anaphylaxis caused by artisanal honey in a child: a case report. J Med Case Rep 2021;15:235. View abstract.
  8. Jhawar N, Gonzalez-Estrada A. Honey-induced anaphylaxis in an adult. QJM 2022;115:325-326. View abstract.
  9. Lubis AS, Herwanto HRY, Rambe AYM, et al. The effect of honey on post-tonsillectomy pain relief: a randomized clinical trial. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2021;S1808-869400164-6. View abstract.
  10. Kumarasamy G, Ramli RR, Singh H, Abdullah B. Tualang honey versus steroid impregnated nasal dressing following endoscopic sinus surgery: a randomized controlled trial. J Complement Integr Med 2020;18:433-8. View abstract.
  11. Movahed R, Rajabi O, Azizi H, Jafari S, Yousefi R, Bakhshaee M. The effect of standardized honey on mucosal healing of the nose and paranasal sinuses after polypectomy: a randomized controlled, double blind pilot study. Acta Biomed 2022;92:e2021293. View abstract.
  12. Naik PP, Mossialos D, Wijk BV, Novakova P, Wagener FADTG, Cremers NAJ. Medical-grade honey outperforms conventional treatments for healing cold sores-a clinical study. Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021;14:1264. View abstract.
  13. Rocha MP, Amorim JM, Lima WG, Brito JCM, da Cruz Nizer WS. Effect of honey and propolis, compared to acyclovir, against Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-induced lesions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Ethnopharmacol 2022;287:114939. View abstract.
  14. Ripari F, Cera A, Freda M, Zumbo G, Zara F, Vozza I. Tea tree oil versus chlorhexidine mouthwash in treatment of gingivitis: A pilot randomized, double blinded clinical trial. Eur J Dent. 2020;14:55-62. View abstract.
  15. Alangari AA, Morris K, Lwaleed BA, et al. Honey is potentially effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis: Clinical and mechanistic studies. Immun Inflamm Dis. 2017;5:190-199. View abstract.
  16. Raatz SK, Johnson LK, Picklo MJ. Consumption of honey, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup produces similar metabolic effects in glucose-tolerant and -intolerant individuals. J Nutr. 2015;145:2265-72. View abstract.
  17. Rashid MR, Nor Aripin KN, Syed Mohideen FB, et al. The effect of Kelulut honey on fasting blood glucose and metabolic parameters in patients with impaired fasting glucose. J Nutr Metab. 2019;2019:3176018. View abstract.
  18. Enginyurt O, Cakir L, Karatas A, Cankaya S, Kaya Y, Tugcu H. The role of pure honey in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Biomed. Res. 2017; 28 : 3305-3312.
  19. Sadeghi F, Salehi S, Kohanmoo A, Akhlaghi M. Effect of natural honey on glycemic control and anthropometric measures of patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized controlled crossover trial. Int J Prev Med. 2019;10:3. View abstract.
  20. Tan J, Jia T, Liao R, Stapleton F. Effect of a formulated eye drop with Leptospermum spp honey on tear film properties. Br J Ophthalmol. 2020;104:1373-1377. View abstract.
  21. Li AL, Li SL, Kam KW, Young AL. Randomised assessor-masked trial evaluating topical manuka honey (Optimel) in treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Br J Ophthalmol. 2021:bjophthalmol-2020-317506. View abstract.
  22. Sirisha A, Singh Gaur G, Pal P, Suryanarayana BS, Bobby Z, Pal GK. Effects of three months of honey supplementation on quality of life and neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Altern Ther Health Med. 2021;27(S1):54-60. View abstract.
  23. Sankar J, Lalitha AV, Rameshkumar R, Mahadevan S, Kabra SK, Lodha R. Use of honey versus standard care for hospital-acquired pressure injury in critically ill children: A multicenter randomized controlled trial. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2021;22:e349-e362. View abstract.
  24. Abbas AS, Ghozy S, Minh LHN, et al. Honey in bronchial asthma: From folk tales to scientific facts. J Med Food. 2019;22:543-550. View abstract.
  25. Seifinadergoli Z, Nahidi F, Safaiyan A, Javadzadeh Y, Eteraf Oskouei T. Comparison of the efficacy of honey gel and clotrimazole cream in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis signs: A randomized clinical trial. J Caring Sci. 2020;9:162-167. View abstract.
  26. Mamgain RK, Gupta M, Mamgain P, et al. The efficacy of an ayurvedic preparation of yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) on radiation-induced mucositis in head-and-neck cancer patients: A pilot study. J Cancer Res Ther. 2020;16:458-462. View abstract.
  27. Ooi ML, Jothin A, Bennett C, et al. Manuka honey sinus irrigations in recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis: phase 1 randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2019;9:1470-1477. View abstract.
  28. Nejabat M, Soltanzadeh K, Yasemi M, Daneshamouz S, Akbarizadeh AR, Heydari M. Efficacy of honey based ophthalmic formulation in patients with corneal ulcer; A randomized clinical trial. Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2020. View abstract.
  29. Münstedt K, Männle H. What is wrong with the meta-analyses on honey and oral mucositis due to cancer therapies? Complement Ther Med. 2020;49:102286. View abstract.
  30. Mokhtari S, Sanati I, Abdolahy S, Hosseini Z. Evaluation of the effect of honey on the healing of tooth extraction wounds in 4- to 9-year-old children. Niger J Clin Pract. 2019;22:1328-1334. View abstract.
  31. Martina SJ, Ramar LAP, Silaban MRI, Luthfi M, Govindan PAP. Antiplatelet Effectivity between Aspirin with Honey on Cardiovascular Disease Based on Bleeding Time Taken on Mice. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2019 Oct 14;7:3416-3420. View abstract.
  32. Geiβler K, Schulze M, Inhestern J, Meiβner W, Guntinas-Lichius O. The effect of adjuvant oral application of honey in the management of postoperative pain after tonsillectomy in adults: A pilot study. PLoS One. 2020;15:e0228481. View abstract.
  33. Craig JP, Cruzat A, Cheung IMY, Watters GA, Wang MTM. Randomized masked trial of the clinical efficacy of MGO Manuka Honey microemulsion eye cream for the treatment of blepharitis. Ocul Surf. 2020 Jan;18:170-177. View abstract.
  34. Ansari A, Joshi S, Garad A, Mhatre B, Bagade S, Jain R. A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Honey in the Management of Dry Socket. Contemp Clin Dent. 2019;10:52-55. View abstract.
  35. Al-Tamimi AM, Petrisko M, Hong MY, Rezende L, Clayton ZS, Kern M. Honey does not adversely impact blood lipids of adult men and women: a randomized cross-over trial. Nutr Res. 2020;74:87-95. View abstract.
  36. Abuelgasim H, Albury C, Lee J. Effectiveness of honey for symptomatic relief in upper respiratory tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Evid Based Med. 2020:bmjebm-2020-111336. View abstract.
  37. Gourdomichali T, Papakonstantinou E. Short-term effects of six Greek honey varieties on glycemic response: a randomized clinical trial in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018;72:1709-1716. View abstract.
  38. Wishart TFL, Aw L, Byth K, Rangan G, Sud K. A retrospective sequential comparison of topical application of medicated honey and povidone iodine for preventing peritoneal dialysis catheter-related infections. Perit Dial Int. 2018;38:302-305. View abstract.
  39. Abdel-Naby Awad OG, Hamad AH. Honey can help in herpes simplex gingivostomatitis in children: Prospective randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial. Am J Otolaryngol. 2018;39:759-763. View abstract.
  40. Farakla I, Koui E, Arditi J, et al. Effect of honey on glucose and insulin concentrations in obese girls. Eur J Clin Invest. 2019;49:e13042. View abstract.
  41. Konuk Sener D, Aydin M, Cangur S, Guven E. The effect of oral care with chlorhexidine, vitamin E and honey on mucositis in pediatric intensive care patients: A randomized controlled trial. J Pediatr Nurs. 2019;45:e95-e101. View abstract.
  42. Liu TM, Luo YW, Tam KW, Lin CC, Huang TW. Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of honey on radiochemotherapy-induced mucositis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Support Care Cancer. 2019;27:2361-2370. View abstract.
  43. Yang C, Gong G, Jin E, et al. Topical application of honey in the management of chemo/radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Int J Nurs Stud. 2019;89:80-87. View abstract.
  44. Wang C, Guo M, Zhang N, Wang G. Effectiveness of honey dressing in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2019;34:123-131. View abstract.
  45. Lee VS, Humphreys IM, Purcell PL, Davis GE. Manuka honey sinus irrigation for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis: a randomized controlled trial. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2017;7:365-372. View abstract.
  46. Charalambous A, Lambrinou E, Katodritis N, et al. The effectiveness of thyme honey for the management of treatment-induced xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients: A feasibility randomized control trial. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2017;27:1-8. View abstract.
  47. Lal A, Chohan K, Chohan A, Chakravarti A. Role of honey after tonsillectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Clin Otolaryngol. 2017;42:651-660. View abstract.
  48. Amiri Farahani ËL, Hasanpoor-Azghdy SB, Kasraei H, Heidari T. Comparison of the effect of honey and mefenamic acid on the severity of pain in women with primary dysmenorrhea. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2017;296:277-283. View abstract.
  49. Imran M, Hussain MB, Baig M. A randomized, controlled clinical trial of honey-impregnated dressing for treating diabetic foot ulcer. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2015;25:721-5. View abstract.
  50. Semprini A, Braithwaite I, Corin A, et al. Randomised controlled trial of topical kanuka honey for the treatment of acne. BMJ Open. 2016;6:e009448. View abstract.
  51. Braithwaite I, Hunt A, Riley J, et al. Randomised controlled trial of topical kanuka honey for the treatment of rosacea. BMJ Open. 2015;5:e007651. View abstract.
  52. Fogh SE, Deshmukh S, Berk LB, et al. A randomized phase 2 trial of prophylactic manuka honey for the reduction of chemoradiation therapy-induced esophagitis during the treatment of lung cancer: Results of NRG Oncology RTOG 1012. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017;97:786-796. View abstract.
  53. Aly H, Said RN, Wali IE, et al. Medically graded honey supplementation formula to preterm infants as a prebiotic: A randomized controlled trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017;64:966-970. View abstract.
  54. Norman G, Christie J, Liu Z, et al. Antiseptics for burns. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;7:CD011821. View abstract.
  55. Albietz JM, Schmid KL. Randomised controlled trial of topical antibacterial Manuka (Leptospermum species) honey for evaporative dry eye due to meibomian gland dysfunction. Clin Exp Optom. 2017;100:603-615. View abstract.
  56. Wong D, Albietz JM, Tran H, et al. Treatment of contact lens related dry eye with antibacterial honey. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2017;40:389-393. View abstract.
  57. Oduwole O, Udoh EE, Oyo-Ita A, Meremikwu MM. Honey for acute cough in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;4:CD007094. View abstract.
  58. Wang YT, Qi Y, Tang FY, et al. The effect of cupping therapy for low back pain: A meta-analysis based on existing randomized controlled trials. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2017;30:1187-1195. View abstract.
  59. Alvarez-Suarez JM, Giampieri F, Battino M. Honey as a source of dietary antioxidants: structures, bioavailability and evidence of protective effects against human chronic diseases. Curr Med Chem. 2013;20:621-38. View abstract.
  60. Alvarez-Suarez JM, Tulipani S, Romandini S, Bertoli E, Battino M. Contribution of honey in nutrition and human health: a review. Mediterr J Nutr Metab 2010;3:15-23.
  61. Zaid SS, Sulaiman SA, Sirajudeen KN, Othman NH. The effects of Tualang honey on female reproductive organs, tibia bone and hormonal profile in ovariectomised rats--animal model for menopause. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010 Dec 31;10:82. View abstract.
  62. Vezir E, Kaya A, Toyran M, Azkur D, Dibek Misirlioglu E, Kocabas CN. Anaphylaxis/angioedema caused by honey ingestion. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2014 Jan-Feb;35:71-4. View abstract.
  63. Raeessi MA, Raeessi N, Panahi Y, Gharaie H, Davoudi SM, Saadat A, Karimi Zarchi AA, Raeessi F, Ahmadi SM, Jalalian H. "Coffee plus honey" versus "topical steroid" in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Aug 8;14:293. View abstract.
  64. Raeessi MA, Aslani J, Raeessi N, Gharaie H, Karimi Zarchi AA, Raeessi F. Honey plus coffee versus systemic steroid in the treatment of persistent post-infectious cough: a randomised controlled trial. Prim Care Respir J. 2013 Sep;22:325-30. View abstract.
  65. Oduwole O, Meremikwu MM, Oyo-Ita A, Udoh EE. Honey for acute cough in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Dec 23;12:CD007094. View abstract.
  66. Matos D, Serrano P, Menezes Brandão F. A case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by propolis-enriched honey. Contact Dermatitis. 2015 Jan;72:59-60. View abstract.
  67. Kamaratos AV, Tzirogiannis KN, Iraklianou SA, Panoutsopoulos GI, Kanellos IE, Melidonis AI. Manuka honey-impregnated dressings in the treatment of neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers. Int Wound J. 2014 Jun;11:259-63. View abstract.
  68. Jull AB, Cullum N, Dumville JC, Westby MJ, Deshpande S, Walker N. Honey as a topical treatment for wounds. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Mar 6;3:CD005083. View abstract.
  69. Johnson DW, Badve SV, Pascoe EM, Beller E, Cass A, Clark C, de Zoysa J, Isbel NM, McTaggart S, Morrish AT, Playford EG, Scaria A, Snelling P, Vergara LA, Hawley CM; HONEYPOT Study Collaborative Group. Antibacterial honey for the prevention of peritoneal-dialysis-related infections (HONEYPOT): a randomised trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Jan;14:23-30. View abstract.
  70. Hawley P, Hovan A, McGahan CE, Saunders D. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of manuka honey for radiation-induced oral mucositis. Support Care Cancer. 2014 Mar;22:751-61. View abstract.
  71. Asha'ari ZA, Ahmad MZ, Jihan WS, Che CM, Leman I. Ingestion of honey improves the symptoms of allergic rhinitis: evidence from a randomized placebo-controlled trial in the East coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Ann Saudi Med. 2013 Sep-Oct;33:469-75. View abstract.
  72. Abdulla CO, Ayubi A, Zulfiquer F, Santhanam G, Ahmed MA, Deeb J. Infant botulism following honey ingestion. BMJ Case Rep. 2012 Sep 7;2012. View abstract.
  73. Mutjaba Quadri KH. Manuka honey for central vein catheter exit site care. SeminDial 1999;12:397-398.
  74. Nagra ZM, Fayyaz GQ Asim M. Honey dressings; Experience at Department of Plastic Surgery and burns Allied Hospital Faisalabad. Prof Med J 2002;9:246-251.
  75. Farouk A, Hassan T Kassif H Khalidi SA Mutawali I & Wadi M. Studies on sudanese bee honey: laboratory and clinical evaluation. 26, 161-168. International Journal of Crude Drug Research 1998;26:161-168.
  76. Weheida SM, Nagubib HH El-Banna HM Marzouk S. Comparing the effects of two dressing techniques\ on healing of low grade pressure ulcers. Journal of the Medical Research Institute 1991;12:259-278.
  77. Subrahmanyam M, Ugane SP. Honey dressing beneficial in treatment of Fournier's gangrene. Indian Journal of Surgery 2004;66:75-77.
  78. Subrahmanyam, M. Honey as a surgical dressing for burns and ulcers. Indian Journal of Surgery 1993;55:468-473.
  79. Memon AR, Tahir SM Khushk IA Ali Memon G. Therapeutic effects of honey vs. silver sulfadiazine in the management of burn injuries. Journal of Liaquat University Medicine and Health Sciences 2005;4:100-104.
  80. Marshall C, Queen J & Manjooran J. Honey vs povidone iodine following toenail surgery. Wound UK Journal 2005;1:10-18.
  81. Vandeputte J & Van Waeyenberge PH. Clinical evaluation of L-Mesitran(R), a honey based wound ointment. European Wound Management Association Journal 2003;3:8-11.
  82. Quadri, KHM. Manuka honey for central vein catheter site exit care. Seminars in Dialysis 1999;12:397-398.
  83. Subrahmanyam N. Addition of antioxidants and polyethylene glycol 4000 enhances the healing property of honey in burns. Ann Burns Fire Disasters 1996;9:93-95.
  84. Subrahmanyam, M Sahapure AG Nagane NS et al. Effects of topical application of honey on burn wound healing. Ann Burns Fire Disasters 2001;XIV
  85. Bangroo AK, Katri R, and Chauhan S. Honey dressing in pediatric burns. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2005;10:172-5.
  86. Mashhood, AA Khan TA Sami AN. Honey compared with 1% silver sulfadiazine cream in the treatment of superficial and partial thickness burns. Journal of Pakistan Association of Dermatologists 2006;16:14-19.
  87. Sela, M. O., Shapira, L., Grizim, I., Lewinstein, I., Steinberg, D., Gedalia, I., and Grobler, S. R. Effects of honey consumption on enamel microhardness in normal versus xerostomic patients. J.Oral Rehabil. 1998;25:630-634. View abstract.
  88. Oryan, A. and Zaker, S. R. Effects of topical application of honey on cutaneous wound healing in rabbits. Zentralbl.Veterinarmed.A 1998;45:181-188. View abstract.
  89. Vardi, A., Barzilay, Z., Linder, N., Cohen, H. A., Paret, G., and Barzilai, A. Local application of honey for treatment of neonatal postoperative wound infection. Acta Paediatr. 1998;87:429-432. View abstract.
  90. Zeina, B., Zohra, B. I., and al assad, S. The effects of honey on Leishmania parasites: an in vitro study. Trop.Doct. 1997;27 Suppl 1:36-38. View abstract.
  91. Wood, B., Rademaker, M., and Molan, P. Manuka honey, a low cost leg ulcer dressing. N.Z.Med.J. 3-28-1997;110:107. View abstract.
  92. von Malottki, K. and Wiechmann, H. W. [Acute life-threatening bradycardia: food poisoning by Turkish wild honey]. Dtsch.Med.Wochenschr. 7-26-1996;121:936-938. View abstract.
  93. Hejase, M. J., Simonin, J. E., Bihrle, R., and Coogan, C. L. Genital Fournier's gangrene: experience with 38 patients. Urology 1996;47:734-739. View abstract.
  94. Sutlupinar, N., Mat, A., and Satganoglu, Y. Poisoning by toxic honey in Turkey. Arch.Toxicol. 1993;67:148-150. View abstract.
  95. Efem, S. E. Recent advances in the management of Fournier's gangrene: preliminary observations. Surgery 1993;113:200-204. View abstract.
  96. Adesunkanmi, K. and Oyelami, O. A. The pattern and outcome of burn injuries at Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesha, Nigeria: a review of 156 cases. J Trop.Med Hyg. 1994;97:108-112. View abstract.
  97. Fenicia, L., Ferrini, A. M., Aureli, P., and Pocecco, M. A case of infant botulism associated with honey feeding in Italy. Eur J Epidemiol 1993;9:671-673. View abstract.
  98. Ndayisaba, G., Bazira, L., Habonimana, E., and Muteganya, D. [Clinical and bacteriological outcome of wounds treated with honey. An analysis of a series of 40 cases]. Rev.Chir Orthop.Reparatrice Appar.Mot. 1993;79:111-113. View abstract.
  99. Elbagoury, E. F. and Rasmy, S. Antibacterial action of natural honey on anaerobic bacteroides. Egypt.Dent.J. 1993;39:381-386. View abstract.
  100. Armon, P. J. The use of honey in the treatment of infected wounds. Trop.Doct. 1980;10:91. View abstract.
  101. Bergman, A., Yanai, J., Weiss, J., Bell, D., and David, M. P. Acceleration of wound healing by topical application of honey. An animal model. Am.J Surg. 1983;145:374-376. View abstract.
  102. Gossinger, H., Hruby, K., Haubenstock, A., Pohl, A., and Davogg, S. Cardiac arrhythmias in a patient with grayanotoxin-honey poisoning. Vet Hum Toxicol 1983;25:328-329. View abstract.
  103. Gössinger, H., Hruby, K., Pohl, A., Davogg, S., Sutterlütti, G., and Mathis, G. [Poisoning with andromedotoxin-containing honey]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1983;108:1555-1558. View abstract.
  104. Keast-Butler, J. Honey for necrotic malignant breast ulcers. Lancet 10-11-1980;2:809. View abstract.
  105. Cavanagh, D., Beazley, J., and Ostapowicz, F. Radical operation for carcinoma of the vulva. A new approach to wound healing. J Obstet.Gynaecol.Br Commonw. 1970;77:1037-1040. View abstract.
  106. Patil, A. R. and Keswani, M. H. Bandages of boiled potato peels. Burns Incl.Therm.Inj. 1985;11:444-445. View abstract.
  107. Haffejee, I. E. and Moosa, A. Honey in the treatment of infantile gastroenteritis. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1985;290:1866-1867. View abstract.
  108. Biberoglu, K., Biberoglu, S., and Komsuoglu, B. Transient Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome during honey intoxication. Isr.J.Med.Sci. 1988;24(4-5):253-254. View abstract.
  109. Biberoglu, S., Biberoglu, K., and Komsuoglu, B. Mad honey. JAMA 4-1-1988;259:1943. View abstract.
  110. Samanta, A., Burden, A. C., and Jones, G. R. Plasma glucose responses to glucose, sucrose, and honey in patients with diabetes mellitus: an analysis of glycaemic and peak incremental indices. Diabet.Med. 1985;2:371-373. View abstract.
  111. Wagner, J. B. and Pine, H. S. Chronic cough in children. Pediatr.Clin North Am 2013;60:951-967. View abstract.
  112. Maiti, P. K., Ray, A., Mitra, T. N., Jana, U., Bhattacharya, J., and Ganguly, S. The effect of honey on mucositis induced by chemoradiation in head and neck cancer. J Indian Med Assoc 2012;110:453-456. View abstract.
  113. Jull, A. B., Walker, N., and Deshpande, S. Honey as a topical treatment for wounds. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;2:CD005083. View abstract.
  114. Abdulrhman, M. M., El-Hefnawy, M. H., Aly, R. H., Shatla, R. H., Mamdouh, R. M., Mahmoud, D. M., and Mohamed, W. S. Metabolic effects of honey in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover pilot study. J Med Food 2013;16:66-72. View abstract.
  115. McInerney, R. J. Honey--a remedy rediscovered. J.R.Soc.Med. 1990;83:127. View abstract.
  116. Lennerz, C., Jilek, C., Semmler, V., Deisenhofer, I., and Kolb, C. Sinus arrest from mad honey disease. Ann Intern Med 2012;157:755-756. View abstract.
  117. Oguzturk, H., Ciftci, O., Turtay, M. G., and Yumrutepe, S. Complete atrioventricular block caused by mad honey intoxication. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2012;16:1748-1750. View abstract.
  118. Anthimidou, E. and Mossialos, D. Antibacterial activity of Greek and Cypriot honeys against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in comparison to manuka honey. J Med Food 2013;16:42-47. View abstract.
  119. Nijhuis, W. A., Houwing, R. H., Van der Zwet, W. C., and Jansman, F. G. A randomised trial of honey barrier cream versus zinc oxide ointment. Br J Nurs 2012;21:9-3. View abstract.
  120. Knipping, S., Grunewald, B., and Hirt, R. [Medical honey in the treatment of wound-healing disorders in the head and neck area]. HNO 2012;60:830-836. View abstract.
  121. Lloyd-Jones, M. Case study: treating an infected wound of unknown aetiology. Br J Community Nurs. 2012;Suppl:S25-S29. View abstract.
  122. Belcher, J. A review of medical-grade honey in wound care. Br J Nurs. 8-9-2012;21:S4, S6, S8-S4, S6, S9. View abstract.
  123. Cohen, H. A., Rozen, J., Kristal, H., Laks, Y., Berkovitch, M., Uziel, Y., Kozer, E., Pomeranz, A., and Efrat, H. Effect of honey on nocturnal cough and sleep quality: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Pediatrics 2012;130:465-471. View abstract.
  124. Erejuwa, O. O., Sulaiman, S. A., and Wahab, M. S. Honey--a novel antidiabetic agent. Int J Biol.Sci 2012;8:913-934. View abstract.
  125. Sayin, M. R., Karabag, T., Dogan, S. M., Akpinar, I., and Aydin, M. Transient ST segment elevation and left bundle branch block caused by mad-honey poisoning. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2012;124(7-8):278-281. View abstract.
  126. Cernak, M., Majtanova, N., Cernak, A., and Majtan, J. Honey prophylaxis reduces the risk of endophthalmitis during perioperative period of eye surgery. Phytother Res 2012;26:613-616. View abstract.
  127. Abdulrhman M., El Barbary N. S., Ahmed Amin D., and Saeid Ebrahim R. Honey and a mixture of honey, beeswax, and olive oil-propolis extract in treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a randomized controlled pilot study. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2012;29:285-292. View abstract.
  128. Oduwole, O., Meremikwu, M. M., Oyo-Ita, A., and Udoh, E. E. Honey for acute cough in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;3:CD007094. View abstract.
  129. Erejuwa, O. O., Sulaiman, S. A., and Wahab, M. S. Fructose might contribute to the hypoglycemic effect of honey. Molecules. 2012;17:1900-1915. View abstract.
  130. Aparna, S., Srirangarajan, S., Malgi, V., Setlur, K. P., Shashidhar, R., Setty, S., and Thakur, S. A comparative evaluation of the antibacterial efficacy of honey in vitro and antiplaque efficacy in a 4-day plaque regrowth model in vivo: preliminary results. J Periodontol. 2012;83:1116-1121. View abstract.
  131. Song, J. J., Twumasi-Ankrah, P., and Salcido, R. Systematic review and meta-analysis on the use of honey to protect from the effects of radiation-induced oral mucositis. Adv Skin Wound Care 2012;25:23-28. View abstract.
  132. Erejuwa, O. O., Sulaiman, S. A., and Wahab, M. S. Oligosaccharides might contribute to the antidiabetic effect of honey: a review of the literature. Molecules. 2011;17:248-266. View abstract.
  133. Saritas, A., Kandis, H., Baltaci, D., and Erdem, I. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and intermittent left bundle branch block: an unusual electrocardiographic presentation of mad honey poisoning. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2011;66:1651-1653. View abstract.
  134. Yarlioglues, M., Akpek, M., Ardic, I., Elcik, D., Sahin, O., and Kaya, M. G. Mad-honey sexual activity and acute inferior myocardial infarctions in a married couple. Tex.Heart Inst.J 2011;38:577-580. View abstract.
  135. Lund-Nielsen, B., Adamsen, L., Kolmos, H. J., Rørth, M., Tolver, A., and Gottrup, F. The effect of honey-coated bandages compared with silver-coated bandages on treatment of malignant wounds-a randomized study. Wound Repair Regen 2011;19:664-670. View abstract.
  136. Bayram, N. A., Keles, T., Durmaz, T., Dogan, S., and Bozkurt, E. A rare cause of atrial fibrillation: mad honey intoxication. J Emerg Med 2012;43:e389-e391. View abstract.
  137. Sumerkan, M. C., Agirbasli, M., Altundag, E., and Bulur, S. Mad-honey intoxication confirmed by pollen analysis. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2011;49:872-873. View abstract.
  138. Kas'ianenko, V. I., Komisarenko, I. A., and Dubtsova, E. A. [Correction of atherogenic dyslipidemia with honey, pollen and bee bread in patients with different body mass]. Ter Arkh 2011;83:58-62. View abstract.
  139. Biglari, B., vd Linden, P. H., Simon, A., Aytac, S., Gerner, H. J., and Moghaddam, A. Use of Medihoney as a non-surgical therapy for chronic pressure ulcers in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2012;50:165-169. View abstract.
  140. Othman, Z., Shafin, N., Zakaria, R., Hussain, N. H., and Mohammad, W. M. Improvement in immediate memory after 16 weeks of tualang honey (Agro Mas) supplement in healthy postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2011;18:1219-1224. View abstract.
  141. Lund-Nielsen, B., Adamsen, L., Gottrup, F., Rorth, M., Tolver, A., and Kolmos, H. J. Qualitative bacteriology in malignant wounds--a prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the effect of honey and silver dressings. Ostomy.Wound.Manage. 2011;57:28-36. View abstract.
  142. Paul, I. M. Therapeutic options for acute cough due to upper respiratory infections in children. Lung 2012;190:41-44. View abstract.
  143. Al-Waili, N. S., Salom, K., Butler, G., and Al Ghamdi, A. A. Honey and microbial infections: a review supporting the use of honey for microbial control. J Med Food 2011;14:1079-1096. View abstract.
  144. Hampton, S., Coulborn, A., Tadej, M., and Bree-Aslan, C. Using a superabsorbent dressing and antimicrobial for a venous ulcer. Br J Nurs. 8-11-2011;20:S38, S40-S38, S43. View abstract.
  145. Robson, V., Yorke, J., Sen, R. A., Lowe, D., and Rogers, S. N. Randomised controlled feasibility trial on the use of medical grade honey following microvascular free tissue transfer to reduce the incidence of wound infection. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012;50:321-327. View abstract.
  146. Cakar, M. A., Can, Y., Vatan, M. B., Demirtas, S., Gunduz, H., and Akdemir, R. Atrial fibrillation induced by mad honey intoxication in a patient with Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2011;49:438-439. View abstract.
  147. Khalil, M. I. and Sulaiman, S. A. The potential role of honey and its polyphenols in preventing heart diseases: a review. Afr.J Tradit.Complement Altern Med 2010;7:315-321. View abstract.
  148. Ahmed, A., Khan, R. A., Azim, M. K., Saeed, S. A., Mesaik, M. A., Ahmed, S., and Imran, I. Effect of natural honey on human platelets and blood coagulation proteins. Pak.J Pharm Sci 2011;24:389-397. View abstract.
  149. Bardy, J., Molassiotis, A., Ryder, W. D., Mais, K., Sykes, A., Yap, B., Lee, L., Kaczmarski, E., and Slevin, N. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial of active manuka honey and standard oral care for radiation-induced oral mucositis. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012;50:221-226. View abstract.
  150. Shaaban, S. Y., Nassar, M. F., Ezz El-Arab, S., and Henein, H. H. Effect of honey supplementation on the phagocytic function during nutritional rehabilitation of protein energy malnutrition patients. J Trop.Pediatr. 2012;58:159-160. View abstract.
  151. Thamboo, A., Thamboo, A., Philpott, C., Javer, A., and Clark, A. Single-blind study of manuka honey in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2011;40:238-243. View abstract.
  152. Al-Waili, N., Salom, K., and Al-Ghamdi, A. A. Honey for wound healing, ulcers, and burns; data supporting its use in clinical practice. ScientificWorldJournal. 2011;11:766-787. View abstract.
  153. Lee, D. S., Sinno, S., and Khachemoune, A. Honey and wound healing: an overview. Am J Clin Dermatol 6-1-2011;12:181-190. View abstract.
  154. Werner, A. and Laccourreye, O. Honey in otorhinolaryngology: when, why and how? Eur.Ann.Otorhinolaryngol.Head Neck Dis 2011;128:133-137. View abstract.
  155. Abdulrhman, M. A., Nassar, M. F., Mostafa, H. W., El-Khayat, Z. A., and Abu El Naga, M. W. Effect of honey on 50% complement hemolytic activity in infants with protein energy malnutrition: a randomized controlled pilot study. J Med Food 2011;14:551-555. View abstract.
  156. Fetzner, L., Burhenne, J., Weiss, J., Völker, M., Unger, M., Mikus, G., and Haefeli, W. E. Daily honey consumption does not change CYP3A activity in humans. J Clin Pharmacol 2011;51:1223-1232. View abstract.
  157. Rudzka-Nowak, A., Luczywek, P., Gajos, M. J., and Piechota, M. Application of manuka honey and GENADYNE A4 negative pressure wound therapy system in a 55-year-old woman with extensive phlegmonous and necrotic lesions in the abdominal integuments and lumbar region after traumatic rupture of the colon. Med Sci Monit. 2010;16:CS138-CS142. View abstract.
  158. Patel, B. and Cox-Hayley, D. Managing wound odor #218. J Palliat.Med 2010;13:1286-1287. View abstract.
  159. Shoma, A., Eldars, W., Noman, N., Saad, M., Elzahaf, E., Abdalla, M., Eldin, D. S., Zayed, D., Shalaby, A., and Malek, H. A. Pentoxifylline and local honey for radiation-induced burn following breast conservative surgery. Curr Clin Pharmacol 2010;5:251-256. View abstract.
  160. Bittmann, S., Luchter, E., Thiel, M., Kameda, G., Hanano, R., and Langler, A. Does honey have a role in paediatric wound management? Br J Nurs. 8-12-2010;19:S19-20, S22, S24. View abstract.
  161. Khanal, B., Baliga, M., and Uppal, N. Effect of topical honey on limitation of radiation-induced oral mucositis: an intervention study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2010;39:1181-1185. View abstract.
  162. Malik, K. I., Malik, M. A., and Aslam, A. Honey compared with silver sulphadiazine in the treatment of superficial partial-thickness burns. Int Wound J 2010;7:413-417. View abstract.
  163. Moghazy, A. M., Shams, M. E., Adly, O. A., Abbas, A. H., El-Badawy, M. A., Elsakka, D. M., Hassan, S. A., Abdelmohsen, W. S., Ali, O. S., and Mohamed, B. A. The clinical and cost effectiveness of bee honey dressing in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010;89:276-281. View abstract.
  164. Ganacias-Acuna, E. F. Active Leptospermum honey and negative pressure wound therapy for nonhealing postsurgical wounds. Ostomy.Wound.Manage. 3-1-2010;56:10-12. View abstract.
  165. Tavernelli, K., Reif, S., and Larsen, T. Managing venous leg ulcers in the home. Ostomy.Wound.Manage. 2-1-2010;56:10-12. View abstract.
  166. Shaaban, S. Y., Abdulrhman, M. A., Nassar, M. F., and Fathy, R. A. Effect of honey on gastric emptying of infants with protein energy malnutrition. Eur J Clin Invest 2010;40:383-387. View abstract.
  167. Boukraa, L. and Sulaiman, S. A. Honey use in burn management: potentials and limitations. Forsch.Komplementmed. 2010;17:74-80. View abstract.
  168. Abdulrhman, M. A., Mekawy, M. A., Awadalla, M. M., and Mohamed, A. H. Bee honey added to the oral rehydration solution in treatment of gastroenteritis in infants and children. J Med Food 2010;13:605-609. View abstract.
  169. Evans, H., Tuleu, C., and Sutcliffe, A. Is honey a well-evidenced alternative to over-the-counter cough medicines? J R.Soc Med 2010;103:164-165. View abstract.
  170. Baghel, P. S., Shukla, S., Mathur, R. K., and Randa, R. A comparative study to evaluate the effect of honey dressing and silver sulfadiazene dressing on wound healing in burn patients. Indian J Plast.Surg. 2009;42:176-181. View abstract.
  171. Shrestha, P., Vaidya, R., and Sherpa, K. Mad honey poisoning: a rare case report of seven cases. Nepal Med Coll J 2009;11:212-213. View abstract.
  172. Abbey, E. L. and Rankin, J. W. Effect of ingesting a honey-sweetened beverage on soccer performance and exercise-induced cytokine response. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2009;19:659-672. View abstract.
  173. Kempf, M., Reinhard, A., and Beuerle, T. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey and pollen-legal regulation of PA levels in food and animal feed required. Mol.Nutr Food Res 2010;54:158-168. View abstract.
  174. Abdulrhman, M., El-Hefnawy, M., Hussein, R., and El-Goud, A. A. The glycemic and peak incremental indices of honey, sucrose and glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: effects on C-peptide level-a pilot study. Acta Diabetol 2011;48:89-94. View abstract.
  175. Sharp, A. Beneficial effects of honey dressings in wound management. Nurs.Stand. 10-21-2009;24:66-8, 70, 72. View abstract.
  176. Majtan, J. and Majtan, V. Is manuka honey the best type of honey for wound care? J Hosp.Infect. 2010;74:305-306. View abstract.
  177. Aliyev, F., Türkoglu, C., and Celiker, C. Nodal rhythm and ventricular parasystole: an unusual electrocardiographic presentation of mad honey poisoning. Clin Cardiol 2009;32:E52-E54. View abstract.
  178. Bahrami, M., Ataie-Jafari, A., Hosseini, S., Foruzanfar, M. H., Rahmani, M., and Pajouhi, M. Effects of natural honey consumption in diabetic patients: an 8-week randomized clinical trial. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2009;60:618-626. View abstract.
  179. Dubey, L., Maskey, A., and Regmi, S. Bradycardia and severe hypotension caused by wild honey poisoning. Hellenic J Cardiol 2009;50:426-428. View abstract.
  180. Deibert, P., Konig, D., Kloock, B., Groenefeld, M., and Berg, A. Glycaemic and insulinaemic properties of some German honey varieties. Eur.J Clin Nutr 2010;64:762-764. View abstract.
  181. Davis, S. C. and Perez, R. Cosmeceuticals and natural products: wound healing. Clin Dermatol 2009;27:502-506. View abstract.
  182. Wijesinghe, M., Weatherall, M., Perrin, K., and Beasley, R. Honey in the treatment of burns: a systematic review and meta-analysis of its efficacy. N Z Med J 2009;122:47-60. View abstract.
  183. Jaganathan, S. K. and Mandal, M. Antiproliferative effects of honey and of its polyphenols: a review. J Biomed.Biotechnol. 2009;2009:830616. View abstract.
  184. Münstedt, K., Hoffmann, S., Hauenschild, A., Bülte, M., von Georgi R., and Hackethal, A. Effect of honey on serum cholesterol and lipid values. J Med Food 2009;12:624-628. View abstract.
  185. Onat, F. Y., Yegen, B. C., Lawrence, R., Oktay, A., and Oktay, S. Mad honey poisoning in man and rat. Rev Environ Health 1991;9:3-9. View abstract.
  186. Gunduz, A., Meriçé, E. S., Baydin, A., Topbas, M., Uzun, H., Türedi, S., and Kalkan, A. Does mad honey poisoning require hospital admission? Am J Emerg Med 2009;27:424-427. View abstract.
  187. Heppermann, B. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: Best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Bet 3. Honey for the symptomatic relief of cough in children with upper respiratory tract infections. Emerg.Med J 2009;26:522-523. View abstract.
  188. Johnson, D. W., Clark, C., Isbel, N. M., Hawley, C. M., Beller, E., Cass, A., de, Zoysa J., McTaggart, S., Playford, G., Rosser, B., Thompson, C., and Snelling, P. The honeypot study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of exit-site application of medihoney antibacterial wound gel for the prevention of catheter-associated infections in peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit.Dial.Int 2009;29:303-309. View abstract.
  189. Chang, J. and Cuellar, N. G. The use of honey for wound care management: a traditional remedy revisited. Home.Healthc.Nurse 2009;27:308-316. View abstract.
  190. Cooper, J. Wound management following orbital exenteration surgery. Br J Nurs. 3-26-2009;18:S4, S6, S8, passim. View abstract.
  191. Mulholland, S. and Chang, A. B. Honey and lozenges for children with non-specific cough. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;:CD007523. View abstract.
  192. Yorgun, H., Ülgen, A., and Aytemir, K. A rare cause of junctional rhythm causing syncope; mad honey intoxication. J Emerg Med 2010;39:656-658. View abstract.
  193. Langemo, D. K., Hanson, D., Anderson, J., Thompson, P., and Hunter, S. Use of honey for wound healing. Adv.Skin Wound.Care 2009;22:113-118. View abstract.
  194. Robson, V., Dodd, S., and Thomas, S. Standardized antibacterial honey (Medihoney) with standard therapy in wound care: randomized clinical trial. J Adv.Nurs. 2009;65:565-575. View abstract.
  195. Pieper, B. Honey-based dressings and wound care: an option for care in the United States. J Wound.Ostomy.Continence.Nurs. 2009;36:60-66. View abstract.
  196. Bogdanov, S., Jurendic, T., Sieber, R., and Gallmann, P. Honey for nutrition and health: a review. J Am Coll Nutr 2008;27:677-689. View abstract.
  197. Weiss, T. W., Smetana, P., Nurnberg, M., and Huber, K. The honey man--second degree heart block after honey intoxication. Int J Cardiol 2010;142:e6-e7. View abstract.
  198. Sare, J. L. Leg ulcer management with topical medical honey. Br J Community Nurs. 2008;13:S22, S24, S26. View abstract.
  199. Shukrimi, A., Sulaiman, A. R., Halim, A. Y., and Azril, A. A comparative study between honey and povidone iodine as dressing solution for Wagner type II diabetic foot ulcers. Med J Malaysia 2008;63:44-46. View abstract.
  200. Jull, A. B., Rodgers, A., and Walker, N. Honey as a topical treatment for wounds. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;:CD005083. View abstract.
  201. Bardy, J., Slevin, N. J., Mais, K. L., and Molassiotis, A. A systematic review of honey uses and its potential value within oncology care. J Clin Nurs. 2008;17:2604-2623. View abstract.
  202. Munstedt, K., Sheybani, B., Hauenschild, A., Bruggmann, D., Bretzel, R. G., and Winter, D. Effects of basswood honey, honey-comparable glucose-fructose solution, and oral glucose tolerance test solution on serum insulin, glucose, and C-peptide concentrations in healthy subjects. J Med Food 2008;11:424-428. View abstract.
  203. Acton, C. Medihoney: a complete wound bed preparation product. Br J Nurs. 2008;17:S44, S46-S44, S48. View abstract.
  204. Lay-flurrie, K. Honey in wound care: effects, clinical application and patient benefit. Br J Nurs. 2008;17:S30, S32-S30, S36. View abstract.
  205. Gethin, G. and Cowman, S. Manuka honey vs. hydrogel--a prospective, open label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial to compare desloughing efficacy and healing outcomes in venous ulcers. J Clin Nurs 2009;18:466-474. [RETRACTED]. View abstract.
  206. Eddy, J. J., Gideonsen, M. D., and Mack, G. P. Practical considerations of using topical honey for neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers: a review. WMJ. 2008;107:187-190. View abstract.
  207. Gethin, G. and Cowman, S. Bacteriological changes in sloughy venous leg ulcers treated with manuka honey or hydrogel: an RCT. J Wound Care 2008;17:241-4, 246-7. View abstract.
  208. Choo, Y. K., Kang, H. Y., and Lim, S. H. Cardiac problems in mad-honey intoxication. Circ J 2008;72:1210-1211. View abstract.
  209. Gunduz, A., Turedi, S., Russell, R. M., and Ayaz, F. A. Clinical review of grayanotoxin/mad honey poisoning past and present. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2008;46:437-442. View abstract.
  210. Gethin, G. T., Cowman, S., and Conroy, R. M. The impact of Manuka honey dressings on the surface pH of chronic wounds. Int Wound.J 2008;5:185-194. [RETRACTED]. View abstract.
  211. van den Berg, A. J., van den Worm, E., van Ufford, H. C., Halkes, S. B., Hoekstra, M. J., and Beukelman, C. J. An in vitro examination of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of buckwheat honey. J Wound.Care 2008;17:172-178. View abstract.
  212. Rashad, U. M., Al-Gezawy, S. M., El-Gezawy, E., and Azzaz, A. N. Honey as topical prophylaxis against radiochemotherapy-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer. J Laryngol Otol 2009;123:223-228. View abstract.
  213. Yaghoobi, N., Al-Waili, N., Ghayour-Mobarhan, M., Parizadeh, S. M., Abasalti, Z., Yaghoobi, Z., Yaghoobi, F., Esmaeili, H., Kazemi-Bajestani, S. M., Aghasizadeh, R., Saloom, K. Y., and Ferns, G. A. Natural honey and cardiovascular risk factors; effects on blood glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerole, CRP, and body weight compared with sucrose. ScientificWorldJournal 2008;8:463-469. View abstract.
  214. Robbins, J., Gensler, G., Hind, J., Logemann, J. A., Lindblad, A. S., Brandt, D., Baum, H., Lilienfeld, D., Kosek, S., Lundy, D., Dikeman, K., Kazandjian, M., Gramigna, G. D., McGarvey-Toler, S., and Miller Gardner, P. J. Comparison of 2 interventions for liquid aspiration on pneumonia incidence: a randomized trial. Ann.Intern.Med 4-1-2008;148:509-518. View abstract.
  215. Motallebnejad, M., Akram, S., Moghadamnia, A., Moulana, Z., and Omidi, S. The effect of topical application of pure honey on radiation-induced mucositis: a randomized clinical trial. J Contemp Dent Pract 2008;9:40-47. View abstract.
  216. Cooper, R. Using honey to inhibit wound pathogens. Nurs.Times 1-22-2008;104:46, 48-46, 49. View abstract.
  217. Abdelhafiz, A. T. and Muhamad, J. A. Midcycle pericoital intravaginal bee honey and royal jelly for male factor infertility. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2008;101:146-149. View abstract.
  218. Jull, A., Walker, N., Parag, V., Molan, P., and Rodgers, A. Randomized clinical trial of honey-impregnated dressings for venous leg ulcers. Br J Surg 2008;95:175-182. View abstract.
  219. Yildirim, N., Aydin, M., Cam, F., and Celik, O. Clinical presentation of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the course of intoxication with mad honey. Am J Emerg Med 2008;26:108.e-2. View abstract.
  220. Cutting, K. F. Honey and contemporary wound care: an overview. Ostomy.Wound.Manage. 2007;53:49-54. View abstract.
  221. Akinci, S., Arslan, U., Karakurt, K., and Cengel, A. An unusual presentation of mad honey poisoning: acute myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiol 2008;129:e56-e58. View abstract.
  222. Dursunoglu, D., Gur, S., and Semiz, E. A case with complete atrioventricular block related to mad honey intoxication. Ann Emerg Med 2007;50:484-485. View abstract.
  223. Bell, S. G. The therapeutic use of honey. Neonatal Netw. 2007;26:247-251. View abstract.
  224. Mphande, A. N., Killowe, C., Phalira, S., Jones, H. W., and Harrison, W. J. Effects of honey and sugar dressings on wound healing. J Wound.Care 2007;16:317-319. View abstract.
  225. Gunduz, A., Durmus, I., Turedi, S., Nuhoglu, I., and Ozturk, S. Mad honey poisoning-related asystole. Emerg Med J 2007;24:592-593. View abstract.
  226. Emsen, I. M. A different and safe method of split thickness skin graft fixation: medical honey application. Burns 2007;33:782-787. View abstract.
  227. Basualdo, C., Sgroy, V., Finola, M. S., and Marioli, J. M. Comparison of the antibacterial activity of honey from different provenance against bacteria usually isolated from skin wounds. Vet.Microbiol. 10-6-2007;124(3-4):375-381. View abstract.
  228. Koca, I. and Koca, A. F. Poisoning by mad honey: a brief review. Food Chem Toxicol 2007;45:1315-1318. View abstract.
  229. Nilforoushzadeh, M. A., Jaffary, F., Moradi, S., Derakhshan, R., and Haftbaradaran, E. Effect of topical honey application along with intralesional injection of glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. BMC Complement Altern Med 2007;7:13. View abstract.
  230. Gray, M. and Weir, D. Prevention and treatment of moisture-associated skin damage (maceration) in the periwound skin. J Wound.Ostomy.Continence.Nurs. 2007;34:153-157. View abstract.
  231. Tushar, T., Vinod, T., Rajan, S., Shashindran, C., and Adithan, C. Effect of honey on CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 enzyme activity in healthy human volunteers. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2007;100:269-272. View abstract.
  232. Zidan, J., Shetver, L., Gershuny, A., Abzah, A., Tamam, S., Stein, M., and Friedman, E. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia by special honey intake. Med Oncol 2006;23:549-552. View abstract.
  233. Lotfy, M., Badra, G., Burham, W., and Alenzi, F. Q. Combined use of honey, bee propolis and myrrh in healing a deep, infected wound in a patient with diabetes mellitus. Br J Biomed.Sci 2006;63:171-173. View abstract.
  234. Visavadia, B. G., Honeysett, J., and Danford, M. H. Manuka honey dressing: An effective treatment for chronic wound infections. Br J Oral Maxillofac.Surg. 2008;46:55-56. View abstract.
  235. van der Vorst, M. M., Jamal, W., Rotimi, V. O., and Moosa, A. Infant botulism due to consumption of contaminated commercially prepared honey. First report from the Arabian Gulf States. Med Princ.Pract. 2006;15:456-458. View abstract.
  236. Banerjee, B. Topical honey application vs. acyclovir for the treatment of recurrent herpes simplex lesions. Med Sci Monit. 2006;12:LE18. View abstract.
  237. Gunduz, A., Turedi, S., Uzun, H., and Topbas, M. Mad honey poisoning. Am J Emerg.Med 2006;24:595-598. View abstract.
  238. Ozlugedik, S., Genc, S., Unal, A., Elhan, A. H., Tezer, M., and Titiz, A. Can postoperative pains following tonsillectomy be relieved by honey? A prospective, randomized, placebo controlled preliminary study. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2006;70:1929-1934. View abstract.
  239. Chambers, J. Topical manuka honey for MRSA-contaminated skin ulcers. Palliat.Med 2006;20:557. View abstract.
  240. White, R. J., Cutting, K., and Kingsley, A. Topical antimicrobials in the control of wound bioburden. Ostomy.Wound.Manage. 2006;52:26-58. View abstract.
  241. Tahmaz, L., Erdemir, F., Kibar, Y., Cosar, A., and Yalcýn, O. Fournier's gangrene: report of thirty-three cases and a review of the literature. Int J Urol 2006;13:960-967. View abstract.
  242. Moolenaar, M., Poorter, R. L., van der Toorn, P. P., Lenderink, A. W., Poortmans, P., and Egberts, A. C. The effect of honey compared to conventional treatment on healing of radiotherapy-induced skin toxicity in breast cancer patients. Acta Oncol 2006;45:623-624. View abstract.
  243. Ischayek, J. I. and Kern, M. US honeys varying in glucose and fructose content elicit similar glycemic indexes. J Am Diet.Assoc. 2006;106:1260-1262. View abstract.
  244. Vitetta, L. and Sali, A. Treatments for damaged skin. Aust.Fam.Physician 2006;35:501-502. View abstract.
  245. Anderson, I. Honey dressings in wound care. Nurs.Times 5-30-2006;102:40-42. View abstract.
  246. McIntosh, C. D. and Thomson, C. E. Honey dressing versus paraffin tulle gras following toenail surgery. J Wound Care 2006;15:133-136. View abstract.
  247. Staunton, C. J., Halliday, L. C., and Garcia, K. D. The use of honey as a topical dressing to treat a large, devitalized wound in a stumptail macaque (Macaca arctoides). Contemp.Top Lab Anim Sci. 2005;44:43-45. View abstract.
  248. Schumacher, H. H. Use of medical honey in patients with chronic venous leg ulcers after split-skin grafting. J.Wound.Care 2004;13:451-452. View abstract.
  249. Al Waili, N. S. Investigating the antimicrobial activity of natural honey and its effects on the pathogenic bacterial infections of surgical wounds and conjunctiva. J.Med.Food 2004;7:210-222. View abstract.
  250. Al-Waili, N. S. Topical honey application vs. acyclovir for the treatment of recurrent herpes simplex lesions. Med Sci Monit 2004;10:MT94-MT98. View abstract.
  251. Abenavoli, F. M. and Corelli, R. Honey therapy. Ann.Plast.Surg. 2004;52:627. View abstract.
  252. Dunford, C. E. and Hanano, R. Acceptability to patients of a honey dressing for non-healing venous leg ulcers. J.Wound.Care 2004;13:193-197. View abstract.
  253. English, H. K., Pack, A. R., and Molan, P. C. The effects of manuka honey on plaque and gingivitis: a pilot study. J Int Acad Periodontol 2004;6:63-67. View abstract.
  254. Al-Waili, N. S. Natural honey lowers plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and blood lipids in healthy, diabetic, and hyperlipidemic subjects: comparison with dextrose and sucrose. J Med Food 2004;7:100-107. View abstract.
  255. Van der Weyden, E. A. The use of honey for the treatment of two patients with pressure ulcers. Br.J.Community Nurs. 2003;8:S14-S20. View abstract.
  256. SILNESS, J. and Loee.H. Periodontal disease in pregnancy.II. Correlation between oral hygeine and periodontal condition. Acta Odontol.Scand. 1964;22:121-135. View abstract.
  257. Al Waili, N. S. Effects of daily consumption of honey solution on hematological indices and blood levels of minerals and enzymes in normal individuals. J.Med.Food 2003;6:135-140. View abstract.
  258. Al Waili, N. Intrapulmonary administration of natural honey solution, hyperosmolar dextrose or hypoosmolar distill water to normal individuals and to patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus or hypertension: their effects on blood glucose level, plasma insulin and C-peptide, blood pressure and peaked expiratory flow rate. Eur.J.Med.Res. 7-31-2003;8:295-303. View abstract.
  259. Phuapradit, W. and Saropala, N. Topical application of honey in treatment of abdominal wound disruption. Aust.N.Z.J.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1992;32:381-384. View abstract.
  260. Tonks, A. J., Cooper, R. A., Jones, K. P., Blair, S., Parton, J., and Tonks, A. Honey stimulates inflammatory cytokine production from monocytes. Cytokine 3-7-2003;21:242-247. View abstract.
  261. Swellam, T., Miyanaga, N., Onozawa, M., Hattori, K., Kawai, K., Shimazui, T., and Akaza, H. Antineoplastic activity of honey in an experimental bladder cancer implantation model: in vivo and in vitro studies. Int.J.Urol. 2003;10:213-219. View abstract.
  262. Ahmed, A. K., Hoekstra, M. J., Hage, J. J., and Karim, R. B. Honey-medicated dressing: transformation of an ancient remedy into modern therapy. Ann.Plast.Surg. 2003;50:143-147. View abstract.
  263. Molan, P. C. Re-introducing honey in the management of wounds and ulcers - theory and practice. Ostomy.Wound.Manage. 2002;48:28-40. View abstract.
  264. Cooper, R. A., Molan, P. C., and Harding, K. G. The sensitivity to honey of Gram-positive cocci of clinical significance isolated from wounds. J.Appl.Microbiol. 2002;93:857-863. View abstract.
  265. Kajiwara, S., Gandhi, H., and Ustunol, Z. Effect of honey on the growth of and acid production by human intestinal Bifidobacterium spp.: an in vitro comparison with commercial oligosaccharides and inulin. J.Food Prot. 2002;65:214-218. View abstract.
  266. Ceyhan, N. and Ugur, A. Investigation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of honey. Riv.Biol. 2001;94:363-371. View abstract.
  267. Al Waili, N. S. Therapeutic and prophylactic effects of crude honey on chronic seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff. Eur.J.Med.Res. 7-30-2001;6:306-308. View abstract.
  268. Tonks, A., Cooper, R. A., Price, A. J., Molan, P. C., and Jones, K. P. Stimulation of TNF-alpha release in monocytes by honey. Cytokine 5-21-2001;14:240-242. View abstract.
  269. Oluwatosin, O. M., Olabanji, J. K., Oluwatosin, O. A., Tijani, L. A., and Onyechi, H. U. A comparison of topical honey and phenytoin in the treatment of chronic leg ulcers. Afr J Med Med Sci 2000;29:31-34. View abstract.
  270. Jung, A. and Ottosson, J. [Infantile botulism caused by honey]. Ugeskr Laeger 2001;163:169. View abstract.
  271. Aminu, S. R., Hassan, A. W., and Babayo, U. D. Another use of honey. Trop.Doct. 2000;30:250-251. View abstract.
  272. Sela, M., Maroz, D., and Gedalia, I. Streptococcus mutans in saliva of normal subjects and neck and head irradiated cancer subjects after consumption of honey. J.Oral Rehabil. 2000;27:269-270. View abstract.
  273. Al Waili, N. S. and Saloom, K. Y. Effects of topical honey on post-operative wound infections due to gram positive and gram negative bacteria following caesarean sections and hysterectomies. Eur.J.Med.Res. 3-26-1999;4:126-130. View abstract.
  274. Al-Waili, N. S., Saloom, K. S., Al-Waili, T. N., and Al-Waili, A. N. The safety and efficacy of a mixture of honey, olive oil, and beeswax for the management of hemorrhoids and anal fissure: a pilot study. ScientificWorldJournal 2006;6:1998-2005. View abstract.
  275. Al-Waili, N. S. An alternative treatment for pityriasis versicolor, tinea cruris, tinea corporis and tinea faciei with topical application of honey, olive oil and beeswax mixture: an open pilot study. Complement Ther Med 2004;12:45-47. View abstract.
  276. Al-Waili, N. S. Topical application of natural honey, beeswax and olive oil mixture for atopic dermatitis or psoriasis: partially controlled, single-blinded study. Complement Ther Med 2003;11:226-234. View abstract.
  277. Lee, G., Anand, S. C., and Rajendran, S. Are biopolymers potential deodourising agents in wound management? J Wound.Care 2009;18:290, 292-290, 295. View abstract.
  278. Sukriti and Garg, S. K. Influence of honey on the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin in rabbits. Ind J Pharmacol 2002;34.
  279. Shukrimi, A., Sulaiman, A. R., Halim, A. Y., and Azril, A. A comparative study between honey and povidone iodine as dressing solution for Wagner type II diabetic foot ulcers. Med J Malaysia 2008;63:44-46. View abstract.
  280. Shadkam MN, Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Mozayan MR. A comparison of the effect of honey, dextromethorphan, and diphenhydramine on nightly cough and sleep quality in children and their parents. J Altern Complement Med 2010:16:787-93. View abstract.
  281. Okeniyi JA, Olubanjo OO, Ogunlesi TA, Oyelami OA. Comparison of healing of incised abscess wounds with honey and EUSOL dressing. J Altern Complement Med 2005;11:511-3. View abstract.
  282. Stephen-Haynes J. Evaluation of a honey-impregnated tulle dressing in primary care. Br J Community Nurs 2004;Suppl:S21-7. View abstract.
  283. Kwakman PHS, Van den Akker JPC, Guclu A, et al. Medical-grade honey kills antibiotic-resistant bacteria in vitro and eradicates skin colonization. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46:1677-82. View abstract.
  284. Misirlioglu A, Eroglu S, Karacaoglan N, et al. Use of honey as an adjunct in the healing of split-thickness skin graft donor site. Dermatol Surg 2003;29:168-72. View abstract.
  285. Cooper RA, Molan PC, Krishnamoorthy L, Harding KG. Manuka honey used to heal a recalcitrant surgical wound. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2001;20:758-9. View abstract.
  286. George NM, Cutting KF. Antibacterial honey (Medihoney): in-vitro activity against clinical isolates of MRSA, VRE, and other multiresistant Gram-negative organsisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Wounds 2007;19:231-6.
  287. Natarajan S, Williamson D, Grey J, et al. Healing of an MRSA-colonized, hydroxyurea-induced leg ulcer with honey. J Dermatolog Treat 2001;12:33-6. View abstract.
  288. Karpelowsky J, Allsopp M. Wound healing with honey - a randomized controlled trial (letter). S Afr Med J 2007;97:314. View abstract.
  289. Gheldof N, Wang XH, Engeseth NJ. Buckwheat honey increases serum antioxidant capacity in humans. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:1500-5. View abstract.
  290. Schramm DD, Karim M, Schrader HR, et al. Honey with high levels of antioxidants can provide protection to healthy human subjects. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:1732-5. View abstract.
  291. Gheldof N, Wang XH, Engeseth NJ. Identification and quantification of antioxidant components of honeys from various floral sources. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:5870-7. View abstract.
  292. Henriques A, Jackson S, Cooper R, Burton N. Free radical production and quenching in honeys with wound healing potential. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006;58:773-7. View abstract.
  293. Olaitan PB, Adeleke OE, Ola IO. Honey: a reservoir for microorganisms and an inhibitory agent for microbes. Afr Health Sci 2007;7:159-65. View abstract.
  294. Simon A, Sofka K, Wiszniewsky G, et al. Wound care with antibacterial honey (Medihoney) in pediatric hematology-oncology. Support Care Cancer 2006;14:91-7. View abstract.
  295. Johnson DW, van Eps C, Mudge DW, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of topical exit-site application of honey (Medihoney) versus mupirocin for the prevention of catheter-associated infections in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005;16:1456-62. View abstract.
  296. Molan PC. The evidence supporting the use of honey as a wound dressing. Int J Lower Extrem Wounds 2006;5:40-54. View abstract.
  297. Tonks AJ, Dudley E, Porter NG, et al. A 5.8-kDa component of manuka honey stimulates immune cells via TLR4. J Leukoc Biol 2007;82:1147-55.. View abstract.
  298. Ingle R, Levin J, Polinder K. Wound healing with honey - a randomised controlled trial. S Afr Med J 2006;96:831-5. View abstract.
  299. Gethin G, Cowman S. Case series of use of Manuka honey in leg ulceration. Int Wound J 2005;2:10-15. View abstract.
  300. Simon A, Traynor K, Santos K, et al. Medical honey for wound care - still the 'latest resort'? Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2009;6:165-73. View abstract.
  301. Alcaraz A, Kelly J. Treatment of an infected venous leg ulcer with honey dressings. Br J Nurs 2002;11:859-60, 862, 864-6. View abstract.
  302. Yapucu Günes U, Eser I. Effectiveness of a honey dressing for healing pressure ulcers. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2007;34:184-190. View abstract.
  303. Food and Drug Administration. 510(k) Summary for Derma Sciences Medihoney Primary Dressing with Active Manuka Honey. October 18, 2007. (Accessed 23 June 2008).
  304. Biswal BM, Zakaria A, Ahmad NM. Topical application of honey in the management of radiation mucositis. A preliminary study. Support Care Cancer 2003;11:242-8. View abstract.
  305. Eccles R. Mechanisms of the placebo effect of sweet cough syrups. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2006;152:340-8. View abstract.
  306. Paul IM, Beiler J, McMonagle A, et al. Effect of honey, dextromethorphan, and no treatment on nocturnal cough and sleep quality for coughing children and their parents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2007;161:1140-6. View abstract.
  307. Rajan TV, Tennen H, Lindquist RL, et al. Effect of ingestion of honey on symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2002;88:198-203. View abstract.
  308. Moore OA, Smith LA, Campbell F, et al. Systematic review of the use of honey as a wound dressing. BMC Complement Altern Med 2001;1:2. View abstract.
  309. Centers for Disease Control. Botulism in the Unites Sates, 1899-1996. Handbook for epidemiologists, clinicians, and laboratory workers, 1998. Available online:
  310. Eddy JJ, Gideonsen MD. Topical honey for diabetic foot ulcers. J Fam Pract 2005;54:533-5. View abstract.
  311. Ozhan H, Akdemir R, Yazici M, et al. Cardiac emergencies caused by honey ingestion: a single centre experience. Emerg Med J 2004;21:742-4. View abstract.
  312. Hamzaoglu I, Saribeyoglu K, Durak H, et al. Protective covering of surgical wounds with honey impedes tumor implantation. Arch Surg 2000;135:1414-7. View abstract.
  313. Bose B. Honey or sugar in treatment of infected wounds? Lancet 1982;1:963.
  314. Efem SE. Clinical observations on the wound healing properties of honey. Br J Surg 1988;75:679-81. View abstract.
  315. Subrahmanyam M. Early tangential excision and skin grafting of moderate burns is superior to honey dressing: a prospective randomised trial. Burns 1999;25:729-31. View abstract.
  316. Postmes T, van den Bogaard AE, Hazen M. Honey for wounds, ulcers, and skin graft preservation. Lancet 1993;341:756-7.
  317. Osato MS, Reddy SG, Graham DY. Osmotic effect of honey on growth and viability of Helicobacter pylori. Dig Dis Sci 1999;44:462-4. View abstract.
  318. Cooper RA, Molan PC, Harding KG. Antibacterial activity of honey against strains of Staphylococcus aureus from infected wounds. J R Soc Med 1999;92:283-5. View abstract.
  319. Subrahmanyam M. Topical application of honey in treatment of burns. Br J Surg 1991;78:497-8. View abstract.
  320. Subrahmanyam M. Honey impregnated gauze versus polyurethane film (OpSite) in the treatment of burns- a prospective randomized study. Br J Plast Surg 1993;46:322-3. View abstract.
  321. Subrahmanyam M. Honey impregnated gauze vs amniotic membrane in the treatment of burns. Burns 1994;20:331-3. View abstract.
  322. Subrahmanyam M. Honey dressing vs boiled potato peel in the treatment of burns: a prospective randomized study. Burns 1996;22:491-3. View abstract.
  323. Subrahmanyam M. A prospective randomized, clinical and histological study of superficial burn wound healing with honey and silver sulfadiazine. Burns 1998;24:157-61. View abstract.
  324. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
  325. The Review of Natural Products by Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Co., 1999.
Last reviewed - 06/12/2023